As Pappus ( Greek πάππος Pappos ; grandfather ; to beard ) is defined as the re-formed to hairs, bristles or scales sepals in representatives of the plant family Compositae (Asteraceae). It is also called hair cup or spring cup called.
The pappus tips are also known as pappus rays, which can be branched or unbranched. Length, shape, color and the type of formation and generally the presence of a pappus are important determinants of many sunflower plants. In some taxa such as the dandelion ( Taraxacum ) or the goat beard ( Tragopogon ), the pappus is raised like an umbrella by a stem, one then speaks of a beaked pappus.
As a rule, the pappus is used to spread seeds by the wind ( meteorochory ). In some genera such as the two-toothed tooth ( Bidens ) and the burdock ( Arctium ), it can get caught in the fur of animals or in clothing ( epichory ). It also takes on a protective function for the fruit; a connection with the spread of seeds by ants or the attraction of pollinators is also possible .
But also with the valerians ( Valeriana ), such as B. the real valerian ( Valeriana officinalis ), the genus Centranthus and the species Valerianella hirsutissima in the valerian family , the hair-shaped calyx is called pappus.
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