Johannes Reuchlin

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Johannes Reuchlin. Woodcut from a single-sheet print from 1516
Signature Johannes Reuchlin.PNG

Johannes Reuchlin (also Johann Reichlin , Graecized Kapnion , Capnio (Räuchlein) ; * 29. January 1455 in Pforzheim , † thirtieth June 1522 in Stuttgart ) was a German philosopher, humanist , jurist and diplomat. He is considered the first significant German Hebraist of the Christian creed. He was a great-uncle of Philipp Melanchthon .



Reuchlin was born on January 29, 1455, "at the 9th hour of the afternoon" in Pforzheim as the son of Georg Reuchlin and his wife Elissa Erinna Eck. The exact date of birth was discovered by the Reuchlin Research Center at the Heidelberg Academy in one of Reuchlin's books, where Reuchlin's nephew Dionysius the Younger documented it together with the exact date of death. Johannes also had a sister, Elisabeth Reuter, who is Philipp Melanchthon's grandmother. The father was presumably the administrator of the Dominican monastery in Pforzheim , and the mother's epitaph was in the cloister until it was destroyed.


After attending the elementary and Latin school of the Dominican monastery in Pforzheim, Reuchlin enrolled at the University of Freiburg in 1470 at the age of 15 to study grammar, philosophy and rhetoric . After he was introduced to the Baden court because of his beautiful choir voice, in 1473 he accompanied the third son of Margrave Friedrich von Baden, Karl, as an educator to study in Paris . Here Reuchlin was also a student of the theologian Johannes Heynlin von Stein.

In 1474 he enrolled at the University of Basel , where in 1477 he earned a master's degree. Reuchlin's first work was the Latin dictionary Vocabularius breviloquus in Basel .

1479 Reuchlin began at the University of Orléans a law degree . In the dedication letter to De rudimentis Hebraicis , Reuchlin reports that he financed his study of Roman law in Orléans by teaching the ancient languages. In the winter semester of 1480/1481 he moved to the University of Poitiers , meanwhile as a Bachelor of Laws , which was frequented mainly by nobles and wealthy citizens who aspired to the administrative service. On June 14, 1481 he received a licentiate diploma in imperial (Roman) law.

On December 9th, 1481 he was enrolled in the register of the University of Tübingen and taught poetics and the institutions of Roman law there in the winter semester .

In the service of Eberhard von Württemberg

Reuchlin's coat of arms on the title page of De arte cabalistica , Haguenau 1530.

From February to April 1482 Reuchlin accompanied Count Eberhard im Bart from Württemberg as the second orator on his trip to Rome , during which he negotiated with Pope Sixtus IV above all about the personal and financial separation of the University of Tübingen, founded in 1477, from the Tübingen Sankt-Georg-Stift has been. He received decisive impulses on this and other trips to Italy in 1495 and 1498 through numerous meetings in Rome and Florence, among them with the humanists Angelo Poliziano , Marsilio Ficino , Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Aldus Manutius .

From the spring of 1483 Reuchlin was one of the count's paid councilors and became a citizen of Stuttgart . Due to his marriage to a wealthy daughter of Hänslin Müller, who lived in Ditzingen near Leonberg, around 1484 , he was given rich property . This gave him the financial means to pay the high doctoral fees for a doctorate in imperial law ( legum doctor ) at the University of Tübingen in the winter semester of 1484/1485 . The Count not only sent Reuchlin on diplomatic missions, but also called him several times as an assessor at the Württemberg court since 1483. At the Reichstag in Frankfurt in 1486 he met the Aristotle interpreter Hermolao Barbaro .

During a stay in Linz , Emperor Friedrich III. Reuchlin in the hereditary aristocracy and awarded him the honorary post of a Hofpfalzgrafen . In Linz Reuchlin also met the imperial personal physician and scientifically educated Jew Jacob ben Jechiel Loans , who taught him the Hebrew language. Reuchlin may have set a literary memorial for his teacher in his work on the art of Kabbalism , De arte cabalistica : Two students of the learned Jew Simon, a Spanish Muslim and a Greek Pythagorean, regret that he has to end their first meeting because of the Sabbath . After he leaves, they extol his wisdom and the Muslim finally exclaims:

“Good gods, a Jew, born, nourished, educated and instructed by Jews, a people whom the peoples everywhere regard as barbaric, superstitious, mean, rejected and averse to the splendor of all good sciences! Believe me, how willingly, how gladly I would have looked this man in the face all long night and listened to his words, hadn't this unfortunate Sabbath intervened in the evening! "

- De arte cabalistica, 1517, 22b

This is an example of Reuchlin's unusual understanding of other religions in a time marked by anti - Judaism .

Escape to Heidelberg

After Eberhard's death in February 1496, Reuchlin left Württemberg because he had to fear the revenge of Konrad Holzinger, a close adviser to the subsequent Duke Eberhard II, whom he had arrested in November 1488 by Berthold von Henneberg , the Archbishop of Mainz. Reuchlin left his wife († around 1500) to manage his country estate near Ditzingen. The marriage remained childless.

Manuscript sample from November 21, 1514. Berlin, State Library, Ms. lat. Fol. 239

In Heidelberg he was accepted by the Chancellor of Elector Philipp , the Worms Bishop Johann von Dalberg , and at the Palatinate court. Here he joined a group of scholars around Jakob Wimpfeling , Heinrich von Bunau , Dietrich von Plieningen , Conrad Leontorius , Adam Werner von Themar , Jakob Dracontius and Johann Vigilius . This is where the comedy Sergius sive Capitis caput was made , a satirical mockery of the cult of relics and an attack on those who had driven him into exile. His second comedy Henno was also made during this time and was premiered in Dalberg's house in 1497.

On another trip to Italy on behalf of Philip in 1498, he acquired Hebrew and Greek works, contacted the printer and publisher Aldus Manutius in Venice and again visited the humanist Marsilio Ficino in Florence.

Judge of the Swabian Federation

After Duke Eberhard II was ousted in 1498, Reuchlin returned to Württemberg with the support of his mentor Johannes Vergenhans . In Stuttgart, the now widowed Reuchlin married Anna Decker, who came from a wealthy family. This marriage resulted in a child who died at a young age.

In January 1502 Reuchlin was elected as Vergenshans' successor to one of the three judges of the Swabian Federation . Later, looking back on his tenure in office, Reuchlin wrote: “Civil lawsuits piled up over me. I was constantly at the court and also took part in the deliberations of the most powerful German princes. When I was then elected to the highest dignity of the Swabian triple college, which I held for eleven years without interruption, I had several times averted the threat of wars against the fatherland through fair judging, and not even during this time neglected my foreign studies. "

The learned guest dinners with philosophical-political discussions, which, according to a report by Michael Köchlin alias Coccinius, followed the sessions of the Federal Supreme Court, which regularly met in Tübingen from 1502 to 1513, were an expression of a humanistic culture of discussion. With the help of Reuchlin from Pforzheim to Tübingen in 1510, Georg Simler and the printer Thomas Anshelm again made the University of Tübingen one of the centers of humanism in the south-west of Germany.

When Duke Ulrich von Württemberg left the Swabian Confederation in 1512 and the Federal Court was to be relocated to Augsburg, all three federal judges resigned from their offices in January 1513 because of their close ties with the Württemberg court.

Private scholar and professor

De accentibus et orthographia linguae Hebraicae 1518: Notation of individual teams (tropes or cantillations), the printer's coat of arms on the right

Reuchlin spent the last years of his life as a private scholar and counselor, overshadowed by the conflict with the Dominicans (see section below). Reuchlin stayed out of the dynastic disputes in Württemberg after the murder of Hans von Hutten in 1515 by Duke Ulrich and the flight of his wife Sabina from Bavaria so as not to jeopardize Ulrich's support in the trial with the Dominicans before the Apostolic See .

The conquest of Württemberg in 1519 by the Swabian Federation caused Reuchlin to flee again after the death of his second wife because he feared robbery. In November, Reuchlin found accommodation in Ingolstadt and in February 1520, at the instigation of the Bavarian Duke Wilhelm IV, was given a highly paid professorship in Hebrew at the University of Ingolstadt . At Reuchlin's request, Johannes Gussubelius († 1529) gave a detailed eulogy for him before his first lecture.

In the spring of 1521, however, Reuchlin left Ingolstadt again, presumably because of the plague, and returned to Tübingen to great applause, where he took on a professorship for Hebrew and now also for Greek. He rejected Luther's church reform and was ordained a priest shortly before his death. His rejection of Luther's position can be seen in the fact that he broke off correspondence with his foster son Philipp Melanchthon , Luther's confidante, and bequeathed his library, which Melanchton was in great demand, to St. Michaelsstift in Pforzheim. On the morning of June 30, 1522 he succumbed to yellow fever in Stuttgart and was buried next to his second wife in Stuttgart's Leonhardskirche .

Epitaph by Johannes Reuchlin, 1501, in the Leonhardskirche since 1955.


In 1501, while he was still alive, Reuchlin had a stone made that was presumably intended to be used as an epitaph . It bears the words Olam Ha Chajim (German: Eternal Life ) as inscriptions on the upper left in Hebrew script and the word Anastasis (German resurrection ) in Greek script on the upper right . In the middle is the Latin sentence: ANN (O) CHR (ISTI) MDI SIBI ET POSTERITATI CAPNIONIAE IOANNES REUCHLIN PHORCENSIS S (ACRUM). In the year of Christ 1501 Johannes Reuchlin from Pforzheim consecrated (this stone) for himself and for the Reuchlin descendants .

If it is not an epitaph, Reuchlin could have attached this stone like a Roman house stone to his house (today Stiftstrasse 10) directly opposite the choir of the collegiate church in Stuttgart as a house inscription.

Reuchlin as a humanistic writer

Erasmus von Rotterdam and Johannes Reuchlin are considered the two most important European humanists . Influenced by his older Dutch fellow student Rudolf Agricola , Reuchlin developed into the German representative of Renaissance Platonism . He discovered the mystical and theological attitude in the Chaldean oracles and the Kabbalah ( De verbo mirifico 1494 and De arte cabalistica 1517) and related them to Zoroaster and Pythagoras , introducing Pythagoras as the theological-philosophical mediator between Jewish wisdom and Greek science .

He compared his own importance with Marsilio Ficinos , who brought Plato to Italy, and Lefèvre d'Étaples , who restored Aristotle in France. So he wanted to bring Pythagoras back to life for the Germans.

Nikolaus von Kues had a considerable influence on Reuchlin, he used his vocabulary and took up the concept of the symbolic . Manuscripts by Nikolaus von Kues were in his possession. In De arte cabbalistica , dedicated to Pope Leo X , he uses Cusan vocabulary to defend his Pythagoreanism .

Reuchlin's book Augenspiegel , in which he advocated not burning Jewish books , was examined by theologians from Cologne and Erfurt universities and recommended by them for censorship. The Erfurt theologian Hermann Serges decided to censor the work, but expressed full appreciation for Reuchlin's erudition and literary merits.

As a neo-Latin poet , Reuchlin took the step from dialogue to drama and thus became the founder of the more recent German drama and school drama. In Heidelberg in 1496/1497 he wrote his dramatized satire Sergius and the comedy Scaenica Progymnasmata (Henno) , which was later edited as a carnival game by Hans Sachs . Reuchlin thematically takes up the Italian Commedia dell'arte .

His translations, text editions and personal suggestions promoted knowledge of the ancient Greek language . Through his knowledge of the ancient Hebrew language, he gave Old Testament science access to the text in the original language. His work De rudimentis hebraicis established itself as a standard textbook.

During his stay at Bad Liebenzell in June 1518, he received his student Cellarius and wrote to Mutianus Rufus : You will hear and see some of the wonders of our era. He alludes to the humanistic discourse of his friends.

The conflict with the Dominicans

Johannes Pfefferkorn , a Jew who converted to Christianity in 1504, first published several diatribes against Jews in 1505 with the support of the Cologne Dominicans, such as the Jewish mirror in 1507 . In 1509 he obtained a mandate from Emperor Maximilian to confiscate all Jewish writings that he wanted to burn. He also requested that all Jewish books be banned. In 1509 he met Reuchlin because Pfefferkorn wanted to win him over to his project. Reuchlin did not respond. In particular, the Archbishop of Mainz, Uriel von Gemmingen, wanted to put a stop to Pfefferkorn's activities. In the course of the conflict, he was urged by the emperor to obtain expert opinions on the question of Jewish books from universities and scholars. The universities of Mainz, Cologne, Erfurt and Heidelberg as well as the scholars Reuchlin, Victor von Carben , a Cologne priest, and the inquisitor of the Cologne Dominicans Jakob van Hoogstraten were commissioned in 1510 to assess the influence of Jewish books on the Christian faith. Only Reuchlin advocated the protection of Jewish writings in his report. This resulted in a polemic war of several years, in which Reuchlin defended his rejection of the ban in his writing Augenspiegel (1511). In it he admonished the Christian world: “Do not burn what you do not know!” The dispute culminated in the anonymously published “ Darkman's Letters”, fictitious letters in which opponents of humanism were parodied and ridiculed.

Public opinion in Germany followed the view of Reuchlin, who had to face a heresy trial in Rome in 1513 . But even the Fifth Lateran Council (1512–1517) could not find any anti-Christian passages in the Talmud . When Jakob van Hoogstraten had Reuchlin's writings burned, he appealed to Pope Leo X , who in 1514 commissioned the bishops of Worms and Speyer to decide in the so-called "Reuchlin dispute". The Bishop of Worms did not care at all about the matter, the Speyer bishop Georg von der Pfalz delegated the case to the canon Georg von Schwalbach , who ultimately to the cathedral dean Thomas Truchseß von Wetzhausen , a student of Reuchlin. The latter came to the conclusion that the ophthalmoscope did not contain any heresies. However, the verdict was only an interim result. In 1520, the Pope finally banned Reuchlin's writings through a power ruling.


As an author
  • Vocabularius breviloquus, Basel 1478 ( digital )
  • Oratio ad Alexandrum VI. pontificem maximum per Philippo Bavariae duce, Venice 1498 ( digital )
  • Henno. Comoedia festiva, Basel 1498 ( digital )
  • De arte predicandi, Pforzheim 1504 ( digital )
  • Tütsch missive, why the Jews have been so long, Pforzheim 1505 ( digital )
  • De Rudimentis Hebraicis, Pforzheim 1506 ( digital )
  • Sergius vel Capitis caput, Pforzheim 1507 ( digital )
  • Ophthalmoscope, Tübingen 1511 ( digital )
  • In septem psalmos poenitentiales hebraicos interpretatio, Tübingen 1512 ( digital )
  • Defensio contra calumniatores suos Colonienses, Tübingen 1513 ( digital )
  • Liber de verbo mirifico, Tübingen 1514 ( digital )
  • De arte cabalistica libri tres, Haguenau 1517 ( digital )
  • De accentibus et orthographia linguae Hebraicae, Haguenau 1518 ( digital )
  • Epistolae trium illustrium virorum ad Hermannum Comitem Nuenarium (with Hermann von dem Busche and Ulrich von Hutten ), [Hagenau] [1518] ( digital )
As editor and translator
From the estate
  • Lexicon Hebraicum, Basileae 1537
  • Correspondence, Stuttgart 1875



The Reuchlindenkmal by the sculptor Matthias Dämpfle in the city garden of Pforzheim
Relief at Friedrichsbad in Baden-Baden

The reformer Philipp Melanchthon already pointed out the great merits of his great-uncle in 1552. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe called Reuchlin a miracle sign. In the Walhalla in Donaustauf there is a bust made by Heinrich Max Imhof in 1835 in his honor.

Since 1955 the city of Pforzheim has awarded the Reuchlin Prize every two years for works in the humanities in the German language . The Reuchlinhaus , the Reuchlin Freemason Lodge and the Reuchlin Gymnasium also remind of him there. There is also a Reuchlin grammar school in Ingolstadt, where he was a professor .

The Chilean sound artist Catalina Vicens has reconstructed Hebrew liturgical chants that were printed in a Hebrew textbook by Reuchlin in 1518 and further composed them as a four-part vocal composition in a sound installation called The Reuchlin Project . Reuchlin had already had the unison chants recorded by Johannes Böschenstein (1472–1540) set in four parts by Christoph S [ch] illing from Lucerne.

The Johannes Reuchlin Museum

In 2008 the new Johannes Reuchlin Museum was opened in Pforzheim . According to Hamburg architect Bernhard Hirche, the reconstruction of the Pforzheim Castle Church, which cost 1.2 million euros, is intended to combine history and modernity in a "critical reconstruction". The Reuchlin Library, which was destroyed in the war, was restored as a modern extension. The Gothic building fragments that were left over from the war can still be seen inside. The museum gives an insight into the life and work of Reuchlin on four floors and traces his dispute with the “dark men”.

Voices on Reuchlin

“Reuchlin! Who wants to compare himself with him, a miracle sign in his time. "

- Johann Goethe : in the Tame Xenia (V)

“... they would have liked to suppress the Jewish tradition, too, and they dealt with the destruction of all Hebrew books, and the book prosecution began on the Rhine, against which our excellent Doctor Reuchlin fought so gloriously. The Cologne theologians who were active at the time, especially Hoogstraeten, were by no means as limited in their minds as Reuchlin's brave fellow warrior, the knight Ulrich von Hutten, describes them in his "litteris obscurorum virorum". The Hebrew language was suppressed. When Reuchlin won, Luther could begin his work. "

- Heinrich Heine : On the history of religion and philosophy in Germany - Chapter 1

“When I set out to describe this great life anew for my contemporaries more than three years ago, I was guided by two motives: the fight Reuchlin had to fight was a fight for the freedom of the spirit, for the freedom of expression, the At that time, on the threshold of the Renaissance, a remnant of the Middle Ages opposed the Inquisition. "

- Max Brod on the work on his historical monograph Johannes Reuchlin and his struggle

"In view of the book-burning of the Nazis and the lasting wound of the Holocaust, the dispute over Jewish rights led by Reuchlin is of particularly precious importance for those who survive, as the rare historical alternative to the ideology of anti-Judaism appears in this scholar."

- Sönke Lorenz: Tübingen historian.

“If I believed in transmigration of souls, I would sometimes be able to think that, under the new conditions of research, I would be a kind of reincarnation of Johannes Reuchlin, the first explorer of Judaism, its language and its world, and especially Kabbalah, the man who came before brought the science of Judaism into being in Europe for almost five hundred years. "

- Gershom Scholem : on the occasion of his speech on the presentation of the Reuchlin Prize in 1969

Editions and translations

  • Widu-Wolfgang Ehlers , Hans-Gert Roloff , Peter Schäfer (eds.): Johannes Reuchlin: Complete works. 17 volumes. Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 1996 ff., ISBN 978-3-7728-1770-0 (critical edition)
  • Matthias Dall'Asta, Gerald Dörner (ed.): Johannes Reuchlin: Correspondence. 4 volumes. Edited by the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences . Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 1999–2013 (critical edition)
  • Harry C. Schnur (Ed.): Johannes Reuchlin: Henno. Comedy. Reclam, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-15-007923-3 (Latin text and German translation)
  • Martin Goodman, Sarah Goodman (translator): Johann Reuchlin: On the Art of the Kabbalah. De Arte Cabalistica. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln 1983, ISBN 0-8032-8946-4 (Latin text of the Hagenau 1517 edition and English translation)


  • Markus Rafael Ackermann: The lawyer Johannes Reuchlin (1455–1522). Duncker and Humblot Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-428-09793-9 (also dissertation at the University of Heidelberg 1998).
  • Max Brod : Johannes Reuchlin and his struggle. A historical monograph. Fourier, Wiesbaden 1965, ISBN 3-925037-40-3 .
  • Matthias Dall'Asta, Gerald Dörner (Ed.): Johannes Reuchlin's library yesterday and today. Treasures of a Renaissance book collection. Catalog of the exhibition in the Pforzheim City Museum. Reuchlin Research Center of the Heidelberg Academy, Heidelberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-89735-505-7 .
  • Gerald Dörner: Reuchlin, Johannes. In: German Humanism 1480–1520. Author Lexicon. Edited by Franz Josef Worstbrock. Volume 2, Delivery 2 (Mu – Rh). de Gruyter, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-11-026598-9 , Sp. 579-633.
  • Karl Konrad Finke: Johannes Reuchlin (1455 to 1522) as a lawyer and diplomat. In: The professors of the Tübingen Faculty of Law (1477–1535) (= Tübingen professor catalog . Vol. 1,2). Edited by Karl Konrad Finke. Jan Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2011, ISBN 978-3-7995-5452-7 , pp. 263-292.
  • Daniela Hacke, Bernd Roeck (ed.): The world in the eye mirror. Johannes Reuchlin and his time. Thorbecke, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-7995-5978-7 .
  • Arno Herzig , Julius H. Schoeps (Ed.): Reuchlin and the Jews. Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1992, ISBN 978-3-7995-6029-0 (= Pforzheimer Reuchlinschriften , Volume 3).
  • Klaus KienzlerReuchlin, Johannes. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 8, Bautz, Herzberg 1994, ISBN 3-88309-053-0 , Sp. 77-80.
  • Wolfgang Knellessen: Johannes Reuchlin - the humanist. Booklet accompanying the exhibition in the Leonhardskirche; an exhibition by the Evangelical St. Leonhard Church in Stuttgart and the Württemberg State Library in Stuttgart; September 14, 2003 to October 19, 2003, permanent exhibition from April 2004. Stuttgart: Evangelical St. Leonhard Church, 2003.
  • Wolfgang Knellessen: On the epitaph of scholars by Johannes Reuchlin. Notice on Reuchlin's tombstone in the Leonhardskirche, 2003.
  • Sönke Lorenz: Johannes Reuchlin and the University of Tübingen. In: Journal for Württemberg State History . No. 68, 2009, pp. 139-155, ISSN  0044-3786 .
  • David H. Price: Johannes Reuchlin and the Campaign to Destroy Jewish Books. Oxford University Press, New York 2011, ISBN 978-0-19-539421-4 .
  • Jörg Robert u. a. (Ed.): "A father of new times". Reuchlin, the Jews and the Reformation, Tübingen 2017 (Tübingen Catalogs, Volume 104, on the occasion of an exhibition), ISBN 978-3-941818-33-0 .
  • Hans-Gert RoloffReuchlin, Johannes. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 21, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-428-11202-4 , pp. 451-453 ( digitized version ).
  • Hans-Rüdiger Schwab: Johannes Reuchlin. Germany's first humanist. Dtv, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-423-12609-4 .
  • Hans-Peter Willi: Reuchlin in the dispute over the books of the Jews. For the 500th anniversary of the "Augenspiegel" , Tübingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-933736-02-4 .
  • Charles Zika: Reuchlin and the Occult Tradition of the Renaissance. Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1998, ISBN 3-7995-5976-0


  • Peter Schäfer, Irina Wandrey (Ed.): Reuchlin and his heirs. Researchers, thinkers, ideologues and weirdos. Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2005, ISBN 3-7995-5981-7

Web links

Commons : Johannes Reuchlin  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Johannes Reuchlin  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Occasionally January 22, 1455 was also given as the date of birth.
  2. Dall'Asta / Dörner, pp. 94/105
  3. Hans-Peter Willi: Reuchlin in the dispute over the books of the Jews. Tübingen 2011
  5. Ludwig Geiger: Johann Reuchlin, his life and his works
  6. Hans-Peter Willi: Reuchlin in the dispute over the books of the Jews. Tübingen 2011
  7. Peter Wortsman: Don't burn what you don't know! At the beginning of all civilization there is multicultural diversity: 500 years ago the humanist and lawyer Johannes Reuchlin published his famous appeal for religious tolerance. Die Zeit, Hamburg January 5th, 2011
  8. Evangelische Leonhardsgemeinde Stuttgart ( Memento from February 24, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
  9. ^ A b Hans-Gert Roloff:  Reuchlin, Johannes. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 21, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-428-11202-4 , pp. 451-453 ( digitized version ).
  10. Evangelische Leonhardsgemeinde Stuttgart ( Memento from February 24, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
  11. Hans-Peter Willi: Reuchlin in the dispute over the books of the Jews. Tübingen 2011
  12. ^ Reuchlin, De accentibus et orthographia linguae hebraicae libri tres, Hagenau 1518, dedication to Cardinal Adriano de Castello, fol. 3a.
  13. Ludwig Geiger: Johann Reuchlin, his life and his works, 468
  14. Johannes Reuchlin. Landesmuseum Württemberg , accessed on October 22, 2018 .
  15. Johannes Reuchlin. Evangelical Leonhardsgemeinde Stuttgart, archived from the original on November 7, 2017 ; accessed on October 30, 2017 .
  16. ^ Wilhelm Schmidt-Biggemann: History of the Christian Kabbalah.
  17. From symbol to silence: Pseudo-Areopagitas De symbolica theologia in the mirror of Johannes Reuchlin's Christian Kabbalah by Annett Martini
  18. Peter Wortsman: Don't burn what you don't know! At the beginning of all civilization there is multicultural diversity: 500 years ago the humanist and lawyer Johannes Reuchlin published his famous appeal for religious tolerance. Die Zeit, Hamburg January 5th, 2011
  19. Hans-Peter Willi: Reuchlin in the dispute over the books of the Jews. Tübingen 2011
  20. Eger, Wolfgang: Geschichte der Stadt Speyer, Vol. 3, Kohlhammer Verlag Stuttgart, 1989, p. 357, ISBN 3-17-010490-X
  21. On the correspondence of the great Stuttgart humanist - “Reuchlin! who wants to compare himself to him? A miracle sign in its time! ”By Fritz Endemann 2014
  22. ^ City of Pforzheim: The Museum Johannes Reuchlin ( Memento from March 7, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  23. ^ City of Pforzheim: Reuchlin Prize
  24. ^ Sound installation in the Reuchlin Museum in Pforzheim
  25. "Diatonicum autem nobis modulamen attulit Bossosthenius sacerdos. Harmoniam fecit Christophorus Sillingus Lucernensis. “ De accentibus [...]. Hagenau 1518, S. LXXXIII ( online ).
  26. ^ Bernhard Hirche, architect BDA: Museum Johannes Reuchlin
  27. t / http: // City of Pforzheim: The Museum Johannes Reuchlin ( Memento from March 7, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  28. ^ Marburg repertory on translation literature in early German humanism
  29. Gutenberg. Heinrich Heine: On the history of religion and philosophy in Germany - Chapter 1
  30. Kirsten Serup-Bilfeldt: Judenbücherstreit - "Don't burn what you don't know ..." Deutschlandfunk , January 18, 2017, accessed on March 17, 2017 .
  31. Deutschlandfunk
  32. Reuchlin and his heirs - Jan Thorbecke Verlag