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Heads of State · Obituary · Year of Literature · Year of Music

Suleyman I
Suleiman I
begins the new siege of Rhodes .
Hadrian IV
Adrian of Utrecht is
known under the name Hadrian VI. pope.
Route of the circumnavigation of Magellan and Elcano
Juan Sebastián de Elcano completes the first circumnavigation begun by Ferdinand Magellan .
1522 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 970/971 (July turn of the year)
Ethiopian calendar 1514/15
Aztec calendar 3rd house – Jei Calli (until the end of January/beginning of February: 2nd flint – Ome Tecpatl )
Buddhist calendar 2065/66 (Southern Buddhism); 2064/65 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 70th (71st) cycle

Year of the Water Horse壬午 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Snake 辛巳)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 884/885 (New Year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3855/56 (October 2nd/3rd)
Iranian calendar 900/901
Islamic calendar 928/929 (change of the year November 19th/20th)
Jewish calendar 5282/83 (21/22 September)
Coptic calendar 1238/39
Malayalam calendar 697/698
Seleucid era Babylon: 1832/33 (April turn of the year)

Syria: 1833/34 (October turn of the year)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese calendar) 1578/79 (April turn of the year)


politics and world affairs

Siege of Rhodes

Siege of Rhodes

The Ottoman Empire , under the command of Çoban Mustafa Pasha, begins the Siege of Rhodes on 26 June . The island is defended by the Knights Hospitaller , who have owned the island since 1306. The Ottoman fleet consists of almost 300 ships, the invading army is possibly up to 160,000 strong and includes an elite force of about 10,000 Janissaries. The Ottoman warships begin the siege by blockading the port of Rhodes .

Part of the fortifications surrounding Rhodes town

After the siege of 1480 and an earthquake in 1481, the Hospitallers had the fortifications of the city ​​of Rhodes greatly expanded and extended. The city is protected by a double, sometimes even triple ring of solid walls and several particularly large circular towers . The harbor entrance is blocked by a large chain, behind which the Johanniter fleet is stationed at a safe distance. The Hospitallers divide the walls of the city into several sections, which the respective “tongues” of the order are responsible for defending. Overall, the garrison of the city with its 180 knights and their entourage, mercenaries and locals comprised a few thousand men. The Order's forces are commanded by Grand Master Philippe de Villiers de l'Isle-Adam .

On June 28, Sultan Süleyman I arrives at Rhodes to personally take command of his troops. However, the heavy cannonade that followed only slowly damaged the city's massive walls. For weeks, several assaults are repelled by the besieged, with the besiegers taking heavy casualties.

On September 24th, by far the largest assault up to that point, the Ottoman troops almost succeeded in penetrating the city. However, the Hospitallers repulsed the attack, killing several thousand Anatolian soldiers and Janissaries. In the weeks that followed, the Ottoman army continued to shell and carry out more assaults without success.

On 27 October, the Hospitallers discover that the Order's Grand Chancellor , André do Amaral , has assigned one of his servants to secretly fire embassies into the Ottoman camp. Both men are therefore accused of high treason and executed. A ceasefire is agreed for December 11-13 to allow negotiations. However, the city's surrender, demanded by the Ottomans, is rejected, so fighting flares up again.

Sketch of the fortifications (English) with the Tower of Spain bottom left

On December 17, the Ottomans succeed in conquering the "Tower of Spain", which makes the defense of the city practically impossible. The Johanniter thereupon capitulated on December 22 under the condition that they be granted free withdrawal. On January 1, 1523, they left the island, along with several thousand locals.

The conquest of Rhodes is an important step for the Ottoman Empire on its way to complete domination of the eastern Mediterranean. After their expulsion from Rhodes, the Johanniter first settled on Crete.

Knight's War in Southern Germany

Leader of the knighthood: Franz von Sickingen

In August, a gathering of 600 Upper Rhine and Franconian knights in Landau , who were struggling with economic problems and social decline at the end of the Middle Ages , elected the famous knight and mercenary leader Franz von Sickingen as their federal governor. Although this "brotherly association" was influenced by the early Reformation movement, it stands in the tradition of older societies of knights. First of all, she relies on peaceful protest and the effect of her demonstration of power.

Fueled by Ulrich von Hutten 's aggressive polemics , who called for a war of priests against princes and clergy, von Sickingen ultimately took up arms and began the Knights ' War . However, he obviously overestimated the solidarity of the knightly nobility; Although he attracts numerous knights through his daring demeanor and the territorial power base on which he can rely, an empire-wide uprising does not materialize. Most noble families wait and see, making their later participation dependent on the previous success of the enterprise.

A princely coalition quickly formed against Sickingen's uprising, consisting of the Archbishop of Trier and Elector Richard von Greiffenklau zu Vollrads , Count Palatine Ludwig V and Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse . In September, the siege of Trier by the insurgents had to be broken off, and Sickingen had to withdraw to its Nanstein Castle near Landstuhl .

Other events in the kingdom

Western and Southern Europe

Battle of Bicocca

Eastern Europe

Elcano's circumnavigation

Map of Timor by expedition member Antonio Pigafetta


Schautaler of Frederick the Wise

Elector Friedrich the Wise of Saxony has the Schautaler of Friedrich the Wise minted . This shows the portrait of the Saxon elector with a beret on the front and a floral cross on the back with the first letters of the words of his motto in the corners. Hans Krafft the Elder cut the embossing stamp on the front in Nuremberg after a painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder .

science and technology

Santa Anna

On December 21, the carrack Santa Anna was launched in Nice, one of the largest and most modern ships of its time. Her distinctive feature is her hull , partially studded with lead plates, which some authors consider to be an early form of ship armor , while others see reducing water permeability as its primary purpose. The Santa Anna 's armament is designed for 500 soldiers. A smithy is housed in the ship, in which several weapon smiths can also pursue their work on the high seas. The ship even has its own windmill and ovens on board, which are used to provide the crew with fresh bread. In addition, the Santa Anna has a garden with plants hung in flower boxes along the stern gallery.



Capela de Nossa Senhora do Baluarte

Portuguese seafarers built the Capela de Nossa Senhora do Baluarte on the Ilha de Moçambique , the oldest colonial structure on the coast of the Indian Ocean and the only surviving structure in the Manueline style in modern-day Mozambique .


The Story of the Three Kingdoms , a novel by Chinese author Luo Guanzhong about the turbulent period of the Three Kingdoms , is published in its first draft with 240 chapters. The work is ranked among the four classic novels of Chinese literature and is one of the most popular Chinese novels . There is no central plot, but the novel forms a large historical painting consisting of individual episodes that are self-contained and contain an immense variety of characters.


The Friedrichgymnasium in Altenburg is founded as a municipal Latin school .


Coat of Arms of the Cardinal Chamberlain during the vacancy of the Sede


date of birth saved

  • July 5: Margaret of Parma , illegitimate daughter of Emperor Charles V, Duchess of Florence, Duchess of Parma and Piacenza, governor of the Habsburg Netherlands († 1586)
  • July 13: Sophia Jagiellonica , Polish princess, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel († 1575)
  • July 31: Charles II de Croÿ , Duke of Aarschot and Prince of Chimay († 1551)
  • September 11: Ulisse Aldrovandi , Italian physician and naturalist (died 1605)
  • October 14: Lucas Maius , German evangelical theologian and playwright († 1598)
  • October 18: Michael Beuther , German historian, poet, jurist and civil servant († 1587)

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1522

  • before 1522: Pietro Perna , Italian printer and publisher († 1582)


First half of the year

Johannes Stabius, Portrait of Albrecht Durer
  • January 1: Johannes Stabius , Austrian humanist, scientist and historiographer (b. before 1468)
  • January 25: Raffaello Maffei , Italian humanist, writer, historian and theologian (b. 1451)
  • January 25: Wolfgang VI. von Dalberg , German knight, magistrate and Burgmann in Oppenheim (* 1473)
  • January 28: Jakob Heller , Frankfurt patrician, councilor and patron, Senior Mayor of the Free Imperial City of Frankfurt (* around 1460)
  • January 29: Wolfgang I , Count of Oettingen (b. 1455)

Second half of the year

Grave slab of Anna von Isenburg in the town church of Babenhausen
  • 29 October: Hieronymus Schulz , Bishop of Brandenburg and Havelberg (b. c. 1460)
  • October 30: Jean Mouton , French composer and singer (b. 1459)
  • November 14: Anne de Beaujeu , Duchess of Bourbon and Regent of France (b. 1461)
  • 11 December: Raffaele Petrucci , Cardinal of the Roman Church and Governor of Siena (b. 1472)

Exact date of death unknown

  • Alain d'Albret : 16th Lord of Albret, Viscount of Tartas, Count of Graves and Count of Castres (b. 1440)
  • Leonhard Wagner , German calligrapher, monk of the Benedictine order (b. 1453)

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