1522

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Heads of State · Nekrolog · Music Year

1522
Suleyman I.
Suleyman I
begins the new siege of Rhodes .
Hadrian IV
Adrian of Utrecht is
called Hadrian VI. Pope.
The Magellan and Elcanos circumnavigation route
Juan Sebastián de Elcano completes the first circumnavigation of the world started by Ferdinand Magellan .
1522 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 970/971 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1514/15
Aztec calendar 3rd house - Jei Calli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 2nd Feuerstein - Ome Tecpatl )
Buddhist calendar 2065/66 (southern Buddhism); 2064/65 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 70th (71st) cycle

Year of the water horse壬午 ( at the beginning of the year metal snake 辛巳)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 884/885 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3855/56 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 900/901
Islamic calendar 928/929 (turn of the year 19/20 November)
Jewish calendar 5282/83 (September 21-22)
Coptic calendar 1238/39
Malayalam calendar 697/698
Seleucid era Babylon: 1832/33 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1833/34 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1578/79 (turn of the year April)

Events

Politics and world events

Siege of Rhodes

Siege of Rhodes

The Ottoman Empire begins on June 26th with the siege of Rhodes , which is defended by the Hospitallers , who have owned the island since 1306 . The Ottoman fleet consists of almost 300 ships, the invading army may be up to 160,000 men and includes an elite force of around 10,000 Janissaries. The Ottoman warships begin the siege by blocking the port of Rhodes .

Part of the fortifications around the city of Rhodes

The Johanniter have the fortifications of the city of Rhodes after the siege of 1480 and an earthquake in 1481 to expand strongly and can be expanded. A double, sometimes even triple ring made of solid walls and several particularly large rondels protect the city . The harbor entrance is blocked by a large chain, behind which the Johanniter fleet is posted at a safe distance. The Johanniter divide the walls of the city into several sections, for the defense of which the respective "tongues" of the order are responsible. Overall, the garrison of the city with its 180 knights and their entourage, mercenaries and locals comprises a strength of a few thousand men. The Order's armed forces are commanded by Grand Master Philippe de Villiers de l'Isle-Adam .

On June 28th , Sultan Suleyman I arrives in front of Rhodes to personally take command of his troops. The heavy cannonade that followed only caused damage to the massive walls of the city very slowly. For weeks several assault attacks were repulsed by the besieged, with the besiegers suffering heavy losses.

On September 24th, what was by far the largest assault by far took place, with which the Ottoman troops almost succeeded in penetrating the city. However, the Hospitallers repulsed the attack, killing several thousand Anatolian soldiers and Janissaries. In the weeks that followed, the Ottoman army continued the shelling and carried out further assault attacks without success.

On October 27th, the Johanniter found out that the Grand Chancellor of the Order, André do Amaral , had instructed one of his servants to secretly fire messages into the Ottoman camp. Both men are therefore accused of high treason and executed. A ceasefire is agreed for December 11th to 13th to enable negotiations. However, the surrender of the city demanded by the Ottomans is rejected, so that the fighting flares up again.

Sketch of the fortress with the Tower of Spain at the bottom left
  • December 17th : The Ottomans conquer the "Tower of Spain", which makes the defense of the city practically impossible.
  • December 22nd : The Johanniter surrender on the condition that they are granted free withdrawal. On 1. January 1523 they leave the island.

Holy Roman Empire

Western and Southern Europe

Battle of Bicocca

Eastern Europe

Elcanos circumnavigation

Map of Timor by expedition member Antonio Pigafetta

science and technology

Santa Anna
  • December 21 : In Nice, which runs Carrack Santa Anna one of the largest and most modern ships from the deck of his time. Their peculiarity is their hull , partly studded with lead plates , which some authors regard as an early form of ship armor , while others see the reduction of water permeability as the main purpose. The armament of the Santa Anna is designed for 500 soldiers. A smithy is housed in the ship, in which several armourers can also go about their work on the high seas. The ship even has its own windmill and ovens on board, with which the crew is supplied with fresh bread. In addition, the Santa Anna has a garden with plants that are hung in window boxes along the rear gallery.
  • The Friedrichgymnasium in Altenburg is founded as a municipal Latin school .

Culture

architecture

Capela de Nossa Senhora do Baluarte

Portuguese sailors build the Capela de Nossa Senhora do Baluarte on the Ilha de Moçambique , the oldest colonial building on the coast of the Indian Ocean and the only surviving Manueline style structure in today's Mozambique .

literature

The Story of the Three Kingdoms , a novel by the Chinese author Luo Guanzhong about the turbulent times of the Three Kingdoms , is published in its first version with 240 chapters. The work is counted among the four classic novels of Chinese literature and is one of the most popular Chinese novels . There is no central plot, but the novel forms a large historical painting, which consists of individual episodes that are self-contained and contain an immense variety of characters.

religion

Born

First half of the year

Second half of the year

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

Date of death secured

Johannes Stabius, portrait by Albrecht Dürer
Anna von Isenburg's grave slab in the town church of Babenhausen

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

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