Philip the Sincere also Philip the noble and Philip I, Count Palatine of the Rhine called (* 14. July 1448 in Heidelberg , † 28 February 1508 in Germersheim ) from the family of Wittelsbach was Pfalzgraf and 1476-1508 Elector of the Palatinate .
Origin and marriage
Philip's parents were Elector Ludwig IV and Margaret of Savoy . Because of their childlessness, they made a personal pilgrimage to the grave of St. Philip in Zell (Zellertal) west of Worms in 1447 . When the longed-for heir to the throne was born in 1448, they named him Philip in honor of the saint. Because of the birth of the prince, Saint Philip of Zell gained national fame and advanced to become an emergency helper in cases of childlessness or the desire to have children.
On April 17, 1474, Philipp married Margarete von Bayern-Landshut (1456–1501), the daughter of Duke Ludwig IX, in Amberg . von Bayern-Landshut and his wife Princess Amalie von Sachsen . The splendid celebration went down in the annals as the "Amberg Wedding". The wedding fountain on the Amberg market square was a memorial to the couple Philipp and Margarethe .
The marriage resulted in 14 children, nine sons and five daughters:
- Ludwig V (1478–1544), Elector Palatinate
- ⚭ 1511 Princess Sibylle of Bavaria-Munich (1489–1519)
- ⚭ 1499 Princess Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut (1478–1504)
- Friedrich II. (1482–1556), Elector Palatinate
- ⚭ 1535 Princess Dorothea of Denmark and Norway (1520–1580)
- Elisabeth (1483–1522)
- Georg (1486–1529), Bishop of Speyer
- Heinrich (1487–1552), Bishop of Utrecht, Freising and Worms
- Johann (1488–1538), Bishop of Regensburg
- Amalie (1490-1525)
- ⚭ 1513 Duke George I of Pomerania (1493–1551)
- Barbara (1491-1505)
- Helene (1493-1524)
- ⚭ 1513 Duke Heinrich V of Mecklenburg (1479–1552)
- Wolfgang (1494–1558), Count Palatine in Neumarkt, governor of the Upper Palatinate
- Otto Heinrich (* / † 1496)
- Katharina (1499–1526), abbess in Neuburg am Neckar
When he got married, Philipp initially received the Upper Palatinate as his dominion. After his adoptive father Friedrich I died in 1476, Philipp took over the electorate along with the Palatinate. To about the same knight Hans von Trotha , who from today's Saxony-Anhalt came and as a posthumous son of a nobility was family not entitled to inherit, he made in 1480 to his marshal and sold him the Berwartstein in Wasgau , which is actually the monastery Weissenburg in nearby Elsass belonged to. This was followed by the so-called " water feud ".
Philipp continued the intellectual culture built up by his predecessor Friedrich I. at his court. In 1481 he brought the humanist and later Bishop of Worms , Johann XX. von Dalberg , to Heidelberg University . He supported humanistic scholars in founding Sodalitas litteraria Rhenania and worked as an editor of medical and equine medicine texts.
In 1499, Pfalz-Mosbach and Pfalz-Neumarkt fell back to the Electoral Palatinate. 1504 Phillip was then his third son Ruprecht into a serious military conflict with Bayern Munich involved and King Maximilian said Philipp and Ruprecht because of the release of the Landshut War of Succession on 5 May 1504, the imperial ban . After the defeat, the Electoral Palatinate had to cede various areas that were in present-day Bavaria in 1505. Most of the Alsatian possessions were also lost to the Habsburgs, others to Hesse and Württemberg. Both the Wittelsbachers in Bavaria and those in the Palatinate suffered extensive territorial losses due to the war.
- Peter Fuchs: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 20, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-428-00201-6 , p. 382 f. ( ). In:
- Jan-Dirk Müller: Knowledge for the farm. The late medieval writing process using the example of Heidelberg in the 15th century . Munich 1994 ( online edition of BSB Munich ).
- Lothar Kolmer: The Amberg wedding of 1474 - tournaments, dancing, drinking. In: Johannes Laschinger (Ed.): Ammenberg becomes Amberg. Amberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-924707-09-5 , pp. 208-222.
- Franz Prechtl: The "Amberg Wedding" 1474: a "Wedding" for Amberg. Amberg Tourist Association, 1997, ISBN 3-928908-13-8 .
- Meinrad Schaab : Philip the Sincere, Elector Palatinate (1448–1508) . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 6, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1993, ISBN 3-7608-8906-9 , Sp. 2072 f.
- Ellen Widder: The Amberger Hof 1474. Origin and function of the oldest court order in the Electoral Palatinate , in: Ellen Widder, Mark Mersiowsky and Maria Leuker (ed.): Manipulus florum. From the Middle Ages, regional history, literature and historiography , Münster 2000, ISBN 3-89325-743-8 , pp. 271–305.
- Friedrich von Bezold : Philipp, Elector of the Palatinate . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 26, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1888, pp. 16-18.
- Jan-Dirk Müller: Knowledge for the yard. The late medieval writing process using the example of Heidelberg in the 15th century . Munich 1994 ( online edition of BSB Munich ).
- Gundolf Keil : Philipp (I.), Count Palatine near Rhine. In: Author's Lexicon . Volume VII, Col. 602 f.
Ludwig IV. (1436–1449)
Frederick I (1451–1476)
1449–1451 and 1476–1508
Friedrich I (1451–1476)
Ludwig V (1508–1544)
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Philip the Sincere; Philip the noble|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Elector Palatinate|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 14, 1448|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Heidelberg|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 28, 1508|
|Place of death||Germersheim|