Maple-leaved plane tree ( Platanus × acerifolia )
|Scientific name of the family|
|T.Lestibudois ex Dum.|
|Scientific name of the genus|
The sycamore ( Platanus from ancient Greek πλάτανος plátanos "plane") form the only genus of the plant family of platanaceae (Platanaceae). They occur mainly in the northern hemisphere in the temperate climates of Europe, Asia and North America ( Holarctic ). The species Platanus wyomingensis is already known fossil from the Eocene .
In Central Europe, the maple-leaved plane tree ( Platanus × acerifolia ) is often found as a park and avenue tree. It was created around 1650 from crossing the American plane tree ( Platanus occidentalis ) and the oriental plane tree ( Platanus orientalis ).
Depending on the species, plane trees are deciduous to semi-evergreen trees that reach heights of 25 to 50 meters. The bark peels off annually in thin sheets and leaves a typical mosaic of light yellow, greenish and gray areas. Sycamore trees are mistletoe-proof, so they are completely immune to attack by the white berry mistletoe . Young leaves, the bark of the young twigs and the inflorescences are woolly covered with star hairs. During the entire vegetation period, inhaling hair dust that has fallen or stripped off can cause irritation of the bronchi, the so-called plane tree cough, in sensitive people. The alternate leaves arranged on the branches are divided into a petiole and a leaf blade. The leaf blades are palmate (rarely zero, otherwise three to seven lobes). The leaf can easily be confused with that of certain types of maple . There are stipules present.
Sycamore species are monoecious, mixed sexes ( monoecious ). The mostly stalked, spherical inflorescences are axillary, usually one to five (rarely twelve) on short branches, each with only flowers of one sex. The male inflorescences fall off early. The male flowers contain three to more than six (up to eight) sepals, petals and stamens. The female flowers contain three to four sepals and no petals, three to four staminodes and three to nine free carpels (pistils). The pollination is carried by the wind. The solitary and wedge-shaped achenes with a hairy base (without pappus ) and a short, perennial style, are grouped together in the 2–3 cm large fruit groups.
The genus Platanus was established in 1753 by Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum , 2 p. 999. Platanus orientalis L. was introduced as a lectotype species in 1908 by Gleason in N. Amer. Fl. , 22, p. 227.
There are eight to ten species in the genus Platanus :
- Kerr's plane tree ( Platanus kerrii Gagnepain ): It is the only tropical, evergreen species in Laos and Vietnam .
- Platanus lindeniana M. Martens & Galeotti : The home is Mexico.
- Mexican plane tree ( Platanus mexicana Moric. ): The home is Mexico.
- Platanus oaxacana Standl. : The home is Mexico.
- American or western plane tree ( Platanus occidentalis L. ): It is distributed from Canada over large areas of the USA to Mexico.
- Oriental plane or oriental plane ( Platanus orientalis L. ): Its natural range is in Southwest Asia and Southeast Europe. It is used as an ornamental wood in the temperate latitudes.
- California plane tree ( Platanus racemosa Nutt. ): It occurs only in California and Baja California .
- Platanus rzedowskii Nixon & Poole : The home is Mexico.
- Arizona plane tree ( Platanus wrightii S. Watson ): It occurs in the US states of Arizona and New Mexico and in the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Sonora.
- Maple-leaved plane tree , common or bastard plane tree ( Platanus × hispanica Mill. Ex Münchh. ) Is a hybrid of Platanus occidentalis and Platanus orientalis .
Fossil representatives are:
The first specimens came to Germany via England and France in 1743. The plane trees on the Rondell in Dessau were bought by Prince Leopold III in 1781 . Friedrich Franz von Anhalt-Dessau planted. They are among the oldest of their kind in Germany and are therefore a dendrological rarity with their age of almost 230 years.
Napoleon Bonaparte is said to have planted plane trees on the country roads for his soldiers going to war.
In Paris , 40 percent of all trees are plane trees.
Since the bark does not grow with you, it is regularly thrown off in summer, sometimes making a loud noise. The vitality of the trees remains unchanged.
- Robert B. Kaul: Platanaceae - online with the same text as the printed work , Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Ed.): Flora of North America. Volume 3 - Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae , Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford 1997, ISBN 0-19-511246-6 (section description, distribution and systematics).
- Zhi-Yun Zhang & Nicholas J. Turland: Platanaceae , p. 44 - same text online as the printed work , Wu Zheng-yi & Peter H. Raven (eds.): Flora of China , Volume 9 - Pittosporaceae through Connaraceae , Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis 2003, ISBN 1-930723-14-8 (Description section).
- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna 1896, Vol. 13, p. 985.
- Meyer's Lexicon. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1928, Vol. 9, p. 947.
- The Big Brockhaus. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1933, vol. 14, pp. 623/624.
- Robert B. Kaul: Platanaceae - the same text online as the printed work , Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Ed.): Flora of North America. , Volume 3 - Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae , Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford 1997, ISBN 0-19-511246-6 .
- Platanus at Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, accessed May 27, 2008.
- Anhalt800.de: Are Germany's oldest plane trees here? ( Memento of the original from October 11, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The Herzogenrath plane tree on euregio-im-bild.de.
- Maple-leaved plane tree in front of the old manor house in Oelzschau on monumentaltrees.com.
- Everyday life: the plane trees. Arte, April 8, 2017, accessed April 19, 2017 .
- Spiegel online from July 23, 2018.