British East India Company
|British East India Company
|founding||December 31, 1600|
|resolution||January 1, 1874|
The British East India Company ( British East India Company , BEIC ) until 1707 English East India Company ( EIC ), was an existing 1600-1874 Kaufmann company for the India trade , which after defeating the Nawab of Bengal in the Battle of Plassey 1757 rose to the determining power factor in India and established almost 200 years of British colonial rule over the country .
The BEIC emerged as the first of several European East India companies when Queen Elizabeth I issued a privilege to a group of wealthy London merchants on December 31, 1600 . This granted the Governors and Company of merchants of London trading to the East-Indies the right to carry out all English trade between the Cape of Good Hope in the west and the Strait of Magellan in the east, i.e. in the entire Indian and Pacific region , for 15 years Unwinding ocean . It received a seal , was able to choose its governor and the 24 directors itself, and was allowed to issue corporation laws ("by-laws") to itself.
First, the company equipped five ships with 72,000 pounds sterling , which landed under the leadership of Captain James Lancaster on June 5, 1602 at Aceh in Sumatra . Further expeditions of this kind followed in 1604 and 1610. An embassy to the Mughal Mughal Jahangir obtained the right to set up trading posts on the west coast of the Indian Ocean. The company was only able to exercise this right after defeating the reluctant Portuguese in 1612. In Madras and Hugli she was only able to gain a foothold in 1640, because there she met the resistance of the competing Dutch East India Company (VOC).
On April 3, 1661, Charles II confirmed the earlier privileges and also granted the company civil jurisdiction, military authority and the right to wage war and to make peace with the “infidels” in India . He also enfeoffed the company with the city of Bombay , which he had received as a dowry from his Portuguese wife Katharina . Charles' successor, James II , gave her the right to build fortresses, raise troops and strike coins to put her on an equal footing with the VOC. In 1694 the privileges were confirmed again, but only amid major protests by the merchants who were excluded from the monopoly in the London Parliament. The oppressive rule of the company in its Indian possessions also met with increasing criticism. The English government therefore granted a competing company the same rights as the "Company of Merchants" in 1698. This was therefore forced to join forces with its competitor in 1708 to form the "United East-India Company". Thereafter, the company's business flourished to an unprecedented extent. It gained increasing influence on the political situation in India and became the dominant factor after Plassy in 1757.
During this time the administration was divided into the Bengal Presidency , the Bombay Presidency and the Madras Presidency . With Warren Hastings in 1773 a governor general of the East Indies was appointed for the first time .
It was not until 1784 that the company was placed under the supervision of a state control agency by the Pitt government's India Act . This acted as a ministerial department and supervised the employment of the higher officials, judges and military commanders of the company. In trade matters, however, the BIEC initially retained its old independence. In 1813 it lost its special rights to trade, but retained supreme power in civil and military affairs. Increasing uprisings, most recently that of the Sipahi in 1857, led the British Parliament to transfer the rights of the company to the Crown through the Government of India Act of August 2, 1858. The last meeting of the directors took place on August 30, 1858. In 1874 it was finally dissolved.
From her headquarters on Leadenhall Street in London she organized the establishment of the British colony of India . In 1718 the Society received an imperial decree from the Mughal Emperor in India exempting them from paying customs duties in Bengal . This gave it a significant advantage over its competitors. A decisive victory by Sir Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 made the British East India Company a factor of military power. By 1760, the French could largely be driven out of India. Only a few French trading establishments remained on the coast, including Pondicherry .
The company also had interests along the routes from Great Britain to India. As early as 1620, the company tried to claim the area around Table Mountain in what is now South Africa . She later occupied and ruled St. Helena . Branches were also established in Hong Kong and Singapore . The company hired William Kidd to take action against piracy. She also expanded tea production in India. Another memorable event in the company's history was the guarding of the prisoner Napoleon Bonaparte on St. Helena. Their wares were also the subject of the Boston Tea Party in Colony America.
The flag of the British East India Company is said to have served as a template for the US Stars and Stripes flag . The British flag dates from the founding years in the 17th century, Stars and Stripes was created in 1777.
The shipyards of the East India Company served as a model for those in Saint Petersburg , parts of their administration have been retained in the Indian bureaucracy and their corporate structure was the most successful model of a public company.
The tribute demands made by managers of the company on the treasury in Bengal contributed to the great famine from 1770 to 1773 that claimed millions of lives.
The founding years
The company was founded as The Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies by a group of enterprising and influential businessmen who received a royal charter with an exclusive right ( monopoly ) to trade in India for a period of 15 years. The company had 125 shareholders and a share capital of £ 72,000. Initially, however, it was hardly able to shake the Dutch control over the spice trade. At first, she also did not succeed in establishing a permanent base in India. Eventually their ships reached India and docked at Surat. A trading post was established there in 1608. In the following two years she was able to set up her first trading post in Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast in the Bay of Bengal. The high profits reported by the company in India prompted King James I to license other British trading companies as well. But in 1609 he renewed the company's charter for an indefinite period, with the restriction that the charter would expire after three consecutive years without profits. Negotiations with the Dutch East India Company to merge the two companies failed in 1615.
Subsidiaries in India
Their dealers were often involved in clashes with their Dutch competitors in the Indian Ocean . Perhaps one saw the uselessness of trade wars in distant waters, in any case the British decided to explore possibilities of a permanent settlement on the Indian mainland. The British government was induced to launch a diplomatic initiative. In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe was commissioned by James I to visit the Mughal emperor Jahangir , who ruled 70 percent of the subcontinent. The aim of this mission was to reach a trade agreement that would give the British East India Company exclusive rights to locate and set up offices in Surat and other areas. In return, the company offered to supply the Kaiser with goods and luxury items from Europe. The mission was hugely successful and Jahangir sent a letter to James I in which he wrote:
“On the assurance of your royal love, I have given general orders to all the kingdoms and ports of my lordship to receive all merchants of the English nation as the subjects of my friend; that wherever they choose to live they enjoy complete freedom without restriction; and wherever they are to arrive, neither Portugal nor anyone else should dare to disturb their peace; and wherever they have settled, I have instructed my governors and captains to give them the freedom they desire for themselves; to sell, buy and transport to their country as they wish.
In affirmation of our love and friendship, I wish from Her Majesty to order her traders to carry on their ships all kinds of luxuries and splendid goods worthy of my palace; and that you send me your royal letters at every opportunity, so that I may enjoy your health and prosperous affairs; that our friendship was mutual and lasted forever. "
The way to complete monopoly
With such support, the company soon succeeded in surpassing the Portuguese who had established branches in Goa and Bombay . She succeeded in setting up branches in Surat (the office was founded in 1612), Madras (1639), Bombay (1668) and Calcutta . In 1647 the company had 23 offices and 90 employees in India. The main offices were Fort William in Bengal, Fort St. George in Madras and Bombay Castle . In 1634, the Mughal Emperor expanded his hospitality to English merchants in the Bengal region (and in 1717 one of his successors completely exempted them from customs duties on goods). The company's core business was now cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpeter and tea. During the whole time she tried to penetrate the Dutch spice monopoly in the Strait of Malacca. In 1711 the company set up a trading post in Canton , China , to buy tea with silver; this was the beginning of British trade with China . In 1657 Oliver Cromwell renewed the charter of 1609, and initiated minor changes in the company's ownership structure.
The position of the company was increased by the restoration of the monarchy in Great Britain. Through a series of 5 legal decrees around the year 1670, King Charles II endowed them with the rights to independently acquire territories, mint money, command fortresses and troops, enter into alliances, declare war, make peace and both civil and as well as to exercise criminal jurisdiction in the acquired territories. The company, surrounded by trade rivals, other imperial powers, and temporarily hostile native rulers, had a growing need for military protection. Therefore, the freedom to manage their own military affairs was a welcome gift, and from 1680 the company quickly set up its own armed forces, which it recruited mainly from the local population. Thus, one can discuss whether the company represented a state on the Indian mainland from 1689, as it was largely sovereign. It administered the vast areas of Bengal, Madras and Bombay and had considerable military clout.
Since some of the company's employees were rich, they were able to return to their homeland. So the doors to power were then open to them. As a result, the company developed its own lobby in parliament. Despite everything, she came under pressure from ambitious business people and former partners of the company (disparagingly called interlocutors ), who also wanted to establish private trading companies in India. This led to the passage of a Deregulation Act 1694. This act allowed any English company to trade with India unless it was expressly forbidden by a parliamentary act. This canceled the charter that had been in force for almost 100 years. A 1698 law created a new "parallel" East India Company (officially called English Company Trading to the East Indies ) with a government guarantee of £ 2 million. But soon the powerful shareholders of the old company acquired shares in the new company for £ 315,000 and controlled the company. The two companies competed for a while for market share in both England and India. However, it quickly became clear that the original society felt hardly any measurable competition. Both companies merged in 1702 under a tripartite agreement between the state and the two companies. Under this agreement, the merged company loaned the Treasury a sum of £ 3,200,000 in return for three years of exclusive trading rights - after which the situation should be reassessed. The merged company became the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies .
In the decades that followed, a back-and-forth developed between the East India Company lobby and Parliament. The company tried to establish its privileges permanently, while Parliament did not want to voluntarily give up the possibility of siphoning off the company's profits. In 1712 a law renewed the company's status, but the debt was repaid. In 1720, 15% of British imports came from India, and almost all of them were through the East India Company. This increased the influence of their lobby. In 1730 the license was extended to 1766 by a new law.
At that time, Britain and France became bitter rivals and there was frequent skirmish between them for control of their colonial acquisitions. In 1742, feared the financial repercussions of war, the British government agreed to expand the East India Company's trade monopoly with India until 1783. In return, she received another £ 1 million loan. The fighting culminated in the feared war, and between 1756 and 1763 the Seven Years' War drew state attention to reinforcing and defending their territories in Europe and North America. The war also took place on the Indian subcontinent, between the troops of the East India Company and French forces. Around the same time, Britain gained an edge over its European rivals with the arrival of the Industrial Revolution . The demand for Indian raw materials was fueled by the needs of the economy and for the maintenance of the troops in times of war. As the starting point of the industrial revolution, Britain experienced a higher standard of living, and this cycle of wealth, demand and production had a profound impact on overseas trade. The East India Company became the largest single participant in British world trade and reserved an unassailable position for itself in government decision-making.
The war ended in the defeat of the French armed forces and limited French imperial ambitions. The defeat also limited the influence of the industrial revolution in the French territories. General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive led the East India Company to a remarkable victory against Joseph François Dupleix , the French commander in India, and retook Fort St. George from them. The Treaty of Paris (1763) forced the French to conduct their trade through small enclaves in Pondicherry , Mahé , Karaikal , Yanam and Chandernagor without a military presence. Although these small outposts remained in French possession for two centuries, French ambitions for Indian territory were de facto buried. The East India Company was spared a major potential competitor. In contrast, after this victory, and with the backing of its army, the East India Company was able to expand its influence further.
However, the East India Company continued to face resistance from local rulers. Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive led the company's forces against Siraj-ud-Daula , who had French support, to victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757. In doing so, he eliminated the last significant resistance in Bengal. This victory alienated the British and the Mughal emperors whom Siraj had served as an autonomous ruler. But the Mughal Empire was already in decline after the death of Aurangzeb, and as a result broke into pieces and enclaves. After the Battle of Baksar, the only formally ruling emperor, Shah Alam, handed over the administrative rights over Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. Clive became the first British governor of Bengal. Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan , the legendary rulers of Mysore , made life difficult for the British. They had allied themselves with the French and continued their fight against the company with the four wars of Mysore. Mysore was finally captured by the British in 1799. Tipu was slain in the process. With the gradual loss of power of the Marathas in the wake of the war with the British, they secured Bombay and its surroundings. It was on these campaigns that Arthur Wellesley , who later became the Duke of Wellington, demonstrated his skills for the first time, which ultimately led to his victory in Spain and the Battle of Waterloo . A particularly notable gathering of armed forces under his command was the Battle of Assaye . The British thus secured all of southern India (with the exception of the French enclaves and a few local rulers), the West Indies and the East Indies. The last remnants of the local administration were limited to the northern regions around Delhi, Avadh , Rajputana and Punjab, where the company's presence continued to expand amid local disputes and dubious protection offers from the company. In 1848, after the First and Second Sikh Wars , the Punjab was also annexed to the company's territory. Threats and diplomacy prevented the local rulers from joining forces against the company. In the hundred years between the victory in the Battle of Plassey and the great Indian uprising of 1857 , the company developed more and more from a trading company into a state.
Regulating the affairs of the East India Company
Although the East India Company became increasingly brutal and ambitious in subjugating unruly states, it became more and more evident day by day that the Company was unable to administer the vast newly acquired territories. The famine in Bengal, which killed a sixth of the local population, set alarm bells ringing at home. Military and administrative spending in Bengal rose sharply due to the decline in productivity. At the same time, economic stagnation and depression reigned across Europe, triggered by the aftermath of the industrial revolution. Britain was facing a rebellion in North America (one of the main importers of tea) and France was on the verge of revolution. The directors of the East India Company tried to avert bankruptcy by appealing to parliament. In this they asked for financial support. As a result, the Tea Act of 1773 was passed, in which the company was given greater autonomy in the conduct of its trade in North America. However, the Boston Tea Party was triggered by the monopoly activities . This was one of the major events that later led to the American War of Independence .
Regulatory Act of 1773
After the United States gained independence from Great Britain, the British shifted their focus to the other side of the globe to India . The armies destined for India as well as those of the East India Company grew, and with them so did the operating costs. The company was forced by the Regulating Act for India 1773 to undergo a succession of administrative and economic reforms. Despite stubborn opposition from the East India lobby in parliament and by the company's shareholders, the law was passed. It introduced significant government controls and allowed land to be formally placed under the control of the Crown, but then to be given to the East India Company for a two-year lease of £ 40,000. Under these conditions, the Governor of Bengal Warren Hastings was promoted to the rank of Governor General. He was responsible for the administration of the whole of British India. These provided that his nomination should be done in the future by a council of four, which was appointed by the crown. He was given power over war and peace. British lawyers should also be sent to India to ensure the application of British law. The Governor General and the Council thus had full legislative powers. So Warren Hastings became the first Governor General of India. The East India Company was allowed to keep its trade monopoly. In return, it had to pay an amount to the crown every two years and commit to exporting a minimum of goods to the UK. The company also had to cover the administrative costs. However, these conditions, which were initially welcomed by the company, had negative consequences: the company had annual burdens and its financial situation continued to deteriorate.
Decline of the East India Company
Meanwhile, Hastings fell out of favor with the Council of Four. The Council returned to Britain and initiated corruption proceedings against him that eventually led to his dismissal. The Regulating Act was viewed as a failure because it immediately became clear that the delimitation of competencies between the government and the company was highly uncertain and a matter of interpretation. The government also felt an obligation to heed humanitarian requests aimed at better treatment of indigenous people in British-occupied territories. Edmund Burke, a former shareholder in the East India Company and a diplomat, felt compelled to defuse the situation by introducing an India Bill in 1783. However, the law was rejected due to intense lobbying by the East India Company and accusations of nepotism in appointing councilors. Despite everything, this law was an important step towards pushing back the East India Company, and the India Law of 1784 resolved the conflict peacefully. Here, the control of government and trade between the crown and the company was clearly delimited. After this turning point, the company functioned as a regulated subsidiary of the Crown, and the company expanded its influence into the neighboring territories through coercion and threats. In the middle of the 19th century the rule of the company extended over large parts of India, Burma, Singapore and Hong Kong, around 20% of the world population were under their control.
The British sphere of influence expanded further; in 1845 the Danish colony Tranquebar was acquired by Great Britain. The company had expanded its influence in China, the Philippines and Java on several occasions. The company remedied its critical shortage of cash to purchase tea by exporting opium produced in India to China. China's efforts to stop this trade led to the First Opium War with Great Britain .
The company's efforts to administer India served as a model for the British civil administration, especially in the 19th century. After the company lost its trading monopoly in 1833, it became a pure trading company again. In 1858 the company lost its administrative function to the British government after its Indian soldiers mutinied ( Indian uprising of 1857 ).
- the takeover of all territories in India from the East India Company, which at the same time lost the powers and control powers that had previously been transferred to it.
- the government of the estates on behalf of Queen Victoria as a crown colony . A Secretary of State for India was placed at the head of the administrative administration.
- the takeover of all the company's assets and the entry of the crown into all previously concluded contracts and agreements.
It was then British India to a formal crown colony . In the years that followed, the company's property was nationalized by the Crown. The company still managed the tea trade on behalf of the government, especially to St. Helena .
The company was dissolved on January 1, 1874 by the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act . The Times reported:
- It achieved a work that as such has never been attempted by any other company in the history of mankind and which as such will probably not be repeated in the future.
Governor-Generals from 1773 to 1858
The administration was divided in the Presidency of Bengal (English: Bengal Presidency ), the Bombay Presidency and Madras Presidency . With Warren Hastings in 1773 a governor general of the East Indies was appointed for the first time.
- List of Governors General
|Governor General||Term of office||Events|
|Warren Hastings||October 20, 1773 - February 1, 1785||
Famine in Bengal 1770 (1769–73)
Rohilla War (1773–74)
First Marathas War (1777–83)
Chalisa Famine (1783–84)
Second Mysore War (1780–1784)
|Charles Cornwallis||September 12, 1786 - October 28, 1793||
Cornwallis Code (1793)
Cochin under British control (1791)
Third Mysore War (1789–92)
Doji bara Famine (1791–92)
|John Shore||October 28, 1793 - March 1798||
East India Company Army reorganizes
First Pazhassi Uprising in Malabar (1793–97)
Jaipur (1794) and Travancore (1795) under British influence.
Andamans occupied (1796)
Control of the coastal region of Ceylon taken by the Dutch East India Company (1796)
|Richard Wellesley||May 18, 1798 - July 30, 1805||
Nizam of Hyderabad signs Subsidiary alliance designed by Wellesley (1798)
Fourth Mysore War (1798–99)
Second Pazhassi Uprising in Malabar (1800–1805)
Nawab of Oudh occurs Gorakhpur and Rohilkhand and Allahabad , Fatehpur , Kanpur , Etawah , Mainpuri , Etah and Mirzapur from ( Ceded Provinces , 1801)
|Charles Cornwallis (2nd term)||July 30, 1805 - October 5, 1805||After financial difficulties, Cornwallis should consolidate the company's position.
Cornwallis died in Ghazipur .
|George Hilario Barlow ( locum tenens )||October 10, 1805 - July 31, 1807||Mutiny at Vellore (July 10, 1806)|
|Lord Minto||July 31, 1807 - October 4, 1813||
Invasion of Java.
Occupation of Mauritius
|Marquess of Hastings||October 4, 1813 - January 9, 1823||
Gurkha War (1814)
annexation of Kumaon , Garhwal , and Eastern Sikkim .
Third Marath War (1817–18)
Rajputana recognizes British suzerainty (1817)
Founding of Singapore (1818)
Kutch recognizes British suzerainty (1818)
Baroda recognizes British suzerainty (1819)
Founding of the Central India Agency (1819)
|Lord Amherst||August 1, 1823 - March 13, 1828||
First Anglo-Burmese War (1823–26)
annexation of Assam , Manipur, Arakan and Tenasserim of Burma
|William Bentinck||July 4, 1828 - March 20, 1835||Widow
Burns Prohibited (1829) Thuggee and Dacoity Suppression Acts (1836–48)
Mysore under British control (1831–81)
Bahawalpur recognizes British suzerainty (1833)
Coorg annexed (1834)
|Lord Auckland||March 4, 1836 - February 28, 1842||Formation of the North-Western Provinces (1836)
Introduction of the postal system (1837)
Agra Famine (1837–38) Occupied
First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–1842)
Battle of Gandamak (1842)
|Lord Ellenborough||February 28, 1842 - June 1844||Annexation of Sindh (1843)
Indian Slavery Act (1843)
|Henry Hardinge||July 23, 1844 - January 12, 1848||
First Sikh War (1845–46)
Sikhs cede Jullundur Doab , Hazara and Kashmir in the Treaty of Lahore (1846)
Sale of Kashmir to Gulab Singh of Jammu in the Treaty of Amritsar (1846)
|Marquess of Dalhousie||January 12, 1848 - February 28, 1856||
Second Sikh War (1848–1849)
Annexation of Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province (1849–56)
Establishment of the Indian Railways (1850)
Caste Disabilities Removal Act (1850)
First telegraph line in India (1851)
Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852–53)
Annexation of Lower Burma
Ganges Canal opened (1854)
Annexation of Satara (1848), Jaipur and Sambalpur (1849), Nagpur and Jhansi (1854) according to the Doctrine of Lapse .
Annexation of Berar (1853) and Awadh (1856)
First postage stamps (1854)
First telegraph service (1855)
|Charles Canning||February 28, 1856 - November 1, 1858||
Hindu Widows Remarriage Act (July 25, 1856)
First Indian universities founded (January – September 1857)
Sepoy uprising (May 10, 1857 - June 20, 1858) mainly in the North-Western Frontier Province and Oudh
Dissolution of the English East India Company with the Government of India Act 1858
Army and Civil Administration
Charles II granted the company military power and the right to wage war and to make peace with the "infidels" in India . Charles' successor James II granted her the right to build fortresses and raise troops. At the latest, the victory of Sir Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 made the British East India Company a factor of military power. In 1793 the British East India Company Army was reorganized, it was divided into the Bengal Army founded in 1756 , the Madras Army founded in 1757 and the Bombay Army, which had existed since 1662 . The armies of the British East India Company comprised around 200,000 soldiers around 1800, the majority of whom consisted of local sepoys and often British officers. But there were also regiments with men from the motherland.
When in 1858 the territories of the trading company came under the control of the Crown, its regiments with local men were transferred to the army of the British Government of India, while the regiments with men from the motherland were transferred to the British Army .
Own training of employees
The British East India Company took on its own training for civilian employees in Great Britain at an early stage.
In 1806, the society commissioned the architect William E Wilkins to build a college for the training of their civilian employees for India. On Hertford Heath, near Haileybury Manor, he constructed a large building in the neoclassical style. Here boys between 16 and 18 years of age, who had been selected by their directors for a “writership”, received their general and professional training in two years for the service of the company in India. In India, further training took place at Fort William in Calcutta, among others. to learn the language. Haileybury College was one of the pre-eminent centers for teaching and learning and laid the foundation for many generations who later governed India in a decisive manner. The East India Company boarding school existed for 50 years and closed in 1858 when the British government took over administration of India.
- William Dalrymple : The Anarchy. The Relentless Rise of the East India Company. Bloomsbury Publishing, London et al. 2019.
- AV Williams Jackson (Ed.): History of India. Volume VI: William Wilson Hunter: From the first European settlements to the founding of the English East India Company. Grolier society, London 1906-07.
- Huw Bowen, John McAleer, Robert J. Blyth: Monsoon Traders. The Maritime World of the East India Company . London 2011.
- John Keay: The Honorable Company. History of the English East India Company. HarperCollins, London 1991, ISBN 0-00-638072-7 .
- Margaret Makepeace: The East India Company's London Workers. Management of the Warehouse Laborers, 1800-1858 . Rochester 2010.
- Jürgen G. Nagel: The adventure of long-distance trading. The East India Companies. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2007, ISBN 978-3-534-18527-6 .
- Nick Robins: The Corporation that Changed the World. The East India Company and the Imperial Gene. How the East India Company Shaped the Modern Multinational. Pluto Press, London et al. 2006, ISBN 0-7453-2523-8 .
- Philip J. Stern: The Company-State. Corporate Sovereignty and the Early Modern Foundations of the British Empire in India . Oxford 2011.
- Jean Sutton: The East India Company's Maritime Service, 1746-1834. Masters of the Eastern Seas . Rochester 2010.
- Memorials of old Haileybury College. 1894.
- The Birth of Empire: The East India Company . 2-episodic documentary film series, GB 2014, 60 min each.
- British Library : The East India Company and Asia. ( Memento from May 21, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- Haileybury - The East India College
- Karl Marx: The East India Company, its history and the results of its work.
- Act of Union 1707 (accessed: May 12, 2012).
- Percival Spear : A History of India , Vol. 2nd 5th Edition, Penguin, Harmondsworth 1973, p. 89.
- Charles Fawcett: The STRIPED FLAG of the EAST INDIA COMPANY, and its Connexion with the AMERICAN "STARS and STRIPES". (English)
- Giles Milton: Nutmeg and Muskets. Europe's race to the East Indies . Zsolnay, Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-552-05151-1 , p. 313.
- Percival Spear : A History of India , Vol. 2nd 5th Edition. Penguin, Harmondsworth 1973, p. 89.
- British East India Company captures Aden .
- Official, India . 1890-1923. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- History of Haileybury College
- Michael Mann: Modern History. East India Company. Collective review. In: H-Soz-u-Kult. August 3, 2012, accessed August 3, 2012.