Hrabanus Maurus (also: Rabanus or Rhabanus ; * around 780 in Mainz ; † February 4, 856 in Winkel im Rheingau) was a monk and abbot of the Fulda monastery , priest and Archbishop of Mainz, polymath , teacher and author . As a scholar, abbot and archbishop he was one of the most important figures in the period of upheaval of the 9th century, known as the Carolingian Renaissance , and was closely related to Emperor Lothar I and his wife Irmingard von Tours .
Hrabanus was born around 780, after Eckhard Freise only "around 783", as the son of noble parents in Mainz . As a child , aged no more than eight, he was handed over by his parents as puer oblatus to the custody of the Fulda monastery and from 788 he attended the school of the then flourishing, but not yet at the peak of his later won under his own direction for religious and scientific education Fame of the Benedictine monastery in Fulda .
After completing his training, he was able to shine as a scholar at the court of Charlemagne . Here he was promoted by Alkuin , the head of the imperial court school in Aachen . Alcuin called him "Maurus", as the founder of the order Benedict called his favorite pupil. When Alkuin went to the canons of Saint-Martin de Tours , Hrabanus followed him to study the Bible, liturgy and law.
In 801 he received the ordination of the diaconate and before Alcuin's death in 804 he was a teacher at the monastery school of his home monastery in Fulda, later (probably 818) he became its director. In 814 he was ordained a priest .
Among his students were important authors of the third generation of Carolingians: Rudolf von Fulda , Lupus von Ferrières , Ermenrich von Ellwangen , Gottschalk von Orbais , Walahfrid Strabo , Hartmut von St. Gallen and Otfried von Weißenburg .
During his time as head of the monastery school (until 822), Hrabanus wrote writings of great thematic variety. They are divided into biblical commentaries , letters, poems, hymns , sermons , textbooks, dogmatic (including liturgical theory ), canonical and hagiographic writings as well as writings on political issues of the epoch. The most famous work is the figure poem cycle De laudibus sanctae crucis (“On the Praise of the Holy Cross”, completed in 814), an opus geminum . It is still preserved today in copies that were probably made directly under the supervision of Hrabanus; the most important copy with the author's own entries is kept in the Vatican Library (Città del Vaticano, Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana, Vat. lat. 124). His three-volume work De institutione clericorum (“On the training of clergy”) , published in 819, testifies to his activity as head of the school . This work is later followed by De sacris ordinibus and De ecclesiastica disciplina .
The largest part of the work is made up of Bible Commentaries, which span almost the entire Old and New Testament . In a narrower sense theological writings are De videndo deo, de puritate cordis et de modo poenitentiae , De praedestinatione , De anima and De passione Domini . The liturgical theory includes De benedictionibus Dei , De divinis officiis , De Eucharistia, De corpore et sanguine Domini , the Opusculum de sacramentis , the Commentarius in Cantica laudum in matutinis and De coena . His martyrology falls into the area of hagiography . Canonical issues are addressed in De oblatione puerorum in quota generatione conubium licitum sit in the Responsa canonica super quibusdam interrogationibus Reginbaldi episcopi , in De consanguineorum nuptiis et de Magorum praestigiis falsisque divinationibus , in two works entitled Paenitentiale (to Archbishop Otgar of Mainz and to Bishop Heribald of Auxerre ). The dispute with Gottschalk von Orbais , who pushed for his release from the monastery, but ultimately failed due to bitter resistance from Hraban, about the oblation (offering) of children to monasteries by their parents and the question of the binding effect of such a decision is led in De oblatione puerorum , in the above-mentioned De praedestinatione as well as in letter 42 to Merkgraf Eberhard von Friuli . In the historical conflicts between Emperor Ludwig the Pious and his sons, a De reverentia filiorum erga patres et subditorum erga reges and De virtutibus et vitiis intervene in favor of the emperor .
In addition to De laudibus sanctae crucis , Hrabanus Maurus wrote numerous other metrical and accenthythmic poems, some of them with rare meter measures , including numerous altartituli and epitaphs , including one for the grave of St. Boniface , whose stele with a relief of the saint, a cross on the back and the inscription sancta crux nos salva (Holy Cross, save us) has been preserved in Mainz (so-called priest stone).
Letters have also survived in large numbers.
In addition to De Laudibus sanctae crucis , Hraban's most successful work was his encyclopedia De rerum naturis in 22 books, which, based on the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville , include humans (with their anatomy and diseases), the stars and the plant kingdom represents a cosmic connection. Its extensive handwritten tradition extends from the 9th to the 15th century and includes several illustrated copies, the oldest being the famous 11th century copy from Monte Cassino (Montecassino, Biblioteca dell'Abbazia, cod. 132, approx. 1022 / 23). Shortly before 1467, Adolf Rusch's first incunabulum appeared in Strasbourg. The work served primarily as an aid to Bible exegesis. Whether the illustrations go back to Hrabanus is controversial, but not unlikely. According to a communication from the Diocese of Mainz, the Mainz scientist Franz Stephen Pelgen discovered another manuscript fragment from the 9th century from this work in the Martinus Library in Mainz at the end of June 2011.
Writings on the calculation of time and grammar also come from the school.
That Hrabanus also to the history of the Fulda Sacramentary was involved, as a compiler of Gregorio - Gelasianums , specifies among other evidence, especially the frontispiece of the Fulda Sacramentary near the university library and the Lower Saxony State Library Göttingen.
Although no vernacular texts have survived from Hrabanus, he is considered to be a promoter of the efforts to make the vernacular language in writing for the purposes of schools and pastoral care in Fulda, which was evident at the time.
Abbot of the Fulda Monastery
On June 15, 822 he became abbot of the Fulda monastery for twenty years , which at that time, including the secondary monasteries, housed a total of over 600 monks. He enlarged the monastery library and made the monastery school one of the most renowned in the Franconian Empire . He increased the church and reliquary treasures significantly. He had the scattered property of the monastery recorded in a large-scale collection of documents, an eight-volume so-called chartular , and organized the management of goods through a hierarchical system of fron yards and upper fron yards. He also took care of the pastoral care of the farmers and had around 30 churches and chapels built, including the Church of the Holy Sepulcher of Lioba St. Peter on Petersberg near Fulda in 836 . Under his leadership, Fulda developed into a leading ecclesiastical center, to which the close relationships with the imperial family maintained by Hrabanus contributed. He repeatedly took on tasks in the imperial service, which forced him to be absent from his monastery for a long time, especially in the later years of his abbate. As a staunch advocate of the idea of imperial unity, he was a follower of Emperor Ludwig the Pious , after his death then of Emperor Lothar I , but not of Ludwig the German , to whose rule Fulda belonged. When he was drawn into the disputes between Ludwig the Pious and his sons, he resigned from his office as abbot in 842 and retired as a scholar to the provostry of St. Peter on the Petersberg.
Archbishop of Mainz
Despite the differences of opinion, Ludwig elevated him to Archbishop of Mainz in 847, at the age of 67, after a discussion in Rasdorf , a branch of the Fulda Monastery . On June 16 of the same year, Hrabanus took up his post as shepherd of the largest church province in the East Franconian empire. Shortly after taking office, he convened a first synod at which bishops, choir bishops (a predecessor of today's auxiliary bishop ) and abbots in the Mainz Abbey of St. Alban discussed the strengthening of faith and discipline. The preachers were encouraged to preach understandable sermons to the common people.
Around 850 the archbishop in Zell in the Zellertal had the remains of the hermit Philipp von Zell raised, buried in the newly built Salvator Church and wrote the (traditional) altar inscriptions himself, with which St. Philip was officially recognized as a saint.
Death and aftermath
According to tradition, Hrabanus Maurus died on February 4, 856 in Winkel in the Rheingau and was buried in St. Alban's Abbey near Mainz . He was soon venerated as a saint. In 1515 his remains were transferred by the Archbishop of Mainz, Albrecht von Brandenburg, to Halle (Saale) , from where they later came to Aschaffenburg . His present grave is not known.
When the so-called Carolingian renaissance got stuck in the beginning due to the division of the empire of Charlemagne and the emerging Eastern Franconia sought its spiritual foundations, Hrabanus Maurus worked as a collector and mediator of the entire philosophical, theological and scientific knowledge of his time.
The abundance of his writings on all areas of knowledge and the large number of his important students earned him the honorary title of "First Teacher of Germania" ( primus praeceptor Germaniae ) in the early 19th century , the justification of which, however, is being questioned by recent historical research. In any case, it is certain that he was the first scholar from the German-speaking area to comment on almost the entire Bible and to present the entire knowledge of his epoch in his writings, and that among his numerous, even literarily productive students, there were important representatives of the Carolingian Renaissance and Gottschalk and Walahfrid Strabo found the two most important poets of the 9th century. Its effect reached far beyond the German-speaking area.
The Pentecostal hymn Veni creator spiritus (Come Creator Spirit), which is still sung today, is, if not written by him (as previously assumed), passed down by him and remains associated with his name. Gustav Mahler placed a resounding monument to the text in the first movement of his mighty 8th symphony .
Hraban's main merit was, on the one hand, the mediation between the Christian ancient tradition and the early medieval way of thinking, in that he rearranged outstanding writings from the ancient world according to the knowledge of the early Middle Ages and published them encyclopedically. On the other hand, he was a completely independent theologian who took an independent position in the controversy of images, in that he also recognized images, in particular the image of the incarnate Son of God, as a means of revelation and interpreted the history of salvation as a history of revelation. He gave essential impulses to the theology of the cross by emphasizing the universality of the cross, which he regarded as the sign of salvation and the basic structure of the entire cosmos, which from the beginning was based on the work of redemption of the cross and thus seemed to be interpreted as a sign of salvation itself. He is a typical representative of the Carolingian Renaissance.
- Catholic: February 4th ( Remembrance day not required in the regional calendar for the German-speaking area )
- Evangelical: February 4th (day of remembrance in the Evangelical name calendar )
Churches consecrated to Hrabanus Maurus
- St. Rabanus Maurus in Mainz , a Roman Catholic church consecrated to Archbishop Hrabanus Maurus of Mainz in the Mainz district of Hartenberg
- Rabanus-Maurus-Kirche in Petersberg , a Roman Catholic church in Petersberg , also consecrated to Archbishop Hrabanus Maurus in 1957 , where the provostry of St. Peter served the Fulda abbot as a retreat after his resignation due to the conflict with Ludwig the German in 842
Schools named after Hrabanus Maurus
- Rabanus-Maurus-Gymnasium , state, ancient language, humanistic high school in Mainz-Neustadt
- Rabanus-Maurus-Schule , Domgymnasium Fulda, old-language-modern language high school with humanistic tradition of the city of Fulda
- Rabanus-Maurus-Schule, former elementary school in Winkel (Rheingau) , closed in 2015
- Rhabanus-Maurus-Gymnasium St. Ottilien , ecclesiastical, humanistic high school with a modern language branch in Upper Bavaria
- Hrabanus School Rasdorf, elementary school (formerly also secondary school) in Rasdorf , Fulda district
- Raymund Kottje (with the collaboration of Thomas A. Ziegler): Directory of the manuscripts with the works of Hrabanus Maurus. Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hanover 2012 ( MGH Aids, Volume 27), ISBN 978-3-7752-1134-5 .
- Complete works
- Hrabani Mauri opera omnia . In: Migne , Patrologia Latina , volumes 107–112, Paris 1852. (based on Colvener et al.)
- Georges Colvener, Jacob Pamelius, Antoine de Hénin. Magnentii Hrabani Mauri ... opera, quae reperiri potuerunt, omnia. In sex tomos distincta. Hierat, Cologne 1626–1627.
- Ernst Dümmler (Ed.): Hrabani (Mauri) abbatis Fuldenis et archiepiscopi Moguntiacensis epistolae . In: Epistolae Karolini Aevi , Vol. 3, Weidmann, Berlin 1898 (MGH Epistolae, Vol. 5), pp. 379-516. ( Digitized version )
- Jakob Wimpheling (Ed.): Magnencij Rabani Mauri De laudibus sancte crucis opus. erudicione versu prosaque mirificum. Thomas Anshelm, Pforzheim 1503. ( digitized version )
- Christoph Brouwer : Hrabani Mavri EX Magistro Et Fvldensi Abbate Archiepiscopi Mogvntini. Poemata De Diversis Nunc primum vulgata et scholiis illustrata. In: Venantii Honorii Clementiani Fortvnati Presbyteri Italici Episcopi Picataviensis Carminvm, Epistolarvm, Expositionvm Libri XI. Poematis Et Libris Singularibus Avcti Novaque Rvrsvm Editione Illustrati. Accessere Hrabani Mavri Fvldensis, Archiepiscopi Magontini Poemata Sacra Nunquam Edita. Omnia Recens Illustrata Notis Variis. Bernardus Gvaltherius, Cologne 1617. Digital copy from the Digital Library in Munich Digital copy from the Digital Library in Munich .
- Ernst Dümmler (Ed.): Hrabani Mauri carmina . In: Poetae Latini aevi Carolini , Volume 2, Weidmann, Berlin 1884 (MGH Poetae Latini medii aevi, Volume 2), pp. 154-258. ( Digitized version ) ( also contains uncertain hymns in the attribution to Hrabanus )
- Kurt Holter (Ed.): Hrabanus Maurus, Liber de laudibus sanctae crucis. Complete facsimile edition in the original format of Codex Vindobonensis 652. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 1973 (Codices selecti, Vol. 33).
- Michel Perrin (Ed.): Rabani Mauri in honorem sanctae crucis . Brepols, Turnhout 1997 ( Corpus Christianorum , Continuatio Mediaevalis, Vol. 100-100 A), ISBN 2-503-04001-2 and ISBN 2-503-04002-0 . (also as an online resource)
- Gereon Becht-Jördens (Ed.): The editors of the altartituli of Hrabanus Maurus . In: Sturmi or Bonifatius. A conflict in the age of the Anian reform about identity and monastic self-image as reflected in the altar rituals of Hrabanus Maurus for the Salvator Basilica in Fulda. With appendices to the tradition and critical edition of the tituli as well as to text sources on the architecture and building history of the Salvator Basilica . In: Marc-Aeilko Aris , Susanna Bullido del Barrio (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus in Fulda. With a Hrabanus Maurus bibliography (1979–2009). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 2010 ( Fuldaer Studien , Volume 13), ISBN 978-3-7820-0919-5 , pp. 123–187, here pp. 160–168.
- Individual works
- De rerum naturis, de sermonum proprietate, sive Opus de universo. Adolf Rusch. Strasbourg 1467.
- Georg Simler: Rabanus De institutiõe; clericorum.ad Heistulphũ Archiepiscopũ.libri tres. Anshelm, Thomas, Pforzheim 1505. ( digitized version )
- Rabani Mauri Commentaria antehac nunquam typis excusa, in Numeros Libri III, Deuteronomium Libri III. Johannes Prael, Cologne 1532.
- Rabani Mauri Moguntinensis archiepiscopi commentaria in Hieremiam prophetam. Henric Petri, Basel 1534.
- Ernst Dümmler (Ed): De procinctu romanae militiae . In: Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum , Vol. 15, 1872, pp. 443–451. ( Digitized version )
- John McCulloh (Ed.): Rabani Mauri martyrologium. ; Wesley M. Stevens (Ed.): Rabani Moguntiacensis episcopi De Computo . Brepols, Turnhout 1979 (= Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio medievalis. Volume 44). ISBN 978-2-503-03441-6 (also as an online resource)
- John McCulloh (Ed.): De computo . Brepols, Turnhout 1979 (= Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio mediaevalis. Volume 44) ISBN 978-2-503-03441-6 (also as an online resource)
- Detlev Zimpel: De institutione clericorum libri tres. Studies and Edition. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1996 (Freiburg contributions to medieval history, vol. 7), ISBN 3-631-30736-5 .
- Bengt Löfstedt (Ed.): Rabani Mauri Expositio in Matthaeum. Brepols, Turnhout 2000 (= Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio mediaevalis. Volumes 174 and 174 A). ISBN 2-503-04741-6 . (also as an online resource)
- Detlev Zimpel (Ed.): Hrabanus Maurus, De institutione clericorum = About the instruction of the clergy. Latin / German, 2 volumes. Brepols, Turnhout 2006 ( Fontes Christiani , Vol. 61.1 and 61.2), ISBN 978-2-503-52149-7 and ISBN 978-2-503-52151-0 .
- Electronic texts
- De laudibus sanctae crucis (lat.): Digital copies of the edition by Jakob Wimpheling , Pforzheim 1503, in the virtual library of the University of Tours and the University of Vienna ( eBooks on Demand )
- De rerum naturis : (lat.) A transcription of the Karlsruhe manuscript Augiensis 96 and 98 by William Schipper with many errors
- Hrabanus Maurus in the Bibliotheca Augustana (lat.): De rerum naturis (after W. Schipper), De laudibus sanctae crucis (excerpts from Cod. Vat. Reg. Lat. 124), Veni creator spiritus
- In Ecclesiasticum commentarii , facsimile of the edition of Simon de Colines , Paris 1544 ( Bibliothèque nationale de France )
The literature on Hrabanus Maurus is listed by Susanna Bullido del Barrio in: Marc-Aeilko Aris , Susanna Bullido del Barrio (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus in Fulda. With a Hrabanus Maurus bibliography (1979–2009) (= Fuldaer Studien. Volume 13). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-7820-0919-5 , pp. 255-332 (literature from 1979-2009), and Helmut Spelsberg: Hrabanus Maurus. Bibliography (= publications of the Hessische Landesbibliothek Fulda. Volume 4, ). Hessische Landesbibliothek, Fulda 1984 (sources and literature from Dante to 1983).
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz : HRABANUS Maurus. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 2, Bautz, Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-032-8 , Sp. 1090-1093.
- Gereon Becht-Jördens: Litterae illuminatae. On the history of a literary form type in Fulda. In: Gangolf Schrimpf (ed.): Fulda Abbey in the world of the Carolingians and Ottonians (= Fulda studies. Volume 7). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-7820-0707-7 , pp. 325–364.
- Gereon Becht-Jördens: Sturmi or Bonifatius. A conflict in the age of the Anian reform about identity and monastic self-image as reflected in the altar rituals of Hrabanus Maurus for the Salvator Basilica in Fulda. With appendices to the tradition and critical edition of the tituli as well as to text sources on the architecture and building history of the Salvator Basilica. In: Marc-Aeilko Aris, Susanna Bullido del Barrio (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus in Fulda. With a Hrabanus Maurus bibliography (1979–2009) (= Fuldaer Studien. Volume 13). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-7820-0919-5 , pp. 123-187.
- Gereon Becht-Jördens, Wolfgang Haubrichs : Fulda. In: Martin Schubert (Ed.): Writing places of the German Middle Ages. Scriptoria - Works - Patrons. De Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2013, ISBN 978-3-11-021792-6 , pp. 175-215.
- Winfried Böhne (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus and his school. Festschrift of the Rabanus-Maurus-Schule 1980. Rabanus-Maurus-Schule, Fulda 1980.
- Franz Brunhölzl: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 9, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1972, ISBN 3-428-00190-7 , pp. 674-676 ( version ). In:
- Philippe Depreux et al. (Ed.): Hraban Maur et son temps (= Collection Haut Moyen Âge 9). Brepols, Turnhout 2010, ISBN 978-2-503-53379-7 .
- Brigitte English: The Artes Liberales in the Early Middle Ages. (5th - 9th century). The quadrivium and the computus as indicators of continuity and renewal of the exact sciences between antiquity and the Middle Ages (= Sudhoff's archive. Supplements 33). Steiner, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-515-06431-1 (also: Bochum, Univ., Diss., 1991/92).
- Franz Josef Felten , Barbara Non-White (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus. Scholar, Abbot of Fulda and Archbishop of Mainz (= New Yearbook for the Diocese of Mainz. 2006). Diocese of Mainz, Mainz 2006, ISBN 3-934450-26-1 .
- Michele Camillo Ferrari : Il "liber sanctae crucis" di Rabano Mauro. Testo - immagine - contesto (= Latin language and literature of the Middle Ages. Vol. 30). Lang, Bern et al. 1999, ISBN 3-906762-17-3 (also: Zurich, Univ., Habil.-Schr., 1998).
- Stephanie Haarländer : Get to know Rabanus Maurus. A reader with an introduction to his life and work. Diocese of Mainz, Mainz 2006, ISBN 3-934450-24-5 .
- Johann Baptist Hablitzel: Hrabanus Maurus. A contribution to the history of medieval exegesis (= Biblical Studies. Volume 11, Issue 3, ). Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau et al. 1906 (At the same time: Munich, Univ., Diss., 1902).
- Paulus Ottmar Hägele: Hrabanus Maurus as a teacher and pastor. According to the testimony of his letters. Self-published, Fulda 1972 (Freiburg im Breisgau, Univ., Phil. Diss. 1969).
- Walter Heinemeyer , Berthold Jäger (Ed.): Fulda in his story. Landscape, Reichsabtei, Stadt (= publications of the Historical Commission for Hesse. Vol. 57). Parzeller et al., Fulda et al. 1995, ISBN 3-7900-0252-6 .
- Elisabeth Heyse: Hrabanus Maurus' encyclopedia “De rerum naturis”. Investigations on the sources and on the method of compilation (= Munich contributions to Medieval Studies and Renaissance Research. Vol. 4, ). Arbeo-Gesellschaft, Munich 1969 (at the same time: Munich, Univ., Diss., 1970).
- Friedhelm Juergensmeier , Regina Elisabeth Schwerdtfeger, Franziskus Büll (eds.): The Benedictine monastery and nunnery in Hesse (= Germania benedictina. 7). Eos-Verlag, St. Ottilien 2004, ISBN 3-8306-7199-7 (with a detailed bibliography on Fulda Abbey and Rabanus Maurus).
- Raymund Kottje , Harald Zimmermann (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus. Teacher, abbot and bishop (= treatises of the humanities and social sciences class. Symposium of the Academy of Sciences and Literature. Individual publication. Vol. 4). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1982, ISBN 3-515-03539-7 .
- Raymund Kottje: Hrabanus Maurus . In: The German literature of the Middle Ages. Author's Lexicon, Vol. 4, 2nd ed. De Gruyter, Berlin New York 1983, Col. 166–196. ISBN 3-11-008838-X
- Raymund Kottje: Hrabanus Maurus . In: Lexikon des Mittelalters, Vol. 5, 1991, Col. 144-147
- Raymund Kottje: Hrabanus Maurus . In: Lexicon for Theology and Church, Vol. 5, 1996, Col. 292f.
- Norbert Kössinger : Hrabanus Maurus. Profile of a European Scholar. Contributions to the Hrabanus-Maurus-Year 2006. Eos-Verlag, St. Ottilien 2008, ISBN 978-3-8306-7319-4 .
- Raymund Kottje : Hrabanus Maurus - Praeceptor Germaniae? . In: German Archive for Research into the Middle Ages . Vol. 31, 1975, pp. 534-545.
- Hans-Georg Müller: Hrabanus Maurus - De laudibus sanctae crucis. Studies on tradition and intellectual history with the facsimile text print from Codex Reg. Lat. 124 of the Vatican Library (= Middle Latin Yearbook. Supplements 11). Henn, Ratingen et al. 1973, ISBN 3-450-12026-3 (also: Münster, Univ., Diss., 1970).
- Hanns-Christoph Picker: Pastor doctus. Clerical image and Carolingian reforms in Hrabanus Maurus (= publications of the Institute for European History Mainz. Department for Religious History. Vol. 186). von Zabern, Mainz 2001, ISBN 3-8053-2735-8 (also: Kiel, Univ., Diss., 2000).
- Albert Richenhagen: Studies on the view of music by Hrabanus Maurus (= Cologne contributions to music research. Vol. 162). Bosse, Regensburg 1989, ISBN 3-7649-2388-1 .
- Maria Rissel: Reception of ancient and patristic science with Hrabanus Maurus. Studies on Carolingian intellectual history (= Latin language and literature of the Middle Ages. Vol. 7). Lang et al., Bern et al. 1976, ISBN 3-261-01752-X .
- Wilhelm Weber (Ed.): Rabanus Maurus in his time. von Zabern, Mainz 1980, ISBN 3-8053-0478-1 .
- Winfried Wilhelmy: Rabanus Maurus. In the footsteps of a Carolingian scholar . Edited by Hans-Jürgen Kotzur . von Zabern, Mainz 2006, ISBN 3-8053-3613-6 .
- "O preclarum et omni veneratione dignum opus. . . “For the printing of Hraban's 'Liber de laudibus sanctae crucis' in 1503. In: Architectura poetica. Festschrift for Johannes Rathofer on his 65th birthday. Edited by U. Ernst and B. Sowinski. Cologne, Vienna 1990 (= Cologne German Studies. Vol. 30) pp. 389–400.
Rabanus Maurus as a literary figure:
- Josephine Grau: Praise of the Cross, monastery and court history from the Carolingian era. Bachem 1909.
- Literature by and about Hrabanus Maurus in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Hrabanus Maurus in the German Digital Library
- Hrabanus Maurus in the repertory "Historical Sources of the German Middle Ages"
- Otfried Lieberknecht: "Perfect numbers" in arithmetic, spiritual exegesis and literary number composition of the Middle Ages , (lecture from 1998)
- Hrabanus Maurus: life, family tree, gray house, hymn, pictures
- Genealogically oriented website about the name Rabanus / Rabe (but mostly has nothing to do with Hrabanus Maurus)
- Cf. Eckhard Freise: On the year of Hrabanus Maurus's birth. In: Raymund Kottje , Harald Zimmermann (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus. Teacher, abbot and bishop (treatises of the humanities and social sciences class. Symposium of the Academy of Sciences and Literature. Individual publication 4). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1982, pp. 18-74, especially pp. 48-55 (the quotation on p. 55); Franz Staab : When did Hrabanus Maurus become a monk in Fulda? Observations on the participation of the family in the beginnings of the career . In: ibid. Pp. 75-101.
- Cf. Franz Staab : When did Hrabanus Maurus become a monk in Fulda? Observations on the participation of the family in the beginnings of the career . In: Raymund Kottje, Harald Zimmermann (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus. Teacher, abbot and bishop (treatises of the humanities and social sciences class. Symposium of the Academy of Sciences and Literature. Individual publication 4). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1982 pp. 75-101, here pp. 90f. (to the consecrations); Pp. 95–100 (On the oblation and the year of birth).
- See the chronological catalog raisonné in: Stephanie Haarländer: Rabanus Maurus to get to know. A reader with an introduction to his life and work. Diocese of Mainz, Mainz 2006, pp. 160–171.
- See Stephanie Haarländer: Rabanus Maurus to get to know. A reader with an introduction to his life and work. Diocese of Mainz, Mainz 2006, pp. 161–165
- Hans H. Lauer: Monastery medicine. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte . De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 758-764; here: p. 759 f.
- Cf. Gereon Becht-Jördens: Litterae illuminatae (see literature below) pp. 348–349; 355-362.
- Cf. Gereon Becht-Jördens, Wolfgang Haubrichs : Fulda , in: Martin Schubert (Hrsg.): Writing places of the German Middle Ages. Scriptoria - Works - Patrons. De Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2013, pp. 175–215, here pp. 197–215 .; Wolfgang Haubrichs: Fulda, Hrabanus Maurus and the theodic writing. In: Franz Josef Felten , Barbara Non-White (Ed.): Hrabanus Maurus. Scholar, Abbot of Fulda and Archbishop of Mainz (New Yearbook for the Diocese of Mainz 2006). Diocese of Mainz, Mainz 2006, pp. 93–120; Eckhard Meineke: Fulda and the old high German Tatian. In: Gangolf Schrimpf (ed.): Fulda Abbey in the world of the Carolingians and Ottonians (= Fulda studies. Volume 7). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1996, pp. 403-426, especially p. 419; Wolfgang Haubrichs: Old High German in Fulda and Weißenburg. Hrabanus Maurus and Otfried vn Wißenburg. In: Raymund Kottje , Harald Zimmermann (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus. Teacher, abbot and bishop (= treatises of the humanities and social sciences class. Symposium of the Academy of Sciences and Literature. Individual publication. Vol. 4). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1982, pp. 182-193, here especially pp. 186-193.
- Cf. Ulrich Ernst: Hrabanus Maurus: Praeceptor Germaniae and Poeta theologus. In: Norbert Kössinger (Ed.): Hrbanus Maurus. Profile a European scholar. Contributions to the Hrabanus year 2006. Eos, St. Ottilien 2008, pp. 23–62; Marc-Aeilko Aris: Hrabanus Maurus and the Bibliotheca Fuldensis. In: Franz Josef Felten , Barbara Non-White (Ed.): Hrabanus Maurus. Scholar, Abbot of Fulda and Archbishop of Mainz (New Yearbook for the Diocese of Mainz 2006). Diocese of Mainz, Mainz 2006, pp. 51–69; Klaus Gugel: Which surviving medieval manuscripts can be ascribed to the library of the Fulda Monastery, Vol. 1–2 (= Fulda University Writings. Volume 23). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1995–1996; Gangolf Schrimpf (Hrsg.): Medieval book directories of the Fulda monastery and other contributions to the history of the Fulda monastery library in the Middle Ages (= Fulda studies. Volume 4). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1992; Karl Christ: The library of the Fulda monastery in the 16th century. The manuscript indexes (supplement to the Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen 64). Harrassowitz 1933.
- Cf. Konrad Lübeck: The reliquary acquisitions of the abbot Rabanus Maurus . In: ders .: Fulda studies. Historical treatises 2. (= publications of the Fuldaer Geschichtsverein. Volume 28). Parzeller, Fulda 1950, pp. 113-132.
- Cf. Edmund E. Stengel: Document Book of the Fulda Monastery , Vol. 1, 2. Elwert, Marburg 1956, pp. XVIII – XXXVIII; ders .: About the Carolingian cartulare of the Fulda monastery (Fuldensia II) . In: ders .: Treatises and studies on the history of the Imperial Abbey of Fulda. Parzeller, Fulda 1960, pp. 147-193; ders .: Fragments of the lost cartulars of Hrabanus Maurus. In: ibid. Pp. 194–202.
- Cf. Werner Rösener: The rulership of the Fulda monastery in the Carolingian and Ottonian times. In: Gangolf Schrimpf (Hrsg.): Fulda Abbey in the world of the Carolingians and Ottonians. Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1996, pp. 209-224; Ulrich Weidinger: Investigations into the economic structure of the Fulda monastery in the Carolingian period. Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1991; ders .: Investigations into the rulership of the Fulda monastery in the Carolingian era. In: Werner Rösener (ed.): Structures of manorial rule in the early Middle Ages (publications by the Max Planck Institute for History 92), Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1989, pp. 247–265.
- Cf. Ulrich Hussong: Studies on the history of the imperial abbey of Fulda up to the turn of the millennium, second part . IN Archiv für Diplomatik 32, 1986, pp. 129–304, here s. 171-191.
- cf. the tabular overview at Haarländer (see below: literature) pp. 161–171.
- cf. Raymund Kottje : Hrabanus Maurus - Praeceptor Germaniae? . In: German Archive for Research into the Middle Ages . Vol. 31, 1975, pp. 534-545.
- Cf. Gereon Becht-Jördens, Litterae illuminatae. On the history of a literary form type in Fulda. In: Gangolf Schrimpf (ed.): Fulda Abbey in the world of the Carolingians and Ottonians (= Fulda studies. Volume 7). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1996, pp. 325–364, here pp. 336–342, esp. Note 41f., P. 338; Note 44, p. 340; Michele C. Ferrari: Il Liber sanctae crucis di ®abano Mauro. Testo - immagine - contesto. Peter Lang, Bern et al. 1999, especially pp. 314–337.
- End of a school era in Winkel: children and teachers of the Rabanus Maurus primary school say goodbye. Wiesbadener Tagblatt , July 20, 2015, archived from the original on July 30, 2016 ; accessed on July 30, 2016 .
Archbishop of Mainz
|Charles of Aquitaine|
Abbot of Fulda
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Rabanus Maurus; Rhabanus Maurus; Praeceptor Germaniae|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Archbishop of Mainz and head of the monastery school there; Abbot of Fulda; Author of two Latin-language encyclopedias, numerous Bible commentaries, tracts, textbooks and poems|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 780|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Mainz|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 4, 856|
|Place of death||Winkel in the Rheingau|