Second Paris Peace
The Second Paris Peace was in the Definitive Tractate on November 20, 1815 by King Friedrich Wilhelm III. Signed by Prussia , Emperor Franz I of Austria and Tsar Alexander I of Russia . It was closed after the reign of the Hundred Days of Napoleon in the summer campaign of 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo finally failed. The defeated France had to comply with further demands of the Allies for the renewed armed conflict.
The First Peace of Paris on May 30, 1814 and the final act of the Congress of Vienna on June 9, 1815 were confirmed.
On the same day, the Quadruple Alliance of 1814 was signed again in a separate document .
France received the borders of 1790 without the fortresses Philippeville , Mariembourg , Saarlouis and Landau in the Palatinate with the enclaves lying within these borders. Saarbrücken and Savoy remained outside French territory during the Second Peace of Paris. In addition, reparations of 700 million francs were imposed on France . Among other things, the map series of the four departments on the left bank of the Rhine, created by the geographer Colonel Jean Joseph Tranchot and his colleagues, had to be handed over to Prussia, which the French state had prevented until then. Baron Karl von Müffling , who was entrusted with the continuation of the surveying work , had already tried to publish the maps and records since 1814, as he was aware of the high scientific and technological value of engineering.
The Second Peace of Paris gave Switzerland the six municipalities of Versoix , Collex-Bossy , Le Grand-Saconnex , Pregny , Vernier and Meyrin in the Pays de Gex , with which the city of Geneva gained a land connection with the rest of Switzerland. The French border fortress Hüningen near Basel was razed. With the Second Peace of Paris, the great powers ultimately granted Switzerland permanent armed neutrality and the inviolability of their territory. The former should in future form Switzerland's foreign policy framework.
- Traité de Paix signed in Paris on May 30th 1814, et Traités et conventions signed in the mème ville on November 20th 1815 . Libr. Grecque-Latine-Allemande, Paris 1815 digitized
- V. Besotosny: Otetschestvennaja woina 1812 goda: enziklopedija . Rosspen, Moscow 2004, ISBN 978-5-8243-0324-7 , pp. 547-548.
- Contract text in German
- Rita Stöckli: Peace in Paris. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- ↑ 200 years of the Congress of Vienna: Negotiations instead of wars ; in Neue Zürcher Zeitung from September 18, 2014
- ↑ The birth of Swiss neutrality ; in 20 minutes from November 20, 2015