Gardening and landscaping
With gardening and landscaping (short landscaping ) (in Switzerland gardens and green space design ) is in the German-speaking countries , the creation and maintenance of
- public and private green spaces
- Greening of traffic construction and other infrastructure projects
- Leisure facilities and sports fields .
Industry and job description
The horticultural and landscaping companies are mainly involved in the construction, redesign and maintenance of green spaces and open spaces, as well as landscaping . You are a member of the chambers of industry and commerce .
The professional training of the horticultural and landscaping is a specialty of the profession of the gardener or horticultural craftsman . It is part of the horticultural training of the Chambers of Agriculture and other responsible bodies for vocational training in horticulture.
Activities include earthworks and planting work and the creation of external structures such as walls, paths and paved areas, stairs, seating, pergolas , ponds, roof and facade and interior greening, irrigation and drainage systems.
The following are typically used:
- Plants such as trees, shrubs, hedges, shrubs , grasses for lawns and beds, etc.
- Plant substrates , soil and compost
- Building materials such as natural and concrete blocks, bulk materials such as crushed stone, gravel and sand, wood and wood composites, plastic coverings, pond liners, etc.
Much of the practical work and its organization is supported by machine and media technology, the mastery of which is also part of the job description.
The landscape gardener is often the executive authority in the planning of garden and landscape architects and implements their ideas. If the planning is not carried out separately by architects, landscape or open space planners , the landscape gardener also takes on advisory and planning activities. With the growing awareness of the importance of nature and environmental protection, the landscape gardener is a partner of geographers and biologists z. B. in biotope mapping , recultivation , vegetation and soil analyzes or general landscape management . Particularly when creating planting plans for larger areas, including in inner-city areas, the planners in the area of landscape architecture and the gardeners carrying out the work have a great deal of responsibility, since the selection of plants must be based on the location and has a major influence on the overall ecological interaction.
Example of a pond construction
Vocational training, advanced training and studies
The professional field of gardening and landscaping includes in theory the principles of garden design, its historical development, surveying and planning, and in practice the teaching of landscape gardening (such as green space, playground and sports field construction ; earthworks, stone and woodworking) ; Irrigation and drainage; engineering; planting and care).
In Germany, training takes place according to the so-called dual system of vocational training both in the company and in the vocational school . Often this takes place in the form of block lessons . This means that there are no individual vocational school days during the week throughout the year, instead the lessons are combined into a block of several weeks that takes place only a few times during the training, usually when the workload in the company is low. After completing training in gardening and landscaping, advanced training for master craftsmen and technicians as well as advanced training at the level of specialist agronomists (specialist arborist tree care and tree renovation, certified nature and landscape conservationist, specialist agronomist golf course maintenance - greenkeeper and headgreenkeeper) is available for higher qualifications .
At the university level, there are also courses in landscaping that lead to both Bachelor and Master degrees. On the one hand, the courses offered are specializations in courses in landscape architecture; on the other hand, they are independent, specialized courses analogous to courses in civil engineering. There are specialized courses of this kind in Germany at the Technical University of Applied Sciences in Berlin, the Anhalt University of Applied Sciences in Bernburg, the Dresden University of Applied Sciences, the Erfurt University of Applied Sciences, the Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences in Freising, the Wiesbaden University of Applied Sciences in Geisenheim, the Ostwestfalen University of Applied Sciences. Lippe in Höxter, the Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences, the Nürtingen University of Applied Sciences and the Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences . Further courses in the field of landscaping can be taken at the Technical University of Berlin, the Technical University of Dresden, the University of Hanover and the University of Kassel.
In horticulture and landscaping, Austria offers a wide range of training opportunities in training companies, at schools and at universities.
The apprenticeship landscape gardener was divided into two apprenticeships in 2006:
- Garden and green space designer - focus on landscape gardening
- Garden and green space designer - focus on greenkeeping
The training in landscape gardening includes the horticultural design and maintenance of gardens, parks and roof gardens (see job description ). Greenkeeping is all about the maintenance of golf courses. Greenkeepers draw sketches and plans for the landscaping of the golf course. You measure, model and maintain golf courses. Apprentices are trained in dual vocational training at vocational schools and in gardening and landscaping companies or by golf course operators. The apprenticeship period for both areas is three years and ends with the final apprenticeship examination . The successful final apprenticeship examination is a prerequisite for the master craftsman examination and also enables access to the vocational school leaving certificate (Berufsreifeprüfung) and subsequently to further higher qualifications, e.g. B. at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna .
The only higher vocational school for horticulture or gardening and landscape design in Austria is the Higher Federal Teaching and Research Institute for Horticulture, Schönbrunn in Vienna . There, the Matura can be obtained at the same time as the vocational training or, seen the other way round, at the same time vocational training can be obtained with the Matura.
In Switzerland, it is possible to train as a gardener , specializing in "gardening and landscaping". At the University of Applied Sciences in Rapperswil , a major in "Landscaping and Management" can be chosen as part of the Landscape Architecture bachelor's degree.
There are several professional associations in GaLaBau . The German Federal Association of Gardening, Landscaping and Sports Field Construction, based in Bad Honnef . V. (BGL) is a nationwide trade and employers association and u. a. Idea sponsor of the international trade fair " GaLaBau Nürnberg " ( urban green and open spaces ) in Nuremberg. It also awards member companies the professional mark of the Working Group on Quality Promotion in Gardening, Landscaping and Sports Field Construction, which can be used to draw attention to association membership and quality criteria. Also in Bad Honnef is the headquarters of the training funding agency for gardening, landscaping and sports field construction .
The Bonn-based research company Landschaftsentwicklung Landschaftsbau is active in the field of science and research .
In Austria there is the Gardening and Landscaping Association Austria .
For the year 2019 the total turnover of the German landscaping industry was put at 8.93 billion euros. The number of employees in the 18,251 German landscaping companies in 2019 totaled 123,678 people, the number of trainees 7,127.
58 percent of the orders in 2019 came from the field of private house gardens, 17 percent came from public clients. The creation of new gardens and green spaces accounted for 79% of sales, and the maintenance of existing facilities 17 percent.
In the field of road construction , conflicts with artisanal road construction companies can arise in Germany if a landscaping company z. B. wants to carry out path or paving work without being registered in the craft register. The background to the conflict is the overlapping of the trades from the respective occupational profiles. If a landscaping company carries out road construction activities, this must be in connection with a landscape gardening system.
- Bjørn-Holger Lay, Alfred Niesel, Martin Thieme-Hack (eds.): Teaching - paperback for gardening, landscaping and sports field construction . Fachbibliothek Grün, Verlag Eugen Ulmer, 7th edition 2013. ISBN 978-3-8001-4949-0 .
- Holger Seipel: Expertise in gardening and landscaping . Handwerk und Technik, 3rd edition 2005. ISBN 978-3-582-04156-2 .
- Wolfgang Lomer, Renate Koppen: The gardener. Volume 4: Gardening and Landscaping. Projects and expertise. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, 2001. ISBN 978-3-8001-1177-0 .
- Herbert Heise: Of gardens, plants and landscapes. Documentation on landscaping and horticulture from 1950 to 2002 . Kramer, Frankfurt am Main, 2006. ISBN 978-3-7829-0564-0 .
- Landscaping in Berufenet the Federal Employment Agency
- The landscape gardener - of the horticultural and landscaping training support organization
- www.soll-galabau.de , Procurement Service GaLaBau , specialist magazine for green space and landscape management with current industry news
- GALABAUTECHNIK.de - Online portal with data sheets, images and videos as well as comparison functions for machines and devices from the gardening and landscaping industry
- Neue Landschaft - the oldest German-language specialist magazine for entrepreneurs in gardening, landscaping, playground and sports field construction.
- Short film about the apprenticeship gardener - gardening and landscaping
- Training regulations of the Austrian Ministry of Economics
- Job and industry information Greenkeeping from the Austrian Chamber of Commerce
- Professional and branch information landscape gardening of the Austrian Chamber of Commerce
- Vocational and advanced training information from the Institute for Economic Research: Vocational Information Computer (BIC)