clock tower

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Elizabeth Tower as part of the Palace of Westminster in London with Big Ben .

A clock tower , and clock tower , is a mostly free-standing or capped on a building tower , in a legible from a distance clock tower is installed. Church towers , defense towers and other towers whose main function is not to display the time are usually not called clock towers.

Sahat-kula (from saat kulesi , the Turkish word for "clock tower") are calledclock towersin the South Slavic languages , whichwere builtin the Balkans during the Ottoman Empire . Stundturm is a name that is mainly used for the clock tower in Schäßburg in Transylvania .

Clock towers usually have dials on all four sides . In the past, when no or only a few residents had their own clock in the cities, they functioned as binding time indicators. In Europe, clocks were often built into prominent towers afterwards. In Ottoman cities, clock towers represented signs of state rule in central places.


French planning of a port metropolis in the Orient based on the Parisian model: Several streets converge in a star shape on the Place de l'Étoile ("Star Square") in the center of Beirut, which was built in the 1930s .

For medieval farmers in Europe, the day consisted of three periods of morning, noon and evening. In the early modern period , clocks and bells were a necessity for monks to keep the times of prayer, as well as for citizens to keep their obligations. In particular, the Benedictine monks, who were subject to strict regulations, needed a rigid time frame for their prayers and other activities during the day. They needed a mechanical clock that would strike the bells regularly to keep the schedule. The large wheel clocks developed in the 14th century soon controlled the church bells in the church towers. First used in the monastery courtyards, the clock found its way into the secular realm of cities. At the end of the 15th century, clock towers became a focal point of the cities. This was accompanied by a frequent quarrel among those responsible for the religious and secular display of time.

Initially, these clocks did not have dials, but rang every hour. Until the 16th century, the bell was introduced every quarter of an hour. The first clocks with dials only had a large hour hand. Around the middle of the 17th century, Christiaan Huygens perfected the principle of the clock pendulum , which enabled greater accuracy. At the end of the 17th century, the accuracy was sufficient for the introduction of the smaller minute hand, which was primarily of advantage for navigation and astronomy. In the 18th century, tower clocks were also given minute hands. “The clock, not the steam engine, is the most important machine of the industrial age.” This much-quoted sentence by the American sociologist and technology-critical philosopher Lewis Mumford in his 1934 work Technics and Civilization alludes to the social changes that were later introduced after the clock tower the portable watch made for everyone.

The clock tower, like any correspondingly large tower, is a landmark in a central location , whose symbolic meaning can be that of a world axis growing into the sky . In this and in its function of telling the time, the city clock tower is comparable to the church tower that emits acoustic signals and the same minaret in Islamic countries.

Origin and Distribution

From the sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt , around 1230. The first line of writing reads: cest li masons don orologe (“this is the house of a clock”). Possibly the earliest surviving European representation of a clock tower.

The oldest clock tower is the Horologion (in antiquity, "clock") of Andronikos, known as the " Tower of the Winds " in Athens , which was built around the middle of the 1st century BC. Is first mentioned. The Greek astronomer Andronikos von Kyrrhos designed a 13.5 meter high octagonal tower made of marble blocks, which included a sundial , a water clock and a weather vane . The building, which was uncovered and restored in the 19th century, is very well preserved.


The Graz clock tower was first mentioned in the 13th century. It was given its present form in 1560. Initially, only a large hour hand rotated above the dials on all four sides of the tower. The minute hands attached later had to be shorter to distinguish them. Because this arrangement has remained to this day, it is always added to the landmark of the city of Graz that the size of the clock hands is "swapped".

According to literary sources, the first clockworks in Europe were in church towers and city clock towers in the early 14th century. In Modena , Italy , a bell weighing 900 kilograms was cast around 1309 to strike the hours with. The weight indicated indicates that it was probably a public bell clock. In 1343 a bell was hung in the cathedral in this city. A bell in a municipal clock tower in Parma is clearly reported in 1336. So she rang day and night. In the same year there was demonstrably the first tower clock bell to strike every hour in Milan . The city ​​of Ragusa , part of the Republic of Venice , employed an Italian bell keeper in 1322. The first public bell that struck a clock tower in Genoa is reported in 1353. This year the clock tower on the Palazzo Vecchio is said to have been heard all over Florence . From 1351 to 1353 an Italian bell builder worked with his assistants on the bell of the clock tower in Windsor Castle in southern England .

Torre dell'Orologio in St. Mark's Square in Venice

The Torre dell'Orologio was one of the most important works in Venice at the end of the 15th century. The clock tower on St. Mark's Square was built between 1493 and 1499 by the builder Carlo Ranieri from Reggio Calabria . It is divided into four floors and integrated into a house facade added from 1502–1506. The lower part is a high archway that extends over two floors of the residential building and provides access to Via Merceria. The astronomical dial above shows Claudius Ptolemy's geocentric view of the world with the sun, moon, and planets orbiting the earth. On the third floor there is a balcony with a play of figures that is only set in motion during the week of Ascension . Then the three wise men appear with two angels and bow before a figure of Mary. During the rest of the season, the hours and minutes can be seen as digits in the two side windows. A three-dimensional, winged lion of St. Mark can be seen in front of the fourth floor . On the roof are two 2.7-meter-tall bronze Moors , which ring the bell every quarter of an hour.


The oldest clock tower in the Ottoman Empire is in Prizren in Kosovo. It was built in 1610 and belongs to a bathhouse ( hammam ). In the Ottoman Empire, before the introduction of the clock tower, there was the Islamic institution of the muvakkit (from Turkish vakit , "time"). The muvakkit held a position of responsibility and was therefore appointed by the Sheikhul Islam . He had a working knowledge of astronomy have and be able to daily prayer times ( salad to say) as well as his knowledge of the madrasas pass on to students. The building in which the astronomer lived and worked was the muvakkithane , which was part of a building complex with the mosque and other religious institutions. Compared to this Islamic institution, the introduction of the clock tower meant a secularization of time, which developed into a conflict between the traditional and the modern conception of time, perceived by the population. What the muvakkit determined were the seasonal hours and not the European abstract time division. It took until the Alaturka time gave way to the European alafranga time (Persian frangi , "European", "Europeanized"). This process went hand in hand with political and social changes; it took place in the second half of the 19th century and was completed at the beginning of the 20th century. During the transition period, during the reign of Sultan Abdülhamid II (r. 1876–1908), there were clock towers that displayed both the alaturka hours and the alafranga hours according to everyday requirements .

At the end of the 19th century there were over 120 clock towers in the cities of the Ottoman Empire, most of them in Anatolia and the Balkans. They are stylistically inconsistent. The clock tower of Adana from 1865 corresponds to a minaret with its three-stage alternation of square base, round shaft and square top. The clock tower built in Adana in 1882 by the city's governor, called Büyük Saat (“Big Clock”) because of its height of 32 meters , was modeled on an Italian campanile as a symbol of modernity . The 25 meter high Izmir clock tower , completed in 1901, is reminiscent of the Indo-Islamic architecture of previous centuries. The clock towers and fountains built throughout the empire under Abdülhamid II essentially served to glorify his rule. The majority of the 35 clock towers in Anatolia were either rebuilt or restored during Abdülhamid's reign. The Ottoman clock tower of Beirut was built in 1898 in front of the Grand Seraglio of 1853 ( al- Sarāy al-Kabir , "Grand Palace / Ruler's Seat"), the current seat of the Lebanese Prime Minister. The architect was Youssef Effendi Aftimus (1866–1952). Previously, the city, which had an estimated 120,000 inhabitants around 1900, did not have a public clock to show the times of prayer. The completion was probably scheduled for the long-planned visit of the German Emperor Wilhelm II this year. With its position visible from the sea on Serail Hill (Qantari Hill) - as the highest point in the city center, a kind of Capitol Hill - the clock tower ( Hamidiyeh clock tower ) should set a sign of rule. The redesign and expansion of the port in 1893 preceded the construction of the clock tower.

The majority of the Ottoman clock towers on the Levantine coast were not built until later, in 1900 and 1901: in Tripoli , Aleppo ( Bab al-Faraj , started in 1898), Nazareth , Haifa and Jaffa, among others . For the provincial governors, the inauguration of such representative projects offered a welcome opportunity to prove their loyalty to the Sultan. The brisk construction activity in these two years is related to Abdülhamid's 25th anniversary of the throne, which the authorities celebrated on September 1, 1900 throughout the empire.

Clock tower on the main portal of the Shiite al-Kazimiyya mosque in al-Kazimiyya , a northeastern suburb of Baghdad. Photo from 1970. Photos from 1971 onwards show another clock tower with blue tiles.

Although of European origin, the Ottoman clock towers were not perceived as a radical break with tradition. The erection of clock towers was indeed a modernization project organized by the secular central government of the Sultan, but this was not perceived in society as significantly different from the previous practice of having public buildings erected by Islamic foundations ( Waqf ).

One of the first mosques in the Ottoman Empire to have a clock tower integrated was the Nusretiye Mosque in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, built between 1823 and 1826 , whose style is attributed to the Ottoman Baroque . Construction of the Muhammad Ali Mosque in Cairo began in 1828, and when its founder and namesake Muhammad Ali Pascha died in 1849 it was largely completed. A clock tower in the west facade belongs to it as a European ingredient. It was built there instead of the usual main entrance, so that the mosque can only be entered from the sides. The watch was a gift from the French King Louis-Philippe I in 1845.

"Clock Tower", City Council of Tabriz , Iran. Built in 1934

The first known clock tower in Persia was built by an Englishman called Feste on behalf of the Safavid Shah Abbas I above the entrance to the Isfahan bazaar , as the contemporary witness Adam Olearius reported in 1637. A few years later, another traveler found the clock tower out of order and hardly able to function again, whereas the Dutchman Cornelis de Bruijn heard the tower bells strike in 1704. They were the only ones in all of Persia. Initially hesitant, the Qajars began adopting this strange type of building. The clock tower was sometimes placed in the middle of the roof on the ivan of a mosque in the place of a guldasta . From the 17th to the 19th century, the guldasta was a wooden pavilion on the roof of a mosque, from which the muezzin called the faithful to prayer. On both sides of the Ivan, a group of two clock towers would have been better architecturally. However, this was not possible for religious reasons, because the clock towers could have been confused with the minarets that normally stand there.

Nāser ad-Din Shāh (r. 1848-1896) had palaces surrounded by gardens in the capital Tehran and in numerous provincial cities. Some of these included - in accordance with the ruler's need for personal security - a tower-like building in which the sleeping quarters ( chwabgah , "palace of dreams") were located. The most important of these tower palaces was the Shams al-ʿImara in the center of Tehran, completed in 1867 . The palace impressed with its two brick towers in European style, which protruded over the two-story houses in the area. In the middle of the connecting tract between the two towers stood a clock tower on the roof, with dials on the west and east sides. Another palace in Saltanabad, a higher, northern outskirts of Tehran, had a clock tower that a European eyewitness compared to an ancient Iranian fire temple and to the Tour Magne in Nîmes .

Following the redesign of Beirut at the end of the 19th century under Ottoman rule, there was at least an equally radical urban change between the world wars, when Lebanon was part of the French mandate . The French administration had resolved to give the city, which was socially segmented by a large number of ethnic groups living here, an overarching identity as Paris of the Middle East. The core of the project was the demolition of the inner old town with its narrow cul-de-sacs and the creation of an area later known as the Étoile . The generous planning of the French landscape architect Camille Duraffourd with streets leading to a central square ( Place de l'Étoile , "Sternplatz") with several public buildings in its vicinity was approved in 1929 and carried out in 1944. In 1932 the architect Mardiros H. Altounian (1889–1958) won the competition for the design of a clock tower on the square; Financed by the Lebanese businessman Miguel Abed, the Art Deco style Abed clock tower was completed in 1934. The parliament building on the west side of the square was built in the same early national style. The cool, formalistic design of the Place de l'Étoile in connection with the neo-Ottoman arcades on Rue Maarad were intended to symbolize Beirut's identity as a western-oriented and at the same time oriental port city.

The tallest clock tower and the second tallest skyscraper in the world is the Abraj Al Bait Towers in Mecca , which is 601 meters to the top and was built between 2004 and 2012.


Chennai Central . The British-Indian colonial style station opened in 1873 in Madras (now Chennai ) in southern India.

Towers - apart from those in religious buildings - presented in following the 1200 built Qutb Minar , marking the start of the Muslim Sultanate of Delhi is marked, often a sign of victory in the history of India foreign rulers Following the acquisition of India as. British Crown Colony in 1858 could be more and more British settlers down, for whom their own city quarters (cantonments) with a generous rectangular street plan were created. In the cantonments, bungalows, a church, a club, barracks and a parade ground were built, which separated the new settlement from the narrow Indian market areas. Technological progress or - in a more comprehensive sense - India's entry into the modern age was primarily evident in the founding of the Indian railroad , which first ran across the country on a short route in 1852 and in the following decades. Magnificent representative buildings in the British-Indian colonial style were built in the newly created business districts around the train stations .

In practically all cities with a significant number of British residents, from around 1860 o'clock towers were part of the cityscape on or in front of the administrative buildings or in the middle of the central intersection. One of the first building measures after the devastation caused by the Sepoy uprising in 1857 in the capital Delhi was the erection of a 36 meter high clock tower opposite the town hall in the Chandni Chowk market district. The architect Richard Roskell Bayne (1827-1901) was commissioned in 1885 to design a 68-meter-high clock tower next to the tomb of the Nawab of Avadh , Muhammad Ali Shah (r. 1837-1842) in Lucknow . Avadh was a wealthy princely state when it was annexed by the British in 1856, a year before the start of the uprising against colonial rule, which was strongly supported by Muslims here. Perhaps this was the reason why the British built the Husainabad clock tower on this very spot, which was about the size of the 72-meter-high Muslim Qutub Minar. The muezzin's call to prayer, which could be heard many times in Lucknow, was now surpassed by the Christian chime on the hour. The architect used the Giralda , the former minaret of the Friday mosque in the Andalusian city of Seville , which was repurposed as a bell tower, as a model.

The clock towers were ubiquitous representatives of British colonial rule and, moreover, of the British way of life. The Indian writers dealt with the cultural upheavals in Indian society due to the daily routine introduced by the British, for example in the description of the little Indian office worker who would never allow himself to be late for his work. The clock tower embodied the progress to be striven for in the western development model. In everyday life - as the British historian Thomas R. Metcalf (1984) notes - he stood for the virtue of punctuality compared to the lethargy of their Indian subordinates, which the British lamented. The clock tower was always in the center of the action, a kind of panopticon , the only difference being that this tower did not see everything, but was seen by everyone.

East asia

Sketch of the clock tower constructed by Su Song 1090 in Kaifeng

In ancient China, time was set using astronomy, sundials and sometimes very complex water clocks at a different location and independent of the public time announcement. Both tasks were strictly controlled by the ruler and served to exercise his power and to regulate the people. The loud public announcement of the time was a sign with which the authorities kept themselves in constant memory while the time setting was carried out as a secret science hidden from the public. Since the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD), a bell could be heard in the morning and a drum in the evening to indicate the time. At that time, the institution of two large tower-like buildings developed in the cities, which were often spatially related to one another. The preserved towers are solid masonry in a characteristic architectural style. In one tower, huge wooden barrel drums with membranes made of cowhide are set up horizontally and in the other tower there is a large bronze bell. The drum tower gu lou (from Chinese gu , "wooden drum" and lou , "tower") and the bell tower zhong lu ( zhong , "bell") embody traditional Chinese timekeeping. Sometimes the bell installed in the ruler's throne room served as the counterpart to the drum tower in the market square.

According to a sixth-century account of Buddhist monasteries by Yang Xuanzhi , there was a high terrace in the market square of Luoyang in the Western Jin Dynasty (263-317) , on which stood a two-story building that contained a drum and a bell . When the drum was struck, the market was over. Since then, the rulers have shown certain times of the day in cities and villages. The public time display was probably not centrally regulated until the Tang Dynasty (618–907) in the capital Chang'an and incorporated into the concept of a planned city, which included symmetrically laid out, walled residential quarters ( li or fang ). Up to 108 residential quarters were arranged around the palace and the administration buildings, each with a city gate that was closed in the evening on a signal from the palace and opened again in the morning. Because no drum tower existed yet, a drum was struck on the south tower of the palace. Official riders then carried the corresponding request to the individual city districts and announced it there. An administrative reform in 636 ordered drums to be set up in every street of the capital to spread the messages sent from the palace. In this way, the ruler practically implemented control over the daily routine of his subjects, first in the capital and later in the other cities.

The most complicated time measuring instrument of its time and a clock tower probably impressive in its size was the astronomical clock , which the Chinese inventor Su Song developed in Kaifeng around 1090 . An elaborate mechanism with an escapement , possibly the oldest known chain drive, a series of gears and a vertical drive shaft, was kept in motion by means of a water wheel . The approximately ten meter high tower ended with a platform that was protected by a shade roof. There was a celestial globe on the first floor and an armillary sphere on the platform , both of which were probably primarily demonstration objects. The armillary sphere was also used to observe the sky. Su Song described the construction in detail in his treatise Hsin I Hsiang Fa Yao . The exterior of the tower was shaped like a five-tier pagoda , with openings on each floor. At the appropriate time, clothed dolls appeared in the openings, striking bells, gongs or drums.

Wuhan Customs Office

During the Jin Dynasty (1125-1234), the strict opening times of the city gates, neglected under the Song Dynasty (960-1126), were reintroduced. In Kaifeng, a drum tower and a bell tower were built in the central market district near the river port. The drum towers in Kaifeng and in the capital Zhongdu (now Beijing ) were nicknamed wu lou , "war tower" in the Jin dynasty and in the subsequent Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) , while the bell towers were known as wen lou , "civil tower." “, Were known. Marco Polo , who was in Beijing in 1266 , confirms that the two towers still had the function of announcing the closing of the gates in the evening during the Yuan Dynasty . Up to the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), the times for beating the drum or bell were determined using a water clock from the Song Dynasty. In the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) fire clocks were used for this , as they were built into the Beijing drum tower and bell tower.

The preserved drum tower in the Dongcheng district of Beijing was built at the same time as the bell tower in 1420 a little east of the drum tower from 1372, which was destroyed by fire and goes back to Kublai Khan . The drum tower was restored several times and particularly extensively in 1800. The basement of the tower, built on a four meter high terrace, rises 30 meters above the surroundings. The total height including the wooden upper floor and the roof structure is 46.7 meters. Originally, 24 drums with a body diameter of around 1.5 meters were housed in the only large room on the upper floor. The timing instruments and all but one of the drums have disappeared today. The bell tower was given its present form of brick walls in 1745 after the older wooden bell tower burned down. At 47.9 meters, it is higher but slimmer than the drum tower. The bronze bell has a diameter of 5.5 meters and weighs 6.3 tons. The drums and bell were struck a total of 108 times at 7 p.m. and 5 a.m. according to a set schedule. In the meantime all gates were closed. During the entire night, only the drums sounded every two hours to divide the night time for the night watch patrolling the streets into five sections for their shift changes. Until 1924 the bell could be heard over a distance of 20 kilometers. In Jiangxi Province alone, drum-beating night vigil organization was practiced in at least eight cities.

At the beginning of the 20th century clock towers based on the western model with mechanical clockwork were introduced, which replaced the previous drum and bell towers. The new clock towers were erected on top of public buildings such as administrative facilities, train stations and schools. In Beijing, this did not happen in residential areas, but in significant public places.

From 1873, the bells of the first western clock towers in Tokyo struck every hour on the hour according to the universal time system. The clock towers erected in front of factories replaced the previous season-dependent timing, which was communicated by a bell that sounded approximately every two hours. Workers should be encouraged to arrive at the factory at 6:30 a.m. punctually.

The clock tower in Hong Kong - Clock Tower (Hong Kong) - built in 1915 - has been registered as a monument of the city since 1990.

South East Asia

Bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad , British government building from 1897 in Kuala Lumpur

In 1867 the British possessions on the Malay Peninsula , namely the coastal towns of Malacca , Penang and Singapore , were transferred to the administration of the British East India Company as Straits Settlements . Comparable to the parade grounds between Cantonment and the Indian old town, especially the Maidan in Calcutta , and as distant descendants of the Meidān-e Emām , the center of Isfahan built at the end of the 16th century , the British colonizers left in today's Malaysian at the end of the 19th century Cities and in Singapore create a grass field called padang ( Malaysian , "wide field"). In Kuala Lumpur , a settlement founded in 1857 by some tin miners as a boat landing stage, the British architect Arthur Charles Alfred Norman (1858–1944) began building government buildings around the padang in 1890 , which initially served as a training area for the police. Norman's representative buildings are influenced by the Moorish style popular in the 19th century .

He designed the Sultan Abdul Samad Building ( Bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad ), which was completed in 1897 and now houses ministries, in a particularly impressive way . The 41 meter high clock tower is the eye-catcher in the middle of the two-story symmetrical building. The Bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad was the architectural highlight of Kuala Lumpur at the end of the 19th century. In order to make the greatness of British military power symbolized by the architecture even more clear, the colonial rulers had a cannon fired in front of the police headquarters every day at 12 noon. The practical reason for the cannon shot was that citizens within earshot should then adjust their clocks to the correct time. Unfortunately, like the clock in the station building, the tower clock was relatively imprecise and not in time with the cannon shot.

Penang is the oldest British settlement on the Malay Peninsula. It was founded in 1786 as a trading post from which today's George Town developed. In contrast to practically all British colonial cities, George Town did not have a clock tower until 1902. This is thanks to a foundation of the Chinese businessman Cheah Chen Eok, who commissioned it on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the reign of the British Queen Victoria . However, the monarch died a year before the completion of the Moorish-style tower.

Jam Gadang , landmark of Bukittinggi , Sumatra

Portuguese colonialists captured the city of Malacca in 1511 . A forerunner for the clock towers of the British on the Malay Peninsula and the Dutch on the Indonesian islands was the church tower of the Nossa Senhora da Annunciada e Collegio de S. Pavlo ("Our Lady of the Annunciation and College of St. Paul"). The conqueror Afonso de Albuquerque had a first church built in 1511 together with a hospital in the Portuguese fortress A Famosa ("The Glorious") in Malacca. In 1566 the Jesuits restored the church and expanded it, among other things, by adding a bell tower that towers above all the buildings and - according to the needs of the time - also served as the fortress' watchtower. The fortress of the first Christians was subjected to over 20 attacks by the Sultan of Johor, who had previously been driven from here .

The Dutch East India Company was founded in 1602 as a trading company, initially with the focus on controlling the spice trade with the Indonesian islands. Due to political and economic difficulties, the Dutch state took over the administration of the Indonesian colonial area in 1799 . A colonial clock tower, which is the symbol of the city of Bukittinggi in Sumatra , is best known from Indonesia . The Jam Gadang ("big bell", from Indonesian jam, "clock", "hour", and Minangkabau gadang , "big") was built in 1926 near the market. The 26-meter-high square building is divided into four floors, which rise on a four-meter-high platform with a side length of 13 meters. He gave Bukittinggi the nickname Kota Jam Gadang ("City of the Big Bell"). Originally the tower ended with a cylindrical structure and a round dome. A rooster was enthroned on top. In 1942 there was a pyramid roof at the place of the dome . After Indonesia's independence in 1945, this roof was replaced in a national return to the traditional residential building architecture ( rumah gadang ) of the Minangkabau with a curved roof with four points protruding upwards. The tower, which was damaged in an earthquake in 2007 , was restored by 2010.

Some clock towers

The Kroch high-rise on the west side of Augustusplatz , completed in 1928, was Leipzig's first high-rise .
Tower / building City / place country description
Tour de l'Horloge Auxerre France Medieval fortification
Tour de l'Horloge Avallon France Medieval fortification
Albert Memorial Clock Tower Belfast United Kingdom monument
Zytglogge Bern Switzerland Medieval fortification
Gjakova clock tower Gjakova Kosovo Ottoman
Graz clock tower Graz Austria Medieval fortification
Halifax clock tower Halifax Canada military
Dolmabahçe clock tower Istanbul Turkey palace
Elisabeth Tower (Big Ben) London United Kingdom palace
Tour de l'Horloge Montreal Canada monument
Clock tower Sighișoara Romania Ottoman
Skopje clock tower Skopje Macedonia Ottoman
Clock tower of Tirana Tirana Albania Ottoman
Clock tower sewing machine factory Wittenberg Germany factory

Web links

Commons : Clock Tower  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Jeremy Rifkin: The European Dream: The Vision of a Quiet Superpower. Campus, Frankfurt 2004, p. 123
  2. ^ John Durham Peters: Calendar, Clock, Tower. P. 8f, 15
  3. Horologion of Andronikos, so-called Tower of the Winds. in the Arachne archaeological database
  4. ^ Gerhard Dorn-van Rossum: History of the Hour: Clocks and Modern Temporal Orders. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1998, pp. 129-131
  5. ^ Richard John Goy: Building Renaissance Venice: Patrons, Architects and Builders, C. 1430–1500. Yale University Press, New Haven (Connecticut) 2006, pp. 232-235
  6. Jürgel Abeler: Ullstein clock book. A cultural history of time measurement. Ullstein, Frankfurt / M. 1975, p. 46
  7. ^ Richard Busch-Zantner: To the knowledge of the Ottoman city. In: Geographische Zeitschrift, Volume 38, 1st Issue, 1932, pp. 1–13, here p. 11
  8. Klaus Kreiser : Public Monuments in Turkey and Egypt, 1840-1916. In: Muqarnas , Vol. 14, 1997, pp 103-117, here p. 110
  9. Jens Hanssen: Fin de Siecle Beirut. The Making of An Ottoman Provincial Capital. Clarendon Press, Oxford 2005, pp. 245, 247
  10. Photo of the clock tower of the al-Kazimiyya Mosque, 1971 or later
  11. Avner Wishnitzer: A Comment on Mehmet Bengü Uluengin, “Secularizing Anatolia Tick by Tick: Clock Towers in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic.” In: International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42 , 2010, pp. 537-545
  12. Mohammad Al-Asad: The Mosque of Muhammad ʿAli in Cairo. In: Muqarnas , Vol. 9, 1992, pp. 39-55, here pp. 46, 54
  13. ^ Roger Stevens: European Visitors to the Safavid Court. In: Iranian Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3/4 (Studies on Isfahan: Proceedings of the Isfahan Colloquium, Part II) Summer – Autumn 1974, pp. 421–457, here p. 435
  14. ^ Robert Hillenbrand: The Role of Tradition in Qajar Religious Architecture . In: Ders .: Studies in Medieval Islamic Architecture . The Pindar Press, London 2006, Volume 2, pp. 584-621, here pp. 603f
  15. Kaveh Bakhtiar: Palatial Towers of Nasir al-Din Shah. In: Muqarnas, Vol. 21 (Essays in Honor of JM Rogers) 2004, pp. 33–43, here pp. 35, 39
  16. ^ Paul Dumont: Salonica and Beirut: The Reshaping of Two Ottoman Cities of the Eastern Mediterranean. In: Eyal Ginio, Karl Kaser (Ed.): Ottoman Legacies in the Contemporary Mediterranean. The Balkans and the Middle East Compared. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Conference & Lecture Series. 2012/13, pp. 189–207, here pp. 198f
  17. ^ Robert Saliba: Beirut City Center Recovery: The Foch-Allenby and Etoile Conservation Area. Steidl, Göttingen 2003, pp. 80, 117
  18. Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel. The Skyscraper Center
  19. ^ House of World Cultures, Charles Correa et al. (Ed.): Vistara. The architecture of India. Exhibition catalog, Berlin 1991, p. 90 (English original edition: Carmen Kagal (Ed.): Vistara: The Architecture of India. (Exhibition Catalog, Festival of India) Tata Press, Mumbai 1986)
  20. ^ Thomas R. Metcalf: Architecture and the Representation of Empire: India, 1860-1910. In: Representations, No. 6, spring 1984, pp. 37–65, here p. 55
  21. Collection SC131 - Richard Roskell Bayne collection . The British Columbia Archival Information Network
  22. ^ Anthony Welch, Martin Segger, Nicholas DeCaro: Building for the Raj: Richard Roskell Bayne. In: RACAR: revue d'art canadienne / Canadian Art Review, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2009, pp. 74-86, here pp. 83f
  23. Thomas R. Metcalf, p. 56
  24. ^ Sanjay Srivastava: Constructing Post-Colonial India: National Character and the Doon School. (Culture and Communication in Asia). Routledge Chapman & Hall, 1998, pp. 46f
  25. ^ Wu Hung: Monumentality of Time: Giant Clocks, the Drum Tower, the Clock Tower. In: Robert S. Nelson, Margaret Olin (Eds.): Monuments and Memory: Made and Unmade . University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2003, pp. 107-132, here pp. 107f, 118
  26. ^ Joseph Needham: Science and Civilization in China . Volume 4: Physics and Physical Technology. Part 2: Mechanical Engineering. Caves Books, Taipei 1986, p. 111
  27. ^ J. Needham: Astronomy in ancient and medieval China. In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A. 276 . 1974, pp. 67-82, here p. 76f
  28. ^ Derek J. de Solla Price: On the Origin of Clockwork, Perpetual Motion Devices and the Compass. In: Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology, Paper 6. United States National Museum, Bulletin 218, 1959, pp. 81-112, here pp. 86-88
  29. ^ Wu Hung: Monumentality of Time: Giant Clocks, the Drum Tower, the Clock Tower. P. 19f
  30. ^ The Drum Tower and the Bell Tower.
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  32. ^ Wu Hung: Monumentality of Time: Giant Clocks, the Drum Tower, the Clock Tower. Pp. 22-25
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