begins the new siege of Rhodes .
called Hadrian VI. Pope.
|Juan Sebastián de Elcano completes the first circumnavigation of the world started by Ferdinand Magellan .|
|1522 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||970/971 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||3rd house - Jei Calli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 2nd Feuerstein - Ome Tecpatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||2065/66 (southern Buddhism); 2064/65 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||884/885 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3855/56 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||928/929 (turn of the year 19/20 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5282/83 (September 21-22)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1832/33 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1833/34 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1578/79 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Siege of Rhodes
The Ottoman Empire begins on June 26th with the siege of Rhodes , which is defended by the Hospitallers , who have owned the island since 1306 . The Ottoman fleet consists of almost 300 ships, the invading army may be up to 160,000 men and includes an elite force of around 10,000 Janissaries. The Ottoman warships begin the siege by blocking the port of Rhodes .
The Johanniter have the fortifications of the city of Rhodes after the siege of 1480 and an earthquake in 1481 to expand strongly and can be expanded. A double, sometimes even triple ring made of solid walls and several particularly large rondels protect the city . The harbor entrance is blocked by a large chain, behind which the Johanniter fleet is posted at a safe distance. The Johanniter divide the walls of the city into several sections, for the defense of which the respective "tongues" of the order are responsible. Overall, the garrison of the city with its 180 knights and their entourage, mercenaries and locals comprises a strength of a few thousand men. The Order's armed forces are commanded by Grand Master Philippe de Villiers de l'Isle-Adam .
On June 28th , Sultan Suleyman I arrives in front of Rhodes to personally take command of his troops. The heavy cannonade that followed only caused damage to the massive walls of the city very slowly. For weeks several assault attacks were repulsed by the besieged, with the besiegers suffering heavy losses.
On September 24th, what was by far the largest assault by far took place, with which the Ottoman troops almost succeeded in penetrating the city. However, the Hospitallers repulsed the attack, killing several thousand Anatolian soldiers and Janissaries. In the weeks that followed, the Ottoman army continued the shelling and carried out further assault attacks without success.
On October 27th, the Johanniter found out that the Grand Chancellor of the Order, André do Amaral , had instructed one of his servants to secretly fire messages into the Ottoman camp. Both men are therefore accused of high treason and executed. A ceasefire is agreed for December 11th to 13th to enable negotiations. However, the surrender of the city demanded by the Ottomans is rejected, so that the fighting flares up again.
- December 17th : The Ottomans conquer the "Tower of Spain", which makes the defense of the city practically impossible.
- December 22nd : The Johanniter surrender on the condition that they are granted free withdrawal. On 1. January 1523 they leave the island.
Holy Roman Empire
- The war of knights begins under the leadership of Franz von Sickingen . On the other hand, a coalition of princes quickly formed, consisting of the Archbishop of Trier and Elector Richard von Greiffenklau zu Vollrads , Count Palatine Ludwig V and Landgrave Philip I of Hesse . In September the siege of Trier by the insurgents has to be broken off.
- Archduke Ferdinand I executed leading members of the Estates opposition at the Wiener Neustädter Blutgericht . Vienna and Wiener Neustadt are now directly under imperial control.
- The castle Peine , during the Hildesheimer pin feud besieged again in vain.
Western and Southern Europe
- February: The Comuneros uprising in Spain is finally put down.
- April 27th : In the Battle of Bicocca in northern Italy, the troops of Emperor Charles V prevail over the army sent by the French King Franz I. Arquebuses and artillery of the smaller Spanish-Habsburg armed forces are decisive in the armed forces. The Duchy of Milan comes after the battle in the imperial sphere of influence.
- June 19 : In the Treaty of Windsor , the English King Henry VIII and Emperor Charles V agree on a joint plan of attack against France . As a result of the contract, the English attack in July of Calais from the Brittany and Picardy to. For lack of money, King Francis I of France cannot raise large mercenary armies to resist, and the English army is pillaging and pillaging these regions.
- September 14 : After a short period of negotiations, an armistice agreement between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Grand Duchy of Moscow is signed in Moscow (initially extended to five years, later extended to 1533). Smolensk is explicitly mentioned in the text of the treaty as the current possession of Moscow. (see Russian-Lithuanian Wars )
- February 11 : The Victoria , one of the last two remaining ships of the circumnavigation of Ferdinand Magellan , who died the previous year , sets sail from Timor under the orders of Juan Sebastián Elcano and sets out to cross the Indian Ocean . The journey home is characterized by difficult weather conditions.
- March 18th : The expedition of Juan Sebastián Elcano discovers the Amsterdam island .
- April 4 : The second ship Trinidad , which was left behind on the Moluccan island of Tidore due to necessary repairs last year , tries to start the voyage home via the Pacific, but a twelve-day storm forces the crew to return.
- May 19 : The Cape of Good Hope is sailed.
- July 9 : The Victoria arrives in the Cape Verde Islands . The Portuguese try to prevent the ship from returning home and capture 13 Spanish crew members. Because of the poor condition of the ship, Elcano decided against a rescue operation and sails home.
- September 7th : With the arrival in the port of departure Sanlúcar de Barrameda , the expedition of Juan Sebastián Elcano completes the first circumnavigation . Of the original 237 crew members, only 18 are returning. Despite careful bookkeeping, the team is also missing a day in the calendar. Only much later is the need for a date line recognized.
- End of October / beginning of November: The last 18 survivors of the Trinidad surrender to the Portuguese on Ternate , a neighboring island of Tidore. You will be jailed for several years.
science and technology
- December 21 : In Nice, which runs Carrack Santa Anna one of the largest and most modern ships from the deck of his time. Their peculiarity is their hull , partly studded with lead plates , which some authors regard as an early form of ship armor , while others see the reduction of water permeability as the main purpose. The armament of the Santa Anna is designed for 500 soldiers. A smithy is housed in the ship, in which several armourers can also go about their work on the high seas. The ship even has its own windmill and ovens on board, with which the crew is supplied with fresh bread. In addition, the Santa Anna has a garden with plants that are hung in window boxes along the rear gallery.
- The Friedrichgymnasium in Altenburg is founded as a municipal Latin school .
Portuguese sailors build the Capela de Nossa Senhora do Baluarte on the Ilha de Moçambique , the oldest colonial building on the coast of the Indian Ocean and the only surviving Manueline style structure in today's Mozambique .
The Story of the Three Kingdoms , a novel by the Chinese author Luo Guanzhong about the turbulent times of the Three Kingdoms , is published in its first version with 240 chapters. The work is counted among the four classic novels of Chinese literature and is one of the most popular Chinese novels . There is no central plot, but the novel forms a large historical painting, which consists of individual episodes that are self-contained and contain an immense variety of characters.
- January 9 : The German Adrian von Utrecht is elected Pope at the conclave 1521–1522 as the successor to Leo X, who died the previous year . He takes the name Hadrian VI. on.
- March 9th : The breach of the law of fasting with a sausage meal on the first Sunday of the month of fasting in the house of the printer Christoph Froschauer in Zurich is considered the "original date" for the Reformed Church . Ulrich Zwingli defends the campaign with the argument that fasting is not a divine law. Already on Ash Wednesday , March 5th, a breach of the fasting requirement was recorded as an administrative offense in Zurich.
- 9. bis 16th March : Martin Luther holds eight Invocavit sermons .
- September: Luther publishes the September Testament , a translation of the New Testament, at the Leipzig Book Fair .
First half of the year
- January 23 : Georg Kleefeld , Mayor of Danzig († 1576 )
- February 2 : Lodovico Ferrari , Italian mathematician († 1565 )
- February 22 : Lampert Distelmeyer , Electoral Chancellor of the Mark Brandenburg († 1588 )
- March 28 : Albrecht Alcibiades , Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach († 1557 )
- April 19 : Joachim von Beust , German lawyer († 1597 )
- April 23 : Caterina de 'Ricci , Florentine Dominican and mystic, Catholic saint († 1590 )
- May 22 : John Jewel , Bishop of Salisbury († 1571 )
Second half of the year
- July 5 : Margaret of Parma , illegitimate daughter of Emperor Charles V, Duchess of Florence, Duchess of Parma and Piacenza, governor of the Habsburg Netherlands († 1586 )
- July 13 : Sophia Jagiellonica , Polish princess, Duchess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel († 1575 )
- September 11 : Ulisse Aldrovandi , Italian doctor and naturalist († 1605 )
- October 14 : Lucas Maius , German Protestant theologian and playwright († 1598 )
- October 18 : Michael Beuther , German historian, poet, lawyer and civil servant († 1587 )
- November 9 : Martin Chemnitz , German Lutheran theologian († 1586 )
- November 18 : Lamoral Graf von Egmond , Dutch noble freedom fighter († 1568 )
- November 27 : Andrzej Patrycy Nidecki , Polish humanist, philologist, publisher, royal secretary and bishop († 1587 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Anna Walburga von Neuenahr , ruling Countess von Moers († 1600 )
- Jean de Bonmarché , Franco-Flemish composer and conductor († 1570 )
- Benedictus Aretius , Swiss theologian, botanist, pedagogue, geographer and reformer († 1574 )
- Augerius Gislenius Busbequius , German humanist and diplomat († 1592 )
- Moses Cordovero , Spanish Jewish mystic and Hebrist († 1570 )
- Eleonora of Toledo , Duchess of Florence († 1562 )
- Georg Gadner , Württemberg cartographer, chronicler and geographer († 1605 )
- Anneken Hendriks , Frisian martyr of the Anabaptist movement († 1571 )
- Margarethe von der Saale , Countess of Hesse († 1566 )
- Pietro Perna , Italian printer and publisher († 1582 )
- Philothea of Athens , Orthodox saint and city patroness of Athens († 1589 )
- Tabernaemontanus , German physician and botanist († 1590 )
- Hermann Wilken , German humanist and mathematician († 1603 )
Date of death secured
- January 1st : Johannes Stabius , Austrian humanist, natural scientist and historiographer (* before 1468)
- May 23 : Ashikaga Yoshitane , Japanese Shogun (* 1465 )
- May: Johannes Werner , Nuremberg pastor, mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer and cartographer (* 1468 )
- June 24th : Elisabeth von der Pfalz , Landgravine of Hessen-Marburg and Margravine of Baden (* 1483 )
- June 30th : Johannes Reuchlin , German philosopher and humanist (* 1455 )
- July 5 : Antonio de Nebrija , Spanish humanist and philologist (* 1444 )
- July 27 : Anna von Isenburg-Büdingen , Countess of Hanau-Lichtenberg (* 1460 )
- August 24th : Gaspard I. de Coligny, seigneur de Châtillon , French nobleman and Marshal of France (* 1465 or 1470 )
- August 27 : Giovanni Antonio Amadeo , Italian sculptor and builder (* 1447 )
- October 30 : Jean Mouton , French composer and singer (* 1459 )
- November 14th : Anne de Beaujeu , Duchess of Bourbon and regent of France (* 1461 )
- December 11th : Raffaele Petrucci , Cardinal of the Roman Church and Governor of Siena (* 1472 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Alain d'Albret : 16th lord of Albret , Vice Count of Tartas, Count of Graves and Count of Castres (* 1440 )
- Leonhard Wagner , German calligrapher (* 1453 )