Crushed stone called an industrial context loose rock material that larger by demolition or rocks in a quarry has arisen primarily. With a finer grain size , one speaks of broken sand (0–5 mm), chippings (2–32 mm) or gravel (32–63 mm).
Quarry stones arise naturally as rubble through the physical weathering of rocks, for example through ice blasting , or are mined in quarries. They are characterized by their irregular shape, unworked surfaces and sharp edges, which distinguish them from field stones , rubble , gravel and round sand ; together with these they fall under the generic term natural stone .
Quarry stones are either used directly as building material , adjusted to a suitable grading curve or processed first: The stones are broken down to the desired size ( broken minerals ) or mechanically processed, for example roughly hewn to obtain a desired shape ( house stones ). The stones generally retain their typical structure of the fracture surfaces and edges.
In today's construction industry, they are primarily used as aggregates - where they are more common than river sands or pit sands , for example in mountainous areas - and as cover material or for foundations - because they solidify better than round material. They are used as an aggregate for concrete and mortar , in road construction or as track ballast after they have been correctly sized. Quarry stone is also used for natural stone masonry and dry stone masonry , as well as scraping for flood protection in dam and torrent control as well as in gardening and landscaping, or as a paving , as pavement slabs and the like.
Literature and standards
- DIN 4022 Geotechnical calculations for structural purposes
- DIN 18196 Earthworks and foundation engineering - Soil classification for structural purposes