Landau in the Palatinate
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||142 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||82.96 km 2|
|Residents:||46,881 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||565 inhabitants per km 2|
|License plate :||LD|
|Community key :||07 3 13 000|
|LOCODE :||DE LAD|
|City structure:||8 districts|
City administration address :
76829 Landau in the Palatinate
|Lord Mayor :||Thomas Hirsch ( CDU )|
|Location of Landau in der Pfalz in Rhineland-Palatinate|
Landau in der Pfalz ( Landaach in the southern Palatinate dialect ) is an independent city with 46,881 inhabitants (December 31, 2019) in southern Rhineland-Palatinate and part of the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region . The former Alsatian imperial city is the administrative seat of the Südliche Weinstrasse district , to which it does not belong. In terms of area, Landau is the third largest city in the Palatinate after Kaiserslautern and Neustadt an der Weinstrasse . According to the number of inhabitants, in addition to Kaiserslautern and Neustadt , the three Upper Palatinate cities of Ludwigshafen , Speyer and Frankenthal are also in front of Landau. The city is a middle center with partial function of a regional center . The next big cities are Karlsruhe , Ludwigshafen am Rhein and Mannheim .
The east of the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain , the west including the core city is part of the Wine Route . In addition, extensive forest areas of the Palatinate Forest belong to the urban area. The urban forest exclave Taubensuhl / Fassendeich , the district Oberhaingeraide with an area of 2248.58 hectares , lies in the area of the Forsthaus Taubensuhl and to the west up to the federal highway 48 . A second exclave in the Palatinate Forest that belongs to Landau is the so-called Wollmesheim Forest near Eschbach or in Wasgau . This is part of the district and the district of Wollmesheim and has an area of 79 hectares, but is more than five kilometers west of the center of Wollmesheim.
Neighboring communities are - clockwise - Walsheim , Knöringen , Essingen (Pfalz) , Bornheim (Pfalz) , Offenbach an der Queich , Herxheim near Landau / Pfalz , Insheim , Impflingen , Billigheim-Ingenheim , Heuchelheim-Klingen , Göcklingen , Ilbesheim near Landau in der Pfalz , Leinsweiler , Ranschbach , Birkweiler , Siebeldingen , Frankweiler and Böchingen .
With Arzheim , Dammheim , Godramstein , Mörlheim , Mörzheim , Nußdorf , Queichheim and Wollmesheim , Landau has a total of eight incorporated districts. Queichheim and Mörlheim were incorporated in 1937, all other suburbs were added to the city in the course of the Rhineland-Palatinate administrative reform around 1972. Queichheim has almost grown together with the city center. Larger new development areas are the Horst in the east and the Wollmesheimer Höhe in the west. Larger areas are currently being developed, especially in the south-east of the city (in the area of the new exhibition grounds ( Alfred-Nobel-Platz ) near Queichheim) and in the south of the city (residential areas Quartier Vauban). With the “Wohnpark am Ebenberg”, a new residential area for around 2200 residents is being created on the former “Estienne et Foch” barracks in the south of the city.
|Residents||Population Density 1)|
In the south of the district not far from the border with Insheim rises the 160 meter high Ebenberg . The 270.5-meter-high Kleine Kalmit extends southwest of Arzheim, directly on the border with Ilbesheim . The western flank of the 523 meter high Schletterberg belongs to the Wollmesheimer Wald exclave . The larger exclave of Landau Stadtwald, including the Nußdorf and Godramstein forests, includes elevations such as the Erlenkopf , which measures 552.9 meters , the Armbrunnenkopf (545 meters), the Döreneck (514 meters) and the Kesselberg (502.4 meters).
The central river within the city limits is the Queich , which runs in a west-east direction first on the southern outskirts of Godramstein and then through the city center; then it passes the northern edge of Queichheim and Mörlheim. The Ranschbach grazes the northern edge of the settlement of Arzheim before it flows into the Queich from the right. The Birnbach flows through Wollmesheim before it passes the southern edge of the city center and then runs south of Queichheim; between Queichheim and Mörlheim it also flows into the Queich from the right. The Brühlgraben forms the border to Impflingen and Insheim in the south and then runs south of Mörlheim. The Ranzgraben runs north-west of Nussdorf on the border with Böchingen; The Schleidgraben rises directly to the east of the Nussdorf buildings ; Both flow into the Hainbach from the right beyond the city limits .
The upper reaches of the Helmbach are located within the Landau Stadtwald exclave , as is that of the Grobsbach tributary , which is part of the Speyerbach river system . The watershed between Speyerbach and Queich runs through the middle of the exclave. The catchment area of the latter includes the Wellbach , which marks the western border of the exclave, and the Eußerbach , which runs through the district in the southeast for around one and a half kilometers. Within this leads right into this the Dörenbach which in Erlenbrunnen springs, flows through the eponymous valley and in turn from the right in Armbrunnen springing Armbrunnertalbach and Godramsteiner Bach receives.
The annual precipitation is 667 millimeters. The precipitation is in the middle third of the values recorded in Germany. Lower values are registered at 33 percent of the measuring stations of the German Weather Service . The driest month is April, with the most rainfall in June. In June there is 1.6 times more rainfall than in April. Precipitation varies only minimally and is extremely evenly distributed over the year. Lower seasonal fluctuations are recorded at only 5 percent of the measuring stations.
Landau was founded around 1260 by Count Emich IV von Leiningen-Landeck. He had a fortification built in front of the plain as additional protection for his Landeck Castle. 1274 Landau received from King Rudolf I of Habsburg , the town charter . The king granted Landau the status of an imperial city in 1291 . In 1324 Landau was pledged to the Bishop of Speyer Emich von Leiningen . It was only triggered again in 1511 by Emperor Maximilian I and placed under the Bailiwick of Hagenau . In 1521 Landau joined the Dekapolis, the Alsatian League of Ten Cities . Mayor Hans Hitschler signed the Lutheran formula of 1577 for the city council in 1579 .
Early modern age
As a result of the Peace of Westphalia , large parts of Alsace came to France in 1648 . Landau and the other cities of Alsace remained formally German, but were abandoned by the empire. The Decapolis was too weak to assert itself against the Sun King Louis XIV . From 1680, Landau belonged to France like the whole of Alsace. It was expanded into a fortress by Vauban from 1688 to 1691 . Most of the medieval city was burned down. Assumptions that the fire was started by order of the French fortress builder could never be proven. In the new building, straight streets, right-angled building squares and the market square were created. With the construction of the fortress, the lives of the residents changed. Entrance into the city was only possible through the city gates and was no longer possible after sunset.
During the War of the Spanish Succession , the French fortress of Landau changed hands several times after extensive sieges. In 1702 the Imperial troops replaced the French, in 1703 the French won Landau back after the Battle of the Speyerbach , in 1704 Landau became imperial again. From March 12, 1709, Karl Alexander von Württemberg was in command of the fortress. In 1713 the city was besieged by Marshal Jacques Bazin de Bezons (1646–1733) from June 6, 1713, and the French regained the fortress on August 20, 1713. In the Peace of Rastatt in 1714, the reversion of Landau to France was the most important gain for Louis XIV.
As in the rest of France, the French Revolution ruled Landau from July 20, 1789 . Like the Lower Alsace, the city belonged to the Bas-Rhin department from March 4, 1790 . Even in 1814, after the first victory in the War of Liberation over Napoléon Bonaparte , Landau initially remained French. Due to the agreements in the Second Paris Peace of November 1815, the area north of the Lauter , and thus Landau, initially came under the sovereignty of Austria . Landau was now a federal fortress . As early as June 1815, at the Congress of Vienna, Austria had been awarded the remaining Palatinate, which had previously belonged to the Département du Mont-Tonnerre (Donnersberg Department) . In April 1816, the entire Palatinate was finally ceded by Austria to the Kingdom of Bavaria in a state treaty .
Development since 1871
After the war in 1871, Landau was no longer a border town, as the western border of the German Empire had shifted significantly to the west as a result of the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine . The fortress was razed and new streets were built. With the Reich Law on Equal Opportunities for Jewish Citizens in 1871, Jewish families moved in. Landau became the center of the Palatinate wine trade and was soon considered to be the wealthiest city in the Palatinate. This can still be seen today in the architecture, which is comparatively magnificent for a small town. Representative town houses were built along the newly created Ringstrasse and its side streets. The predominant building material was sandstone.
Landau relied less on the development of an industry than on the Bavarian military . Extensive barracks were built for the 5th and 12th field artillery regiments and the 18th and 23rd infantry regiments .
During the Second World War , Landau was targeted 35 times by Allied, particularly American, air raids . The heaviest occurred on “Black Friday”, March 16, 1945. A total of 1,045 tons of bombs were thrown on Landau, 40% of the city was destroyed and 586 people fell victim to the air war.
After the First and Second World Wars , Landau was again a French garrison town , as part of the occupation of the Rhineland until 1930 and as part of the French-occupied zone after 1945. After the Federal Republic of Germany had become sovereign after the Paris Treaties came into force on May 5, 1955 the stationing is regulated by the NATO troop statute.
On April 1, 1937, the previously independent communities of Mörlheim and Queichheim were incorporated. The city became part of the French occupation zone after World War II . The establishment of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate was ordered on August 30, 1946 as the last state in the western occupation zones by decree No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig . It was initially referred to as the "Rhineland-Palatinate Land" or "Land Rheinpfalz"; the name Rhineland-Palatinate was only established with the constitution of May 18, 1947.
In 1949 the city of Landau organized the Southwest German Garden Show ( SÜWEGA ) as the first garden show with a supraregional effect in post-war Germany. The Federal Garden Show later developed from this .
In the course of the first administrative reform in Rhineland-Palatinate , the communities of Arzheim, Dammheim, Nussdorf, Godramstein, Mörzheim and Wollmesheim were incorporated on April 22, 1972, giving Landau its current size. As early as June 7, 1969, part of the community of Nussdorf with 387 inhabitants was re-assigned to Landau. In 1990, the Rhineland-Palatinate University of Education , which is partly located in Landau, was converted into a university . Since then, Landau has been one of the smallest university towns in Germany . In 1999 the last French soldiers withdrew from Landau.
In the years 1997 to 1999 France released the majority of its 34 military properties; Thus, the city of Landau obtained planning sovereignty for 100 hectares of built-up and 231 hectares of undeveloped areas. Three barracks and 15 properties with around 860 residential units were vacated.
On May 9, 2011 the proportion of Catholic citizens was 38.3%, the Protestant 35.4% and the other 26.3%. The number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen since then. On March 31, 2020, the proportion of Catholic citizens was 33.4%, Protestant 29.7% and the other 36.9%
Religious life is shaped by the two large national churches , but also by other Christian churches and faith communities :
The Evangelical Church of the Palatinate is represented in the urban area of Landau by eleven parishes, which are integrated into overarching organizational structures (parish offices). While the large Protestant collegiate church (three parish offices) with its art-historically significant Gothic collegiate church and the Johannes parish represent parts of the core city (city center and Horst), the Protestant rectory of Queichheim includes the communities of Queichheim , Horstring (Lukaskirche) and Mörlheim, which are located more to the east . Dammheim is also a district of Landau, but the Protestant Christians living here belong to the parish of Essingen-Dammheim-Bornheim with the parish office in Essingen. The Matthäuskirche parish is located on the Wollmesheimer Höhe in the southwest of the city , while the Mörzheim parish is responsible for the communities in Mörzheim and Wollmesheim . In the north-west and north of the city center are the parishes of Godramstein and Nussdorf , which complete the offer of the Protestant church in Landau.
The evangelical free churches are u. a. Represented by the Landau Adventist Church (Free Church of the Seventh-day Adventists) , the Christian Community (“He lives” - community) and the Landau Christian Center . The Evangelical Free Churches of Landau / Palatinate (Baptists) , the Katharinengemeinde Landau of the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church (SELK) and the Free Christian Community of Landau ( Bund Freikirchlicher Pfingstgemeinden (BFP) ) also see themselves outside the church structures .
The Landau parish association of the Speyer diocese includes a total of 22 parishes, which are grouped together in parish communities, eleven of which are located in the actual urban area of Landau. The first to be mentioned is the parish community of St. Maria , which consists of the parish of St. Maria (core city) with its large, neo-Romanesque St. Mary's Church and the parishes of St. Martin in Mörlheim and the Assumption of Mary in Queichheim. Also in the city center is the parish of St. Cross , which has a special architectural monument with the Gothic Augustinian Church and is administratively connected to St. Georg in Arzheim. The parish of St. Albert includes the district of Wollmesheimer Höhe and the new south-west town and forms a parish community with the parishes of St Gegidius in Mörzheim and St Mauritius in Wollmesheim. The parishes of St. Pirmin in Godramstein and St. Quintin in Siebeldingen have also merged into one parish community, although Siebeldingen no longer belongs to the actual urban area. The parishes of St. Elisabeth and Christ-König , which have been linked for a long time, are more in the east of the city, they also look after the parishioners in the Nussdorf district, with the Nepomuk chapel as the community center.
The Jewish community of Landau existed with interruptions since the Middle Ages and was destroyed during the Nazi era . Up to this time it was one of the largest Jewish communities in the Palatinate. In addition, Landau was the seat of a district rabbinate . In the 14th century there was a so-called Judengasse . The synagogue , built towards the end of the 19th century, fell victim to the November pogroms in 1938 . In the west of the city center there is also the Jewish cemetery , which was occupied from 1846 to 1990.
The New Apostolic Church in the Rhineland is also represented in Landau by a parish , while the Jehovah's Witnesses , as in other parishes, draw attention to their concerns through their intensive public relations work.
The city council of Landau in der Pfalz consists of 44 honorary council members who were elected in a personalized proportional representation in the local elections on May 26, 2019 , and the full-time mayor as chairman.
The distribution of seats in the city council:
|choice||SPD||CDU||GREEN||FDP||THE LEFT.||AfD||POLITICAL PARTY||FWG||PuS||total|
- FWG = Free Voters' Group Landau in der Pfalz eV
- PuS = Pfeffer und Salz eV (2009 and 2014: UBFL)
Thomas Hirsch has been Lord Mayor of Landau since 2016. His predecessor Hans-Dieter Schlimmer (SPD, 2008-2015) was elected on September 2, 2007 with 62.5 percent of the vote. The CDU did not have a candidate of its own after Kai Schürholt resigned as an applicant on August 24, 2007 when it became known that he was illegally using his doctoral degree in theology, which he supposedly had acquired in Heidelberg, because he had “not yet completed his doctoral procedure”. After he broke off the election campaign due to a feigned cancer, no other CDU candidate could be nominated because all the deadlines for this had already expired. Schürholt was sentenced to a fine of 150 daily rates of 50 euros each for abuse of his title.
Lord Mayor after the Second World War:
- 1946–1964: Alois Kraemer (CDU)
- 1964–1984: Walter Morio (CDU)
- 1984-2007: Christof Wolff (CDU)
- 2008–2015: Hans-Dieter Schlimmer (SPD)
- since 2016: Thomas Hirsch (CDU)
coat of arms
|Banner, coat of arms and flag|
Blazon : "In a red shield border in silver a red-armored and tongued black lion, covered with a gold heart shield, inside a red-armored black eagle."
The coat of arms was approved on January 10, 1961 by the Rhineland-Palatinate Ministry of the Interior in Mainz.
|Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms is a reference to the city founder, Count Emich IV von Leiningen-Landeck (approx. 1260), who carried the coat of arms of the County of Dagsburg (black lion in a red-bordered silver shield). The imperial eagle on the shield is a reference to the imperial freedom obtained in 1291 and refers to a secret seal that has been used since 1413.|
Partnerships have existed with the two French cities of Haguenau (Hagenau) and Ribeauvillé (Rappoltsweiler) since the 1960s. In 1984 the city council decided to partner with Kigoma in Rwanda . After a municipal reform, it was transferred to Ruhango in 2001 , which includes parts of the former area. In 2013, the partnership district in Rwanda was expanded with the addition of four more districts. In addition, the Mörzheim district has had a town partnership with Frederick (Maryland) in the USA since 1982 .
Culture and sights
The Art Nouveau festival hall is used for theater, concerts and congresses.
The Altes Kaufhaus cultural center also counts as a theater in a broader sense . The building was first mentioned in writing in 1415, but is no longer preserved in its original layout, since it was redesigned by August von Voit in 1839/1840 . Compared to the Art Nouveau festival hall, the old department store is rather small and is mainly used for smaller concerts, lectures and exhibitions.
The Landau museum landscape has very different offers for its visitors:
The historical city museum with archive has been located in the renovated Alte Bahnpost at the main station since 2009. It was previously housed in the Wilhelminian-style villa Haus Mahla . The main focus of the exhibition is the history of the Vauban Fortress Landau with a model of the city from 1740, as well as exhibits on bourgeois and peasant living culture as well as cooper and winemaking equipment . The museum also houses a collection of paintings by well-known Landau artists such as Heinrich Jakob Fried and Friedrich Ferdinand Koch.
In addition, a large number of documents on the city's history, 17,000 volumes of scientific literature, Landau newspapers from 1792 and 120,000 photographs are stored in the city archive and made accessible to the public.
The Frank-Loebsche Haus , which is also important in terms of art history, was reopened in 1987 after extensive renovations as a documentation and memorial site. It is closely linked to the history of Landau Jewry, which can be clearly seen in an extensive permanent exhibition. The persecution of Palatinate Jews, Sinti and Roma during the Third Reich is in the foreground.
The Art Nouveau house of the well-known Palatinate landscape painter Heinrich Strieffler (1872–1949) has been used as a museum and gallery since 1990 , with his daughter's estate being shown in addition to his own estate. In addition, there are changing exhibitions all year round, mainly with "Old Palatinate painting".
Villa Streccius , built in 1882 in neo -renaissance style , now serves as the municipal gallery and is used for three to four exhibitions a year. The driving force is the art association "Villa Streccius", founded in 1980, which organizes a large number of artistic activities in cooperation with municipal authorities. B. self-responsible exhibitions, lectures and events on art and culture, as well as a painting workshop for children and young people, studio visits and much more.
In the Landau Kutschen-Kabinett , the focus is on a replica of a Landauer , a type of carriage with a folding top. In an extensive collection, further exhibits are e.g. B. carriages, sleighs, horse harness, but also woodcuts and copperplate engravings on the subject of 5000 years of wheels and carts .
In 1987 the house at Westbahnhof was opened in Landau as an independent center for cultural exchange. The association for life and culture is responsible for the socio-cultural center . V. , which was founded in the early 1980s out of the ecology and peace movement . Today the house at Westbahnhof is organized in the Rhineland-Palatinate umbrella organization of socio-cultural centers, the LAG Socioculture & Cultural Education .
- Monument zones
Landau in der Pfalz has a well-preserved or rebuilt old town with many baroque and classicist buildings despite the war damage. Meerweibchenstrasse and Martin-Luther-Strasse in the south and the area between Rathausplatz and Stadthausgasse in the north are particularly well preserved.
There are still a number of historicist and art nouveau buildings along the Landau Ringstrasse . The inner city ring has an unusually elaborate and magnificent construction for the size of the city and is almost completely preserved as it can otherwise only be found on the even larger ring roads in Vienna and Wiesbaden .
The fort forms an outer structure of the Landau fortress . This fort was a former fortress on which a campus of the University of Koblenz-Landau and the buildings of the Landau secondary school are located today . The best preserved walls of the fort are the north and west walls and are freely accessible north of the old measuring site . In addition, the Landau Zoo is housed within the original layout of the fort , although the eastern walls within the zoo grounds are not freely accessible. In addition to the still visible fortifications, other buildings distributed over the city are reminiscent of the French and Bavarian garrison times, such as the former warehouse buildings from 1862 on the former Reduit 13 , which have since become the Chopin district .
- Individual monuments
The city's distinctive landmark in the center of the old town is the Protestant collegiate church , consecrated in 1333 , the oldest church in the city and one of the few relics of the medieval country house that survived the devastating city fire of 1689. On the Stiftsplatz in front of the church there is a monument of Martin Luther by the sculptor Martin Mayer . The end of the old town is formed by the German Gate in the north and the French Gate in the south as imposing remains of the former fortress.
The Bismarck Tower is located in Luitpoldpark on the edge of the fort. Next to Reduit 13 is the listed oat magazine on Queich between Weißquartierstraße and Reduitstraße, which was built as a feed store from 1914 to 1916 on behalf of the Bavarian military administration . The Rote Kaserne, which was built between 1756 and 1759, is located on Marktstrasse.
The Roman Catholic parish church of St. Maria is located south of the city center at the transition from the south to the Marienring. Because of its impressive size in the neo-Romanesque cathedral style, it is also known as Landau Cathedral . One of the most important Art Nouveau buildings in southern Germany is the Festhalle, also known as the Art Nouveau Festival Hall . It was built from 1905 to 1907 and, after extensive renovation, is used as a multifunctional event location. The architect was Hermann Goerke , who later also planned the Bismarck Tower described above.
One of the few buildings that are reminiscent of the Nazi era is the Lion Monument on Untertorplatz, which was created in 1936 by Bernhard Bleeker as a memorial for the fallen Palatinate soldiers of the First World War. The lion's grim gaze is directed to the southwest, in the direction of the previous and subsequent enemy, France. Today a notice board on the monument provides information about the historical background of the construction.
Other listed buildings are the Galley Tower, the old department store , the Böckingsche Palais, the Frank-Loebsche House , the Villa Streccius , the Justice Building, the Landauer Volksbank , the Pestalozzi School , the Strieffler House, the City Library, the Villa Ufer, the Schlössl, the Augustinerkirche with cloister and cross garden, the Katharinenkapelle and within the forest enclave the forester's house Taubensuhl.
The city center is also about a not accessible to the public telecommunications tower, which structurally is a type of tower is of type FMT 9th
Nature and parks
There are a total of 30 natural monuments in the urban area . There are also numerous green spaces in the city, such as the Goethepark, the Kreuzgarten, the Luitpoldpark, the Nordpark, the Ostpark with the Schwanenweiher , the Savoyenpark, the Schillerpark and the Südwestpark. Launch date of the zoo is 24 July 1904. The zoo area stretches along the French historic Fort systems .
State horticultural show
From April 17 to October 18, 2015, the state horticultural show took place on the former barracks grounds in the south of the city . Due to numerous bombs found, the garden show originally planned for 2014 was postponed for a year.
- Benefit concert of the Hans Rosenthal Foundation
- Festival of feather white
- Goethepark chats
- ImWoBau - real estate, living, building (trade fair)
- La.Meko Film Festival (April / May)
- International Palatinate Saumagen Competition
- Landau talks
- Landau summer
- Landau Christmas Circus
- Landauer Wirtschaftswoche
- May and autumn markets
- Weekly market (Tuesday and Saturday)
With over 5000 members, the largest sports club in the city, which at times was also the largest in Rhineland-Palatinate, is the ASV Landau . Also located in the city is the Horst Sport-Verein ( HSV Landau ), where the former Bundesliga player Benjamin Auer started in the youth department.
In the Landau Südstadt, the inline hockey club IHC Landau 1999 e. V. is located in the former French sports hall, which made it into the 2nd Bundesliga of the ISHD through its championship in 2006 in the Regionalliga Süd-West.
The Landau chess club, founded in 1908, was promoted to the 2nd Bundesliga South in 2015, but was unable to hold on. With twelve registered teams and over 100 members, the club is one of the largest chess clubs in Rhineland-Palatinate. Several individual titles could be won: Rolf Bernhardt (1959 German youth champion, 1967 and 1968 German cup winner), Henning Silber (2001 German youth champion in rapid chess), Torsten Lang (2012 German champion in rapid chess).
Economy and Infrastructure
in the growing area
Rank among all
according to vineyards
(in ha )
In 2016, Landau achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 1.857 billion within the city limits . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 40,655 (Rhineland-Palatinate: € 34,118, Germany € 38,180) and was thus above the regional and national average. The GDP per labor force is € 58,311. In 2016, around 31,900 people were employed in the city. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 4.5% and thus slightly above the average for Rhineland-Palatinate of 4.1%.
Landau in the Palatinate is significantly shaped by viticulture and with 2039 hectares of vineyards it is the largest wine-growing community in Rhineland-Palatinate . Important companies represented locally include Michelin , a plant of the Pechiney Aluminum Group and the owner-managed wholesaler Chr. Ufer GmbH with a company history of over 225 years. Insolvency proceedings were opened on April 1, 2011 through the Schlott Group's wwk gravure printing plant . Landau has an extensive range of retail and services.
The company Frey & Kissel , the K&K Verlagsanstalt , the Empirische Pädagogik publishing house , the Vinzentius Hospital , the Sparkasse Südliche Weinstrasse and the VR Bank Südpfalz are located in Landau . Landau is the seat of Gummi-Mayer , the former largest tire dealer and retreader in Germany, and APL Automobil-Prüftechnik Landau GmbH.
There are 68 oil production sites of the Landau oil field in the municipality of Landau . The oil is stored under the Nussdorf plaice at a depth of 500 to 1,800 meters. It has been pumped by the BASF subsidiary Wintershall since 1955 using horse head pumps ; In 2011 the output was 21,050 tons, with the water content in the oil being around 90%. The oil is further processed in the MiRO refinery in Karlsruhe . 30 people are employed at the Landau branch of Wintershall Holding GmbH.
Geothermal pioneer town of Landau
On August 15 and September 14, 2009, light seismic events of magnitude 2.7 and 2.4 on the Richter scale occurred in Landau. The Rhineland-Palatinate Ministry of the Environment has commissioned a commission of experts to examine this seismicity for a possible connection with power plant operation. On November 11, 2009, the company operating the geothermal system initiated the resumption of trial operation with upstream functional tests. The Rhineland-Palatinate Ministry of Economic Affairs had previously confirmed that the power plant met all the necessary safety criteria.
Except Dammheim all parts move into the drinking water of EnergieSüdwest. Around 60 percent of this comes from springs, the rest is taken directly from the groundwater . The spring water is released in the west of Landau.
In the course of the Haingeraide , Landau was involved in the so-called first Haingeraide - alternatively Ober-Haingeraide - which was dissolved in the early modern period and most of which was subordinated to the city. Nussdorf and Godramstein were also involved in the first Haingeraide, and their forest dexclaves have been the continuation of the Landau urban forest since it was incorporated.
Long-distance DB services can be reached with a change at the main train stations in Mannheim or Karlsruhe. The closest international airport is Frankfurt am Main, which can be reached by public transport via Mannheim.
In 1855, Landau was connected to the railway network with the construction of the Neustadt – Wissembourg railway line called Maximiliansbahn . With the opening of the Germersheim – Landau railway in 1872 and the southern Palatinate railway via Annweiler to Zweibrücken in 1875, the city became a railway junction. In 1898 the branch line to Herxheim followed . The routes to Herxheim and Germersheim were closed in the 1980s. From 1913 to 1953, the Pfälzer Oberlandbahn, an overland tram, ran from Neustadt to Landau.
Today the central station is the hub of local transport . While the Maximiliansbahn has no other stops in the city, the Queichtalbahn has three more stations through the southern Palatinate with the stops Landau West , Landau Süd and a train station in the Godramstein district; From the beginning of the 20th century, Dammheim had a stop on the line to Germersheim and Mörlheim one on the branch line to Herxheim. From 1921 to 1993, Landau was also the location of a railway depot
With the lines 535, 536, 537, 538 and 539 there are four inner-city bus routes. The remaining lines, which lead into the surrounding area, are mainly operated by QNV (Queichtal-Nahverkehr GmbH).
From 2022 there will be new connections between the town villages and the various districts with the Landau-Takt, including a free old town shuttle , which will replace the abolition of the parking spaces in Königsstraße. The respective lines should run every 30 minutes and therefore more frequently than before. On each of these new lines there should then be at least two opportunities to switch to another new line.
The tourist German Wine Route at the foot of the Palatinate Forest is in the immediate vicinity of the city center and for a short time runs over the district of Arzheim. The Queichtal cycle path leads through the middle of the city . Numerous hiking trails in the Palatinate Forest also lead through the forest enclave .
- Public prosecutor
- district Court
- District Court
- Seat of the district administration Südliche Weinstrasse
- Seat of the Landau-Land association
- Institute for Hygiene and Infection Protection of the State Investigation Office Rhineland-Palatinate
- Landau surveying and land registry office
- Haardt Forestry Office
- Landau tax office
The University of Koblenz-Landau , founded in 1990, has a campus in Landau, the focus of the courses here is in the areas of teacher training, educational science , psychology and social and environmental science. The university emerged from the Rhineland-Palatinate University of Education (EWH). In the 2015/16 winter semester, around 7,700 students were enrolled at the Landau campus.
The Center for Distance Learning and University Further Education (ZFUW) at the University of Koblenz-Landau , which has existed since 1991, offers scientific further education in the following areas in cooperation with its departments: energy, health, management / business administration and the environment. The ZFUW's program includes distance learning courses with diploma and master’s degrees, one-semester distance learning courses with specific job-related content, university certificate courses, and day and weekend seminars. Since autumn 2010 the ZFUW has also been located on the Landau campus, and in 2011 the ZFUW was converted into a central operating unit for the entire University of Koblenz-Landau. Since September 2014 the newly founded Peace Academy Rhineland-Palatinate - Academy for Crisis Prevention & Civil Conflict Management has its headquarters in the Frank Loebschen Haus in Landau. It is a special scientific institution of the University of Koblenz-Landau. Its tasks include peace studies public relations as well as research and teaching. In addition, the RLP Peace Academy is characterized by a continuing education program in peace education.
Due to the large catchment area, Landau has three state grammar schools ( Max Slevogt , Eduard Spranger and Otto Hahn grammar school ) and a private Catholic girls' school with grammar school and secondary school (Maria Ward school). There is also a dual secondary school in the Ost Schulzentrum Ost , Hauptschule (West - Schule im Fort), a dual secondary school, the Herman-Gmeiner secondary school, which was closed in 2000, a secondary school (Konrad-Adenauer-Realschule), a state vocational school , a scientific technical center (Künkele Institute) and eleven elementary schools as well as a private Montessori school in the form of a primary and integrated comprehensive school. The school offer is rounded off by five special schools in different orientations.
In the Contor Regio ranking of the educational strongholds among the medium-sized cities in Germany, Landau took first place in 2020.
Leisure and sports facilities
The best-known leisure facility is the Landau Zoo in the Palatinate , which has existed since 1904 and is located near the fort. A comparable facility is the Reptilium , a terrarium and desert zoo in the southeast of the city . Since the 2015 State Horticultural Show in Landau, there have been other leisure facilities and a park in the south of the city on the former barracks site.
The Südpfalz Stadium and the outdoor swimming pool are located on the western outskirts of the city and have reopened since summer 2008 after being renovated. On the other side of town is the La Ola leisure pool and the Filmwelt cinema . The smaller “Universum” cinema is located in the city center.
The Landau Youth House was opened on September 3, 1983 in the "Red Barracks", a former barracks building of the French armed forces in Germany ( Forces françaises en Allemagne ) as part of the conversions. The Horstring municipal youth club also belongs to it as a branch .
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- GeoPortal Landau: Population statistics, December 2011 ( Memento from February 5, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) The core city of Landau in its original boundaries is divided into the statistical districts 10 to 19. The other districts correspond to statistical districts.
- District : Rhineland-Palatinate district directory ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) ( ZIP ; 249 kB)
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- Michael Martin: Brief history of the city of Landau . 2nd Edition. G. Braun Buchverlag, Karlsruhe 2011, ISBN 3-7650-8340-2 , pp. 118-119.
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- The order in which the churches and denominations are presented is alphabetical
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