The part of the earth that is north of the equator is referred to as the northern hemisphere - or also the northern hemisphere, northern hemisphere (from ancient Greek ἥμισυς hémisys , German 'half' and σφαῖρα sphaira 'sphere') or northern hemisphere . The latitude has a positive sign and the signature N . The northern hemisphere is the counterpart to the southern hemisphere .
The astronomical summer lasts in the northern hemisphere from June 21st to 21st / 22nd. September and winter from 21./22. December to 20./21. March. North of the Tropic of Capricorn , the highest position of the sun always remains in the south, below the zenith . The astronomical counterpart to the northern hemisphere of the earth is the northern star sky on the celestial sphere .
The northern hemisphere has significantly more water than land area , but significantly more land area than the southern hemisphere, as it is largely in the land hemisphere . The land area is 39%, the water area 61%. About 90% of the people live in the northern hemisphere. The main parts of the country are the continents of Europe , Asia - the largest continent on earth - and North America as well as the greater part of Africa , part of South America and by far the largest island on earth, Greenland . The world's oceans are the Arctic Ocean , around half of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and a small part of the Indian Ocean .
The center of the northern hemisphere and the north polar region is the geographic north pole - the northern intersection of the earth's axis with the earth's surface . The Arctic Magnetic Pole moves within the Arctic Circle . The northern lights of the northern hemisphere are called aurora borealis, in German northern lights.
- Peter Hupfer, Wilhelm Kuttler, Ernst Heyer, Frank-Michael Chmielewski: Weather and climate: an introduction to meteorology and climatology . 12., revised. A. Edition. Vieweg + Teubner Verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-8351-0096-3 (page 13).