Kliment from Ohrid

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Kliment von Ohrid (late medieval icon)

Kliment of Ohrid ( . Bulg Климент Охридски / Kliment Ohridski , maz. Климент Охридски / Kliment Ohridski ; * to 840, †  27 July 916 in Ohrid ) was a scholar and student of the Slavic apostles Cyril and Methodius , the monastery founder and Archbishop of "Belica and Ohrid ”.


Kliment took part in Methodius' mission in the Great Moravian Empire . After his death he was the leader of the Slavic party in the dispute with the Latin clerics who had come from Eastern Franconia . After a short time in prison, he was probably expelled from Greater Moravia in 885 and went to the First Bulgarian Empire with Angelarij and Naum .

Tsar Boris I and his successor Tsar Simeon I entrusted the two monks with instructing future Bulgarian clerics in the country that had just been converted to Christianity. After the adoption of Christianity, Greek , introduced by Byzantine missionaries , was the church language in Bulgaria. In order to push back the Byzantine influence on his state, Boris I was interested in the establishment of the Slavic language in worship.

Initially, under the sole management of Kliments, the Ohrid school was built on Lake Ohrid. He was later supported by Naum , who initially ran the schools in Pliska and Preslaw . In the schools they established, Old Church Slavonic was taught as the liturgical language. They made Ohrid, next to Pliska and Preslaw , another ecclesiastical and cultural center by building churches, monasteries (including the monasteries "Pantaleimon" and Sveti Naum ) and expanding the school, in which numerous clerics were trained. The Ohrid School produced much of the “(old) Bulgarian” literature. According to tradition, Kliment taught between 886 and 893 3,500 students in the new written language.

The development of the Cyrillic alphabet is often ascribed to him, but a message interpreted accordingly in the Legenda Ochridica actually only means that he reformed the Glagolitic alphabet .

After a dispute with Tsar Simeon I, he was appointed bishop of the remote place Drembica (today Velika on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast; according to a different theory, however, Belica near Struga, which is much closer) in 893, which came close to exile. Kliment later regained the ruler's favor and became Archbishop of Ohrid. He founded the Pantaleimon monastery in Varoš , now a district of Ohrid.

After his death in 916 he was buried in the church of St. Pantaleimon near Ohrid. When the Ottomans converted this church into a mosque in the 15th century , Kliment's bones were reburied in the Ohrid church of Sveta Bogorodica Perivlepta . His great veneration led to canonization as a saint under Tsar Samuil (main festival July 27th). After the reconstruction of the St. Pantaleimon Church on the area known today as “Plaošnik”, his bones are back in their old location.


Today several churches , the universities of Sofia and Bitola , as well as the Bulgarian St. Kliment Ohridski station on the Antarctic Livingston Island and Mount Ohridsky on the Antarctic Alexander I Island bear his name.

Memorial days

  • Catholic: July 27th
  • Orthodox: July 17, July 27, November 22, November 25


  • Winfried Baumann: The fascination of the sacred with Kliment Ochridski. (= Typescript edition Hieronymus. Slavic languages ​​and literatures; 1). Hieronymus, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-88893-015-4
  • Angeliki Delikari: St. Clement and the question of the diocese of Velitza. Identification, list of bishops (until 1767) and titular bishops. SS Cyril and Methodius Center for Cultural Studies, Thessaloniki 1997. ISBN 960-85959-0-8
  • Edgar Hösch , Karl Nehring, Holm Sundhaussen (ed.): Lexicon for the history of Southeast Europe . Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2004, ISBN 3-205-77193-1
  • Dimitur Kirov: Dobro i zlo v bogoslovieto na Sv. Kliment Okhridski. (= God and the devil in the theology of St. Kliment Ohridski). Sofia 1995.
  • Heinz Miklas:  Klemens von Achrida (Kliment v. Ochrid). In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 4, Bautz, Herzberg 1992, ISBN 3-88309-038-7 , Sp. 15-24.
  • Dusko Nanevski: Kliment Ohridski vo makedonskata tradicija. Ogledi, studii, esei . Skopje 1991.
  • Svetlina Nikolova (ed.): Kliment Ochridski. Život i delo. Sofia 2000.
  • Günter Prinzing : Ohrid . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 6, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1993, ISBN 3-7608-8906-9 , Sp. 1376-1380.
  • NL Tunickij (Ed.): Monumenta ad SS Cyrilli et Methodii successorum vitas resque gestas pertinentia . [O. O.] 1918. Reprint: London 1973 - Russian-Greek-Latin edition of the "Vita S. Clementis" attributed to the Ohrid Archbishop Theophylactus , † 1108
  • NL Tunickij: St. Clement. Munich 1913. Reprint: Fink, Munich 1970 (= Slavic Propylaea; 87)


  1. Lexicon of the Middle Ages, Vol. VI, Col. 1378 "... the Holy Clements of Ohrid and Naum, who were sent there on mission by the Bulgarian Prince Boris I and his successor Simeon, worked in the Ohrid region."
  2. Hösch / Nehring / Sundhaussen, 2004, p. 485.
  3. ^ Lexicon of the Middle Ages, Vol. VI., Col. 1378 ".... has produced a large part of (old) Bulgarian literature. "
  4. Source is missing
  5. Cf. Nicolina Trunte: Προς το σαφεστερον. On reforms in the Glagolitic script. In: Glagoljica i hrvatski glagolizam . Edited by Marija-Ana Dürrigl u. a. Zagreb, Krk 2004. pp. 419-434.
  6. ^ The Bulgarian Antarctic Base “St. Kliment Ohridski ”
  7. Clement of Ohrid. December 10, 2016, accessed August 19, 2017 .

Web links

Commons : Kliment von Ohrid  - Collection of images, videos and audio files