History of Frankfurt am Main

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Coat of arms of the city of Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt from the south-west, around 1617/18
(detail of a copper engraving by Matthäus Merian the Elder )
City area and Landwehr, between 1712 and 1714
(copper engraving by Johann Baptist Homann , area boundaries corrected after Friedrich Bothe )

The story of Frankfurt am Main is the story of the development from an imperial palace to a banking metropolis in Europe. The story of a hill on the banks of the Main by a ford that developed into the smallest metropolis in the world (as the incumbent councilors like to call it themselves). The top of the cathedral tower marks the geographical position of the city at exactly 50 ° 6 ′ 42.5 ″ north and 8 ° 41 ′ 9.4 ″ east; These exact numbers do not provide any information about the eventful history of the city that was often at the center of German and European history without ever having been a real capital . Nevertheless, Frankfurt am Main is often referred to as the capital in German mass media . B. as the financial capital ; other names are Bankfurt or Mainhattan .

Early history

View from the cathedral tower to the remains of Roman and early medieval foundations on the cathedral hill

At the place of today's Frankfurt old town there was originally a swampy valley , crossed by numerous arms of the Main . It was therefore built on later than the plateau above . The Roman road , the so called Elisabethenstraße in the Middle Ages , from Mainz ( Mogontiacum ) via Heddernheim ( Nida ) to Friedberg bypassed this area. A Roman road from the Roman capital Nida ( civitas Taunensium today Heddernheim ) already led in Roman times over the Mainfurt to the south Main Civitas capital Dieburg and to Groß-Gerau , where there was an important intersection with a connection to the Römerstraße on the right bank of the Rhine. Numerous field names still show that the lowland on both sides of the river was covered with forest.

The oldest part of Frankfurt's old town is the Cathedral Hill (including today's Römerberg ), which protruded as an island from the branches of the Main and the marshland. It could only be reached from the west with dry feet. It is close to a ford that was used to cross the river very early on and was therefore of economic and military importance.

Archaeological finds on the cathedral hill go back to the Neolithic . However, there is evidence of first settlement and development not until Roman times. It is assumed that the Roman settlement of the cathedral hill began in the last quarter of the first century AD; so one found the remains of a Roman bath, which should have belonged to a larger complex, probably a fort . Presumably the military position was given up again in the course of the 2nd century and replaced by a villa , a Roman manor house. Some farm buildings have also been archaeologically developed ( main article: Roman settlement on the Frankfurt Cathedral Hill ).

Roman manors ( villae rusticae ) were located at the Bockenheimer Friedhof, at the portal of the main cemetery , on the Rebstock (street "Am Römerhof"), near the site of today 's Günthersburgpark in the north end and possibly in the Riederwald near the medieval Riederhof estate. With the withdrawal of the Roman border onto the Rhine in 259/260, Roman history in Frankfurt seems to have ended.

middle Ages

Early middle ages

Mention of Frankfurt in the Libellus sacrosyllabus , which was presented by Paulinus of Aquileia at the synod of 794 (clm 14468, fol. 42r-42v)
Historicizing statue of Charlemagne in Frankfurt

Frankfurt is mentioned for the first time in a document dated February 22, 794 super fluvium Moin in loco nuncupante Franconofurd (= "On the river Main in the place called Frankfurt"), with which Charlemagne donated some fields and meadows to the monastery of Sankt Emmeram . After Christmas 793, Charlemagne came to Frankfurt from Würzburg , where a royal court had been located on the cathedral hill since the late Merovingian period in the 7th century . In 1992, during excavations in the cathedral, the richly decorated grave of a girl from the high Franconian nobility was found, who was buried at the beginning of the 8th century.

In June 794, Charles assembled the bishops of the Franconian Empire for the Synod of Frankfurt , at which adoptionism was condemned and the image service rejected. In the introduction to the Libellus sacrosyllabus , an opinion that Paulinus of Aquileia presented to the Synod, he notes about the venue:

“Habito in suburbanis Moguntiae metropolitane civitatis, in regione Germaniae, in loco celebri, qui dicitur Franconofurd”

"I live in the metropolitan region of the city of Mainz, in the Germania region, in an important place called Frankfurt."

- Paulinus of Aquileia : Libellus sacrosyllabus

At that time, Frankfurt was an important place in the Mainz area.

Fastrada , Karl's fourth wife, died on August 10, 794 in Frankfurt. He left the place and never returned in his lifetime. Ludwig the Pious , his son, chose Frankfurt as his residence, extended the royal court to the royal palace of Frankfurt , had an even larger palace built and surrounded the city in 838 with walls and moats.

After the Treaty of Verdun (843), Frankfurt temporarily became the capital of the East Franconian Empire and was therefore also called Principalis sedes regni orientalis . The frequent stay of the emperors and kings in Frankfurt, the repeated diets and church assemblies held here , the establishment of a spiritual monastery and numerous donations to the local church sustainably promoted the urban community. Even when the German emperors no longer had a permanent residence , Frankfurt remained the imperial chamber estate and the capital of Eastern Franconia.

High Middle Ages

preserved remains of the Staufen wall
Frankfurt am Main in the Middle Ages

A secular and ecclesiastical event at the same time brought Frankfurt back into focus after a less important city epoch under the Salian and Saxon emperors. Bernhard von Clairvaux called in 1147 from the Palatine Chapel (today's Old Nikolaikirche ) in a stirring sermon the Staufer Konrad III. to participate in the second crusade . Before he left for Jerusalem , he had his 10-year-old son chosen as his successor at the Frankfurt Hoftag, but he died before his father. Therefore, five years later, there was another election in Frankfurt. After Emperor Friedrich I was “put on the shield” here in 1152, this custom made the city the elected city of the German kings.

Under the Staufer emperors, Frankfurt, which was first referred to as the “ oppidum ” (urban market place) around 1140 , experienced an upswing and strong growth. In its time the city won the market, the wall, the Main Bridge, the coin and the fair. Around 1180 the urban area was greatly expanded; the new border was formed by the Staufen wall , which surrounded the area of ​​today's old town . The Frankfurt mint was first mentioned in a document in 1194 .

In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II confirmed the privilege of the Frankfurt Autumn Fair . In this oldest document for the fair in Frankfurt, which developed from a fair with agricultural products and has long since overtaken the city of Mainz as a trading center, it says: ... that we all and every one of us who come to the fair in Frankfurt are among ours and provide the empire with special protection. We command that no one dare coming and going ... that will hinder or harass ... .

In 1245 Frankfurt became an immediate imperial city . The Frankfurt Schöffengericht was the Oberhof (upper court) for the entire Wetterau , which was "terra imperii", and the surrounding area. At first most of the city's income belonged to the empire; only later, especially under Heinrich IV and Friedrich II , were this income and even the administration itself pledged or sold.

Power in the city was first in the hands of royal officials, the bailiff and the mayor. Even earlier, however, the citizens elected their own mayors with assessors, who were responsible for the police administration and lower jurisdiction. Since these enjoyed the favor of the emperor, the dignity of the bailiffs was completely abolished at the time of the interregnum (1257).

Late Middle Ages

The Eschenheimer Tor , the only still existing city gate from the fortifications from 1333
Seal on the Golden Bull
Charles IV issues the Golden Bull

Strong growth in the 14th century

Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian , to whom the citizens opened the gates of the city (although Friedrich the Handsome of Austria had already occupied Sachsenhausen ), gave Frankfurt in 1329 permission to redeem all of their pledged income, offices and rights and to keep them until the Reich redeemed them . He extended the trade fair privilege of Messe Frankfurt and allowed the spring trade fair to be held (1330). In addition, he forbade the building of new castles on the Main and the application of new tariffs within a radius of ten hours. He granted the city the right to form alliances and in 1333 approved another enormous expansion of the walled city area.

He did this not entirely unselfishly, because Frankfurt was involved in Ludwig's dispute with the Pope ( John XXII ) despite the ban beam and interdict ( ban on worship) and also made financial donations. This practically laid the foundation stone for the enormous upswing of the city of Frankfurt as a trading and trade fair city that followed. In the middle of the century the city had around 10,000 inhabitants, a high that was not exceeded again until the beginning of the 16th century. In the period that followed, the citizens of Frankfurt built a new fortification , of which the Eschenheimer tower is still preserved today.

Far outside this city wall, the Frankfurter Landwehr was built after the approval of King Wenzel (1393) . This complex, consisting of thorns and bushes, the construction of which stretched over the next 150 years, was provided with waiting towers at the intersections with the major arterial roads . In addition to military defense, the aim of the Landwehr was also to visually delimit its own territory, especially from the Lords and Counts of Hanau , with whom there were repeated political disputes.

In the middle of the 14th century, Frankfurt was primarily the center of the cloth trade. More than 300 members of the weavers' guild stored their goods in the houses around the exhibition grounds during trade fairs, including in the vaults of today's town hall, the Römer , named after the Italian merchants who lived there during trade fairs. In 1405 the city bought this and several neighboring town houses and converted them into a town hall .

The Golden Bull

In Frankfurt, too, the municipal offices gradually became an inheritance of individual old families. This gave rise to many disputes with the guilds . For this reason, Emperor Charles IV divided the council into three - each consisting of 14 members - banks of lay judges, the community and the guilds.

With the Golden Bull in 1356, Frankfurt became the permanent electoral city of the German kings , with the obligation to shield the electoral act . The city had to make sure that none of the electors had more than 250 people with them, including a maximum of 50 armed men. All foreigners also had to leave the city on election day.

Emancipation from the empire and the surrounding area

Ulrich III. During this time, von Hanau pursued a policy close to the king, which enabled him to strengthen his rights around Frankfurt, especially in the area of ​​the Bornheimerberg office . He managed to him Frankfurt City Forest (1360) and in Frankfurt itself the office of mayor Empire (1349) as a pawn to get through lending to the Emperor's hand. In doing so, he threatened to include Frankfurt from the outside and undermine its independence from the inside, especially since the ongoing conflict between patricians and craftsmen in Frankfurt did not calm down. So he worked in 1358 as an arbitrator between the parties. However, the multiple mayor of the city, Siegfried zum Paradies , succeeded in 1363, Ulrich III. to push out of this threatening position for Frankfurt by taking the credit of Ulrich III. to the king personally. So he could meet these ambitions of Ulrich III. fend off.

But now Siegfried became too powerful a paradise for the other patricians. With the Emperor Charles IV, who was always in need of money, they achieved large sums of money - a total of 17,600 guilders flowed - that the emperor released his pledges from Siegfried to Paradise and left the mayor's office and city forest to the city.

The father-in-law of Siegfried zum Paradies, Jakob Knoblauch , who obtained important privileges from the emperors Ludwig and Karl IV, such as the right to mint , did some services to Frankfurt . Knoblauch also acquired the dilapidated imperial palace , the Saalhof and its Domanialgut , and restored it.

In 1362 , Charles IV pledged the Jewish shelf to the city. As a result, the Jews , who were among the earliest inhabitants of Frankfurt, actually went from chamber servants to the emperor's guardian Jews . One hundred years later, following a corresponding intervention by the emperor, the city council forced all local Jews - previously the Jews lived between Bartholomäuskirche and Main - to move to a closed ghetto on the eastern edge of the city. The Frankfurt Judengasse remained de facto until 1796, de jure until 1811.

Conflicts with neighboring princes

Defeat of the Frankfurters in the Battle of Eschborn 1389 (unknown artist)

Other princes all around envied the city on the Main's rising prosperity and embroiled it in numerous feuds . In 1389 the imperial city suffered the greatest military defeat in its history in the Kronberg feud against the Kronberg knights and their allies. Previously, the city had decided to take action on the side of the Rhenish Association of Cities against Ruprecht von der Pfalz in the city ​​war , but 40 to 100 of the more than 2000 armed men and numerous unarmed men were killed in the decisive battle on May 14, 1389. Another 600 prisoners (including council members) you had to buy ransom money with 73,000 guilders . The Limburg Chronicle notes: “So the little bunch knocked down the big bunch. That was not a miracle, for the large group fled and the small group quarreled. O Frankfurt! Frankfurt! Remember this battle! ” .

From then on the city shifted to an effective alliance policy by including the former opponents with money and contracts in a system of mutual dependencies and obligations. By the end of the medieval feud system by Emperor I. Maximilian eternal peace , the imperial city, maintained its armed neutrality example, in Mainz Diocesan Feud 1462. 1495 was to preserve the public peace , the Imperial Court as the highest judicial body in the Holy Roman Empire created (later moved to Speyer ) .

Modern times

16th to 18th century

Renaissance and Reformation

From the 16th century, arts and crafts flourished, the sciences were cultivated, the invention of the printing press in nearby Mainz promoted education and intelligence here too. From the 15th to the 17th century, the most important book fair in Germany was located in Frankfurt (again since 1949).

The Reformation entered Frankfurt in 1530. After some hesitation, Frankfurt joined the Schmalkaldic League in 1536 , but in December 1546, after the unfortunate campaign of the allies on the Danube , opened the gates to the imperial family.

In the years 1531–1546 several convents of the Protestant princes were held in Frankfurt, as was the case in March 1558 here at a Reichstag, the Frankfurt Recess named after the city . In this agreement between the Electoral Palatinate , Electoral Saxony , Kurbrandenburg , Hesse , Palatinate-Zweibrücken and Württemberg it was declared that they wanted to adhere to the Augsburg Confession .

In the 16th century, the Frankfurt Reformation emerged in several steps , one of the most comprehensive urban law modifications in Germany. Involved in it were u. a. Adam Schönwetter von Heimbach and Johann Fichard . In the version of 1611 it remained valid as a particular law, which was only replaced on January 1, 1900 by the civil code that was uniformly valid throughout the German Empire . For the villages that belonged to the rulership of the city of Frankfurt, the Solms Land Law was introduced by resolution of the City Council of Frankfurt on August 20, 1726 , which was subsidiary as far as the Frankfurt Reformation contained no regulation.

In the second half of the 16th century, many Dutch families who had been expelled because of their beliefs settled in Frankfurt . Most of you professed Reformed beliefs. They greatly encouraged the city's entrepreneurship and commercial activity. Soon, however, they came into conflict with the city ​​council, which was controlled by Lutheran patricians . Public Reformed worship was banned and therefore the first Reformed churches in Frankfurt were not built until 1787.

Due to its great importance as a trading and trade fair city of continental importance, the problem arose that the currencies of countless countries were circulating in Frankfurt. The lack of fixed exchange rates often resulted in fraud and usury . In 1585, the Frankfurt trade fair merchants agreed for the first time on exchange rates for the various currencies and on rules for their trading: the Frankfurt Stock Exchange was founded.

Frankfurt at the beginning of the 17th century. Watercolor by Peter Becker , 1887

Fatty milk riot

The Judengasse was pillaged during the Fettmilch uprising

When Emperor Matthias confirmed the city's privileges in 1612 , there were considerable disturbances of the peace. A part of the bourgeoisie, especially journeyman craftsmen, rose up against the council under the direction of the baker Vinzenz Fettmilch in the Fettmilch revolt against the council, and the mob plundered the Judengasse , the city's ghetto . The emperor commissioned Mainz and Hessen-Darmstadt to restore order. However, this only succeeded in 1616 with the establishment of a new location and the abolition of the guild system . The Jews obtained a mandatum poenale restitutorium from the emperor , returned to the city with military escort and made the day of their return (20th Adar ) an annual feast day, which was named Purim Vinz .

Thirty Years' War

Frankfurt in 1628

In the Thirty Years War Frankfurt was able to maintain its neutrality. The City Council had after the negative experiences in the Schmalkaldic War avoided to choose one side of the opponents. It became critical between 1631 and 1635, when the Swedish regent Gustav Adolf took quarters in Frankfurt and even demanded pay and provisions for his troops. But the city was able to cope with these adversities more easily than the consequences of the war. In particular, raged in the city, as in the whole of Europe this time, the plague . In the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 Frankfurt was confirmed as an imperial city and soon regained new prosperity. In 1681 a congress of German princes took place here to oppose French arbitrariness; but because of disputes over rank among the ambassadors, there was no result. When the citizens turned to the emperor because of the oppressive taxes and the arbitrary regiment, he gave the city constitution a contemporary change by setting up the citizens' committee. For more than 100 years, the city has been spared from armed conflicts.

18th century

The Great Christian Fire, a three-day city fire, destroyed more than 400 houses in 1719. In 1742, Frankfurt even became a residential city for almost three years, because the then Emperor Karl Albrecht of Bavaria ( Charles VII ) lived in the Palais Barckhaus an der Zeil until October 1744 . The beginning of the Enlightenment not only brings economic, but also cultural impulses to the city of Frankfurt. Citizens inform themselves in the Frankfurt question and display news , those interested in politics rather read the Frankfurt Mercurius . Georg Philipp Telemann was music director at the Katharinenkirche from 1712 to 1721 ; Goethe was born in 1749 ; In 1763 Mozart and “ Nannerl ” played four evenings in a hall on Liebfrauenberg; In 1784 Schiller's Kabale und Liebe was premiered in the Frankfurt National Theater. The coronations of Leopold II in 1790 and two years later of Franz II were also outstanding events, the monumental festive character of which is described in several reports from this period.

In 1753 Voltaire with his secretary Cosimo Alessandro Collini and finally also a niece of Voltaire were detained in the city by the Prussian representative Baron Franz von Freytag for over a month, initially on the charge of having stolen a lyrical manuscript from the Prussian king and finally before its release Freytag robbed, after which Voltaire furiously sought his punishment. Three years later, during the Seven Years' War , Frankfurt was occupied by the French and, despite major protests, retained the occupation until the end of the war.

Period of the French Revolution

French occupation

Bombardment of Frankfurt on 13./14. July 1796

In the First Coalition War , General Custine captured Frankfurt on October 23, 1792 and imposed payments of 2 million guilders on the city . On December 2nd of that year, the Prussians and Hesse, returning from Champagne , recaptured the city. As a souvenir of the battle, the Hessendenkmal was erected at Friedberger Tor . In 1796 Frankfurt was occupied by the Austrian General von Wartensleben . But he could not hold himself against the French under Jean-Baptiste Kléber , who had the city bombarded on July 13th and 14th. The bombardment caused severe damage in the city, especially in Judengasse . For the Jews of the city, the bombardment de facto meant the end of the ghetto compulsion that had existed for over 300 years. The renewed tribute payment of 6 million francs in cash and 2 million in deliveries was a heavy burden for the city. The city was then declared neutral on December 2, 1796, which the Reich Deputation Recess to Regensburg of February 25, 1803 confirmed. While at that time almost all imperial cities lost their imperial immediacy, Frankfurt remained an imperial city and also received all the spiritual possessions in its area.

Grand Duchy of Frankfurt

The Grand Duchy of 1812

In January 1806 General Augereau occupied the city with 9,000 men and extorted another 4 million francs from it. With the foundation of the Rheinbund , Frankfurt lost its independence and was incorporated into the states of the Prince-Primate Karl Theodor von Dalberg . Frankfurt was to become the seat of the Bundestag of the Rhine Confederation , but this Bundestag was ultimately not realized.

On September 6, 1806, he entered government, declared all religious parties to be eligible for state offices and granted the Jews civil rights. However, he was unable to resist external violence. In 1810, Frankfurt formally became the capital of the newly created Grand Duchy of Frankfurt , a Napoleonic satellite state or model state .

During this time the city underwent major changes in its urban structure. The centuries-old fortifications were dismantled. In addition to the land gain, it was also connected with the intention that without the fortification walls there would be no more damage from cannon fire. Gardens were built in their place . Goethe's mother wrote to her son Wolfgang on July 1, 1808 : "The old ramparts have been removed, the old gates torn down, a park around the whole city." The ramparts, which are still valid today , have largely protected the ramparts from building. so that Ms. Goethe's statement continues.

Free City of Frankfurt

Free City of Frankfurt and the German Confederation

The Freiherr vom Stein was made an honorary citizen of the city because of his services

On November 2, 1813, the parties allied against Napoleon moved into Frankfurt, promised the city to restore their old rights in December and set up a central administrative council under the direction of Freiherr vom Stein . The Vienna Congress Act declared Frankfurt a Free City of the German Confederation , and in 1816 it became the seat of the Bundestag . This government agency resided in the Palais Thurn und Taxis . Goethe himself encouraged the councilors when he visited his hometown for the last time in 1815 with the words: "A free city deserves a free mind ... It is proper Frankfurt to shine from all sides and to be active in all directions."

The city took this advice to heart. In line with the federal act passed at the Congress of Vienna , it also gave itself an amended constitution , the constitutional supplementary act . The Christian denominations were regarded as having equal rights, and the Jews were also given the right to trade in goods and to establish factories, which in particular helped the Rothschild family from Frankfurt to establish international business relationships. From the educated bourgeoisie , too, patrons became active, such as the merchant Johann Friedrich Städel ( Städel ), the Senckenberg Natural Research Society or the trade and trade association founded by the economist Friedrich List , which had the aim of eliminating all customs duties and freedom of trade. The then lecturer Arthur Schopenhauer moved from Berlin to Frankfurt in 1831 and justified this with the lines: “A healthy climate, beautiful area, amenities in big cities, the natural history museum, better theater, opera and concerts, more English people, better coffee houses, no bad water ... and a better dentist. "


Contemporary copper engraving for the guard tower

During the time of the German Confederation decided at the Congress of Vienna , Frankfurt was the political center of Germany. The restoration- minded political system under the driving force of Prince von Metternich , which promoted the preservation of the princely small states , was cause for the population to oppose.

The censorship of the press and high customs and tax duties , which hindered economic growth, were the roots of the opposition, alongside the newly emerging, enlightening ideological striving of the bourgeoisie. The attempted coup during the French July Revolution (1830), the Polish November Uprising (1830/31) and the Belgian Revolution (1830/31) increased the desire for innovation. The German Confederation tried to thwart the fraternization of the Frankfurters with the passing Poles who fled the Russian repression.

The movement striving for national unity , freedom and popular sovereignty organized solemn gatherings, such as the Hambach Festival in 1832, which was also expressed in an offshoot of the Sandhof Festival in Frankfurt am Main, in which 4,000 people took part.

More radical people from the opposition movement in Vormärz organized the armed uprising. This poorly prepared attempt took place on Good Friday of the year 1833 known as the Frankfurt Wachensturm (at that time also called the Frankfurt assassination attempt ). The plan for the coup was to attack the city's police stations and the Federal Assembly in order to trigger a revolution in Germany.

After the execution of those responsible, numerous political circles, also known as Monday wreaths , formed in Frankfurt in which further reforms were discussed. The Prussian envoy warned the Senate at the Bundestag in 1847: "Communist and socialist ideas can lead to revolt against the existing order."

Start of rail traffic in Frankfurt

Taunusbahnhof around 1850

In 1839 the age of rail traffic began in Frankfurt am Main. It was the first section of the Taunus station outgoing rail - route of the Taunus Railway on maximum , Mainz to Wiesbaden opened. The first train journey from Frankfurt ended in Höchst . The line, operated by a private railway company , reached Hattersheim in 1839 and Wiesbaden in 1840.

March Revolution and Paulskirche Parliament

National Assembly in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt

The reactionary Austrian State Chancellor Metternich finally had to give up , forced by the March Revolution , and this was especially celebrated in Frankfurt. On March 30, 1848, black, red and gold flags were seen everywhere and the population was warned not to shoot in the air. On May 18, 1848, a day that some historians call the greatest day in the history of the city of Frankfurt, the National Assembly held its first and on May 31, 1849 its last session in the Paulskirche . Here, at the center of all political life in Germany at that time, the party bustle and the excitement were most violent; Hence the repeated tumults, among which the one in the Sachsenhausen district on July 7th and 8th, 1848, and that of September 18th, were suppressed by force of arms. In the years 1848 and 1849 the Pre-Parliament and the German National Assembly met in Frankfurt. When the parliament, whose work can definitely be regarded as the forerunner of the Weimar Constitution and the Basic Law , was to move to Stuttgart in its final phase , a Wuerttemberg MP said that moving away from Frankfurt was an offense against the German fatherland , especially since the city is so happily organized , is wealthy and rich and no royal court can influence the decisions .

During the following decade and the last period of its independence, Frankfurt showed great activity in the area of ​​constitutional development and legislation. The revision of the constitution of 1864, the new trade law based on complete freedom of trade and the political emancipation of the Jews (1864), which had been initiated ten years earlier, all fall within this period .

From August 1863, the Fürstentag , concerned with the German federal reform , met in Frankfurt , as did the German National Association and the reform association that opposed it . The German parliament also held its meetings here. However, since Prussia did not appear, the reform failed. The smoldering conflict finally ended in war in 1866.

Younger story

German Empire

Prussian occupation and the partitioning recess

War contribution demand of July 20, 1866 with the signature of the Prussian General Edwin von Manteuffel .
The last Senior Mayor of the Free City of Frankfurt KKV Fellner
Debt of the City of Frankfurt dated May 19, 1877 signed by the Lord Mayor Daniel Heinrich Mumm von Schwarzenstein
Frankfurt and its district, 1905

Towards the end of the German War , the Free City of Frankfurt was occupied by Prussia on July 18, 1866 and soon afterwards annexed because, in line with its position as the seat of the Bundestag , it had taken the party of the Austrian Empire . On July 20, 1866, the city had to pay 25 million guilders war contribution to Prussia within 24 hours , the sum was later increased to 30 million. The proud city ​​republic was degraded to a provincial city; the administrative headquarters of the newly created Prussian administrative units were located in the former residential cities of the neighboring countries that were also occupied. In this way, Frankfurt became part of the administrative district of Wiesbaden within the province of Hessen-Nassau , of which Kassel became the capital . The so-called Senior Mayor Karl Konstanz Viktor Fellner , who had ruled until then and was popular among the population , took his own life.

Frankfurt now formed its own urban district together with its rural area , but the population was not happy about it, because the free urban air was now over. The Frankfurt dialect poet Friedrich Stoltze , a critical spirit, fled in 1866 after being accused several times and convicted in absentia. He only returned after Bismarck's speech (see below). When, of all things, on the night before the first visit of the Prussian King Wilhelm I on August 15, 1867, a large fire destroyed the tower and roof of the cathedral , this was viewed as a bad omen . The Frankfurt Senator Speltz warned and wrote in his notes again lines from an old verse poem from the beginning of Frankfurt history:

At Frankfurt in the cathedral
One gives the kingdom of Kron
Do you want to flag the crown with cunning?
Will God smash the whole cathedral .

The citizens remained skeptical and preferred to go to the nearby Heddernheim to celebrate and speak freely , which they have called Klaa Paris since that time because of the freedom that is possible there .

The disputes over the assets of Prussia and the city in the assets of the former Free Imperial City ended after long negotiations on February 26, 1869 with the signing of the partition recession in Berlin. Prussia paid two million guilders and a further million was added from King Wilhelm I's private box. The courts and prisons came to Prussia, as well as the coin and the financial administration. In terms of infrastructure, Prussia took over the city's railroad ownership, the Old Bridge and the major roads. The police were also subordinated to the Prussian state, with the exception of the regulatory police.

Frankfurt in the German Empire

The International Electrotechnical Exhibition 1891. Entrance portal with 1000 light bulbs and an artificial waterfall (back right), supplied by the hydropower plant in Lauffen am Neckar
Main bank around 1900

In 1871, Otto von Bismarck and Jules Favre signed a peace treaty in Frankfurt that ended the Franco-German War of 1870/71. The treaty, also known as the Peace of Frankfurt, which was signed on May 10, 1871 in the Hotel zum Schwan in Steinweg , made Bismarck remark: I sincerely wish that the Peace of Frankfurt will also bring peace for Frankfurt and peace with Frankfurt.

Frankfurt expanded on all sides with the help of the French reparations payments. A systematic alluvial sewer system was built from 1867 to 1897 . Some Frankfurters increasingly turned to cultural issues. In 1880 they financed a new opera house that put the city's previous opera houses in the shade. At the opening on October 20th with Don Giovanni , the invited Kaiser Wilhelm I stopped at the foot of the stairs and remarked about the pomp: “I couldn't allow myself that in Berlin.” The Palmengarten from 1868 and the Frankfurt Zoo were also clean privately financed. The first artificial ice rink on the European continent was located in the Palmengarten , after Germany's first ice skating club had already been founded.

There were also numerous innovations in terms of traffic technology. The narrow-gauge line of the Frankfurt-Offenbacher Trambahn-Gesellschaft (FOTG) opened on February 18, 1884, at the end of an Offenbach consortium consisting of the Kommerzienrat Weintraut, the banker Weymann and the Bankhaus Merzbach, starting from the old bridge in Frankfurt- Sachsenhausen , was the first commercially operated public electric tram in Germany . The route initially led to Buchrainplatz in Oberrad and from April 10th to Mathildenplatz in Offenbach . At that time, FOTG still used a gauge of 1000 mm ( meter gauge ). On the same day, the power plant operated by FOTG that is required for operation on the route went into operation. This also made it possible for companies and private households in Oberrad to be supplied with electricity for the first time. Ultimately, this connection was groundbreaking for the combined task of municipal energy supply companies , which operated power plants for power generation and electric railways for local public transport .

Four years later, on August 18, 1888, the main station , the largest in Europe , was inaugurated .

Before that, in 1861 the Friedrichsdorf resident Philipp Reis surprised in Frankfurt with the invention of the telephone . The first telephone network with 179 subscribers went into operation on December 1, 1881.

In 1891, the world's first long-distance transmission of high-voltage three-phase current from Lauffen am Neckar, 176 km away , was achieved at the International Electrotechnical Exhibition on the site of the former West Railway Station, thus helping it achieve an international breakthrough compared to direct current . As part of the German Patent and Utility Model Exhibition in 1882, an artificial ice rink with an area of ​​520 m² was operated for a period of almost 3 months , it was probably the third worldwide after London and New York. About 10 years later, a permanent ice rink was installed in the palm garden.

City growth in the Wilhelminian era

At the end of the 19th century, often referred to as the Wilhelminian era , the people of Frankfurt reorganized and redesigned their city. From Neustadt (1333) and Old Town (1180) which was downtown . More and more citizens from central Frankfurt moved to the outskirts outside the ramparts, which were only sparsely populated at the beginning of the 19th century. Radialstraßen and the Alleenring were built to connect the strongly grown outer districts, which were now called Bahnhofsviertel , Westend , Nordend and Ostend , and to connect the main train station and the newly incorporated districts of Bornheim (1877) and Bockenheim (1895). Other areas such as the former gallows control room and the area around the Gutleuthof were developed and formed the districts of Gallusviertel and Gutleutviertel .

In 1900 the municipalities of Seckbach , Oberrad and Niederrad in the Frankfurt district were incorporated . In 1910, the remaining communities Berkersheim , Bonames , Eckenheim , Eschersheim , Ginnheim , Hausen , Heddernheim , Niederursel , Praunheim , Preungesheim and Rödelheim were incorporated into the district.

Between 1871 and 1914 the population increased from 90,000 to almost 400,000. The construction of the stock exchange (1879), the festival hall (1908), the east port (1912), the university (1912) and the new town hall also took place during this period . All of these buildings were stylistically criticized by contemporaries. In 1909 the Frankfurt-Cronberger-Künstler-Bund was founded. In 1912 Max Bromme was recruited as horticultural director, who doubled the urban green spaces within a few years.

When the university , which Wilhelm Merton had campaigned to establish, opened on October 26, 1914, the First World War had already begun.

Weimar Republic

Ernst May's building in the Roman city
The IG-Farben house in Poelzig, innovative due to the curvature .

During the November Revolution, sailors from Kiel took power in the city and, together with representatives of the workers, formed the Frankfurt Workers 'and Soldiers' Council. Since Frankfurt was in the neutral zone after the armistice agreement , in which no military operations by German troops were allowed, this council was able to hold up until November 1919.

After the end of the First World War, Frankfurt, Darmstadt and Hanau were briefly occupied by French troops from 1919 to 1920. In 1928, the former town of Höchst am Main and parts of the dissolved district of Höchst and the municipality of Fechenheim, which formerly belonged to the district of Hanau, were incorporated. In 1925 the Workers' Olympics were held in the new Waldstadion and the Frankfurt cycling track and artificial ice rink opened.

Ludwig Landmann was elected Lord Mayor on October 2, 1924 . The city had been incorporated many times, but had many societal problems to deal with resulting from inflation and urbanization. He commissioned Ernst May to lead a large urban development program that became known worldwide as the Neues Frankfurt . From 1927 to 1929 he created the Praunheim settlement , the Bornheimer Hang settlement and the Roman city , which was laid out as a garden city. The Frankfurt kitchen was also an idea by May, but it was developed by Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky . Today, this kitchen is considered the archetype of the modern fitted kitchen. As part of the project, schools, the new Palmengarten building and, as the most famous building in Frankfurt, the new wholesale market hall at the Osthafen, one of the largest buildings of its time, were built.

Lord Mayor Ludwig Landmann also relied on the transport infrastructure. In 1926 he founded the association for the construction of a road for high-speed motor vehicle traffic from Hamburg via Frankfurt a. M. to Basel ( HaFraBa e.V. ) after learning about the Italian Autostrada , a street exclusively for motor vehicles. It was also he who did not see Frankfurt exclusively in relation to himself, but had a concept developed in the economic department that saw the city as the center of an entire region under the working title of The Rhine-Main City Wreath and its Headquarters Frankfurt am Main . Only 70 years later did this development slowly take shape.

The Frankfurt Trade Union House was built in 1930 in today's Wilhelm-Leuschner-Strasse in the Bahnhofsviertel as the city's first high-rise. With nine floors, the building reaches a height of 31 meters. In 1931, the IG-Farben building was opened as another architectural highlight. The IG Farben was founded shortly before in Frankfurt.

The time of National Socialism


After the local elections on March 12, 1933, in which the NSDAP received 47.9% of the votes cast, the Jewish Lord Mayor Ludwig Landmann was replaced by NSDAP member Friedrich Krebs . First of all, this ordered the dismissal of all civil servants and employees of Jewish origin from the city administration, the magistrate and the city companies. A gathering of Frankfurt merchants who wanted to advise on the boycotts of Jewish traders was disbanded, the participants arrested and intimidated. Even before the KPD was finally banned , communists and, increasingly, trade unionists and social democrats were arrested. When the remand prison in Hammelsgasse, the police prison in Klapperfeldstrasse and the Preungesheim prison were no longer sufficient, “wild concentration camps ” were set up, for example in Mörfelder Landstrasse, in the Klinger school, in the Masonic lodge on Mozartplatz, in the Fechenheim gasworks and in a former pearl factory in Ginnheimer Landstrasse 40-42. In the course of 1933, those who had survived the torture in these concentration camps were brought to regular concentration camps, especially the Osthofen concentration camp near Worms and the concentration camp on the Heuberg near Stuttgart .

On September 23, 1933, construction began on the first German Reichsautobahn between Frankfurt-Niederrad and Darmstadt . The city, reviled by the National Socialists as Jerusalem am Main because of its high Jewish population , tried to obtain an honorary title suitable for propaganda and received it: Frankfurt, which was actually more active in the fields of trade and transport, was now called the City of German Crafts .

Reign of terror

Burned down in the Reichskristallnacht: Main Synagogue Börnestrasse, photo from 1885
( photochrom )
Clothing could only be bought with official permission, postcard from February 1942

The "wild" terror of the SA and SS in the course of the seizure of power in 1933 was followed by the establishment of the Gestapo , which in 1939 moved to its own headquarters at Lindenstrasse 27 , and a section of the SD secret service with 12 branch offices. A special court was created in 1933, and Roland Freisler gave the speech at the opening . The contemporary art department at the Städel was closed in 1937, and the Expressionist paintings were confiscated and auctioned abroad. The comparatively few people who revolted against the establishment of Nazi rule could only move a little. Nevertheless, there was also organized resistance in Frankfurt. In 1933, for example, the resistance newspaper "Der Rote Shocktrupp" was distributed and reprinted in the city through Franz Hering and others .

In 1938, during the Reichskristallnacht, the main synagogue in Börnestrasse and all other synagogues and numerous prayer rooms in the city were destroyed without the Frankfurt police intervening. Shops and apartments of Jewish Frankfurters were ransacked and looted, and the wealthy male Jewish residents were deported to concentration camps ( Buchenwald and Dachau concentration camps ) in order to force them to emigrate and to Aryanise their wealth .

In the diesel road , a deportation camp for 1937 was Roma and Sinti . The cellar of the Frankfurt Großmarkthalle was used for the transport / deportation of Jews from the Großmarkthalle train station for murder in the concentration camps . Dates of the large Nazi Jewish deportations with whole trains from Frankfurt are October 19, 1941 (1st transport train), November 11 (2), November 21 (3), May 8, 1942 (4), May 24 (5) , June 11 (6), August 18 (7), September 1 (8), September 15 (9), September 24, 1942 (10), February 14, 1945 (11). Between March 11, 1943 and October 25, 1944, there were repeated smaller “transports”. On March 9, 1943, around 100 Sinti and Roma were deported from Frankfurt to the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp . The deportations were organized by Frankfurt police officers and men of the SA standard F / M, Sturmbann IV / 63.

Also Johanna Tesch (SPD), a former member of parliament, was arrested and died in 1945 in the concentration camp . Of the approximately 29,000 Jews living in Frankfurt in the mid-1920s, there were still 140 after the war. Around 11,500 had been murdered during the Holocaust , and around 700 had committed suicide before the deportation . More than 1000 stumbling blocks and numerous memorials, among others, commemorate the victims of National Socialism in Frankfurt . a. at the Paulskirche , in the main cemetery, the Neuer Börneplatz memorial next to the old Jewish cemetery Battonnstrasse .

During the war, around 25,000 prisoners were permanently employed as forced laborers in Frankfurt. There were forced labor camps all over the city. Concentration camp prisoners from the Walldorf concentration camp worked at the airport ; The Frankfurt am Main subcamp was established in the Adlerwerke in 1944 and the Heddernheim labor education camp existed in Heddernheim , which was a special form of punishment. In addition, there were numerous civil labor camps and prisoner of war camps under the direction of the German Labor Front and the Wehrmacht .


After the Second World War: only a handful of buildings in the old town were un- or only slightly damaged
( debris model from the Historical Museum )

During the Second World War , the construction of bunkers began, which can still be found in the cityscape today. Large parts of the city center were destroyed by aerial bombs as a result of numerous air strikes by the Allies . On March 22, 1944, an attack by the Royal Air Force (RAF) destroyed the entire Gothic old town - 1001 people died. The Frankfurt Osthafen - an important transshipment point for bulk goods with its own siding - was largely destroyed.

In March 1945, American troops entered the city over the Wilhelmsbrücke (today: Friedensbrücke ). More than 4,800 civilians and 12,700 soldiers from Frankfurt were killed in the war; half of the residential buildings (90,000) were destroyed. The US headquarters were relocated from Reims to Frankfurt and moved into the IG-Farben building (now the Poelzig building).

After the Second World War

Rise to the metropolis of West Germany

1945: Frankfurt in ruins,
(aerial photo by USAAF )
Romans in the 1950s

The heavily destroyed city decided in the spirit of urban planning at the time to rebuild the historic city center in a modern way while largely retaining the old road network.

In 1946 Frankfurt became part of the newly founded state of Hesse . The former city ​​republic was only reluctantly part of an area state since 1866 and had never been part of Hesse before. Consequently, Frankfurt did not apply for the seat of the state government (which then moved to Wiesbaden ).

Frankfurt Conference on July 1, 1948: At the headquarters of the American occupation troops in Frankfurt, the three military governors of the western zones met with the eleven prime ministers of the states to present their plan for a separate German settlement. Sitting at the conference table v. l. To the right: Reinhold Maier , Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf , Karl Arnold , Christian Stock , Max Brauer , Wilhelm Kaisen , Hans Ehard , Leo Wohleb

The American armed forces, who had made the former IG Farben building their European headquarters, also favored the city, which was again in the spirit of St. Paul's Church (on the anniversary of May 18, 1948, a commemoration ceremony) as a potential capital city. The city later became the main administrative seat of the Trizone . As a result, Frankfurt actually became the most promising candidate for election to the federal capital. A plenary hall has even been built, which today serves as the broadcasting hall for the Hessian broadcasting company . After an extremely tight decision, in which the SPD MPs mostly voted for Frankfurt and the CDU MPs mostly for Bonn , which was favored by Konrad Adenauer , the city on the Rhine was ultimately chosen. (See also: Capital question of the Federal Republic of Germany ). The disappointment was also great among the population, but the mayor looked ahead and finally commented on the defeat with the words: “This means that Frankfurt will soon take its leading position again in German and international business life. The favorable traffic situation and the most modern airport in Europe , which is a gateway to the world, will help to achieve this goal. "

Due to the failure of Berlin , which was divided and difficult to reach from West Germany, from the competition between cities and due to its central location in the West German state, Frankfurt took over numerous metropolitan functions that were previously located in Berlin (and Leipzig ), above all as a financial center and business location as well as a transport hub . The role of Bonn as the seat of government was not able to bring the already decentralized Rhine-Ruhr area (primarily the cities of Cologne and Düsseldorf ) to a notable gain in the role of “capital” in the national city system; In particular, the cities of Frankfurt, Hamburg and Munich were given the opportunity to develop from regional cities to international metropolises through the spatial planning law that came into being at the time.


The Auschwitz trials that took place in the new Gallus community center between 1963 and 1966 attracted international attention .

John F. Kennedy visited Germany in 1963 and spoke in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt on June 25th . His words ( to be viewed against the background of the Cuban Missile Crisis), which resulted in the conclusion: "Nobody should say of this our Atlantic generation that we have left ideals and visions of the past, determination and determination, to our opponents." Are like those of many other speaker immortalized in a relief in the outer wall. He signed the city's Golden Book , as did Jimmy Carter , the Dalai Lama , Mikhail Gorbachev and Yasser Arafat after him, to name but a few.

The student protests in the mid to late 1960s also led to vehement clashes and street fights in Frankfurt. In protest against the Vietnam War , Andreas Baader , Gudrun Ensslin , Thorwald Proll and Horst Söhnlein set fire to two department stores on the Zeil on the night of April 3, 1968 .

The multicultural society has meanwhile become a reality in Frankfurt. 200,000 inhabitants, that is almost a third of the 650,000 people in the Mainstadt, did not come from Germany in 2004, but from 180 different countries around the world. This means that Frankfurt has one of the highest proportions of immigrants and citizens with a migration background in Germany.


The Messe Frankfurt could finish her since the beginning of the century lasting decline and become the main exhibition space to develop in Europe. After the war , the German book fair was no longer held in Leipzig, but in Frankfurt am Main. The Leipzig Book Fair , which continued to be held, was only able to gain importance beyond East Germany after reunification . Today the Frankfurt Book Fair takes place every autumn, the Leipzig one in spring. The IAA automobile fair, which is held every two years in September, took place here until 2019 and was a major international exhibition and crowd puller. Until 2010, the Association of the Automotive Industry was also based in Frankfurt.

The trade in furs and the production of coats were for many centuries a globally important branch of the economy, which was strongly influenced by Greeks and Jews. An important center was the branch until the late 1940s, the Brühl in Leipzig, then the fur trade center Niddastraße . The important fur fair also took place in Frankfurt. Protests by environmentalists and leftists (furs were still considered a status object) set in a rapid decline in the 1980s, which drove thousands of small family businesses to ruin.

In the 1990s, many Frankfurt corporations began to decline, which in some cases led to massive job losses, which were, however, absorbed by other industries. At that time they closed or lost their independence and a. the Metallgesellschaft , Lurgi , AEG , Hartmann & Braun , Hoechst , Philipp Holzmann , VDO Automotive (1991 to Mannesmann).

The Bank deutscher Länder (1948) and its successor, the Deutsche Bundesbank (1957), took their seat in Frankfurt, as did most of the major German banks. The Frankfurt Stock Exchange becomes the second most important trading center in Europe. In 1962 the Zurich House was built, the city's first real skyscraper . Numerous more were to follow him.

European School in Frankfurt (entrance)

Frankfurt becomes the seat of the European Monetary Institute and in 1998 of its successor, the European Central Bank (ECB). From 1998 to 2014 the Frankfurt Eurotower was the seat of the European Central Bank. In November 2014, the headquarters were relocated to the new building of the European Central Bank . This was opened on March 18, 2015 amid protests after four years of construction in the Ostend district of Frankfurt . The European school has already been built for the children of the staff employed there . Currently (2004) there are 337 credit institutions, including securities trading banks, in the city ​​on the Main, often rumored as Bankfurt , of which 199 are foreign institutions, with a total of 76,700 employees. The number of 3300 advertising agencies and 510 PR agencies, as well as over 1800 management consulting firms, testify to the importance of Germany's financial capital .


As forecast by OB Kolb in 1948, Frankfurt Airport is one of the most important airports in Europe

In order to avoid the increasing traffic load, the city council decided to build a subway , the first line of which went into operation on October 4, 1968. Ten years later, the Frankfurt S-Bahn started operations. At the main station , the Hauptwache and the Konstablerwache , large underground high-speed train junctions were built . Since the 1980s, plans to convert the main station from a terminus to an underground through station (projects such as lateral thinking , TU Darmstadt, 1880s or Frankfurt 21 at the end of the 1990s) have not been pursued. In 1972 the new, large terminal opened at the airport (today Terminal 1 ).

City and region

Plans for a regional city of Frankfurt with almost 2 million inhabitants, divided into districts based on the Berlin model, failed due to the resistance of the surrounding communities and the indecision of the state government. Instead, the Frankfurt Umlandverband (UVF), to which 43 municipalities belonged , was established in 1975 to solve joint tasks for the city and suburbs . During the Hessian territorial reform 1972–1977, Frankfurt grew only marginally, four villages and a small town in the northeast of the city were incorporated . As in all urban regions in the western world, since the 1960s the residential function and economic activities in Frankfurt have increasingly shifted to the surrounding communities.

The surrounding area was dissolved by the Hessian conurbation law in 2001 and replaced by a planning association reduced to pure planning activities .


The Paulskirche is still today a cultural symbol for freedom

As in the early days of Frankfurt, it is not so much the magistrate with its cultural department as patrons, citizens and now citizens' initiatives that are responsible for the culture in Frankfurt and support numerous projects with financial means or only made possible through fundraising. The German Library, today part of the German National Library (DNB), was located in Frankfurt in 1947 and established as a foundation in 1952 with funds from the German Book Trade Association . The internationally important Peace Prize of the German Book Trade has been awarded annually to personalities since 1950 on the occasion of the Frankfurt Book Fair by that association in the Paulskirche. On April 21, 1954, the Hessen State Fire Brigade Association was founded in Frankfurt.

At the Sachsenhausen Main river in the 1980s alongside the existing originated Städel and the Liebieghaus a series of important museums ( Museum Embankment ); Internationally known are, for example, the German Architecture Museum (DAM), the Film Museum , the Museum of Arts and Crafts, the Museum of World Cultures, the Museum of Applied Arts and the Museum of Communication. The Schirn exhibition hall and the new portico have recently been added. In place of the theater, which was only slightly destroyed in the war, a modern double theater for opera and drama was built in the early 1960s . The ruins of the old opera were rebuilt after the intervention of a citizens' initiative, which prevented the demolition of the ruins, suggested by Mayor Rudi Arndt (nickname Dynamit -Rudi ) by collecting donations ; since opening in 1982 it has served as a concert hall. In 1972, Rudi Arndt named the 14th hippopotamus born at the zoo Dynamit . The Theater am Turm , which closed in 2004, was one of the best - known avant-garde stages in Germany. The Tigerpalast variety theater and the development of techno culture were initiated as a private initiative. In 2007 the Meditation Church Center for Christian Meditation and Spirituality of the Diocese of Limburg was founded as a profile church of the Diocese of Limburg in the Holy Cross Church in Bornheim and the Center for Mourning Pastoral Care of the Diocese of Limburg in the Church of St. Michael im Nordend .

Financial metropolis

Frankfurt has been the most important financial center in Germany for the past 50 years and the second in Europe after London . Since the beginning of the new century, the future of the financial center has also been viewed with concern; important players are considered takeover or merger candidates (such as Deutsche Börse AG or Commerzbank AG ) or, like Dresdner Bank AG , have already been taken over by foreign corporations.

Frankfurt's importance as an international financial center has increased in recent years. Numerous supranational institutions have their headquarters in Frankfurt, such as the European Supervisory Authority for Insurance and Company Pensions ( EIOPA ) and the European Committee for Systemic Risks , which is responsible for the early detection, prevention and combating of systemic risks within the EU financial market. From 2013, the uniform European banking supervision within the European Central Bank will continue to monitor more than 6000 banks in the euro zone across Europe.


Within Germany, the Main metropolis is considered the capital of the crime as crime capitals . The fact is: Statistically, Frankfurt has 18,117 crimes (2004) per 100,000 inhabitants ahead of Berlin (15928) and Bremen (15781) and has held this questionable first place for a long time. However, as the Frankfurt police chief points out, these statistics neither take into account the 300,000 daily commuters who flock to the city center, nor the up to 180,000 daily air travelers, who together account for a high proportion of the crimes. In addition, the high proportion of crime go to caught in the act by increased controls in the public transport operators dodgers back and therefore could be the Big Ebbel , as the city is also in line with New York taking into account the Hessian national drink is called, most as the capital of petty crime call .

See also


  • Paul Arnsberg: The history of the Frankfurt Jews since the French Revolution. 3 volumes. Eduard Roether Verlag, Darmstadt 1983.
  • Ludwig Börne : Jews in the Free City of Frankfurt , 1820, Complete Writings, Vol. II, Düsseldorf 1964.
  • Lothar Gall (Hrsg.): FFM 1200. Traditions and perspectives of a city . Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1994, ISBN 3-7995-1203-9 . (Catalog for the 1200th anniversary 1994 with scientific articles).
  • Peter Hoeres: Before 'Mainhattan': Frankfurt am Main as an American city in the Weimar Republic , in: Frank Becker , Elke Reinhardt-Becker (eds.), Myth America. 'Americanization' in Germany since 1900 , Frankfurt am Main, New York 2006, pp. 71–97.
  • Waldemar Kramer (Ed.): Frankfurt Chronik, Frankfurt am Main 1964
  • Walter Gerteis: The unknown Frankfurt. 3 vols. Frankfurt am Main 1960–1963 (popular, essayistic-anecdotal city history).
  • Ernst Mack: From the Stone Age to the Staufer City. The early history of Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main 1994.
  • Armin Schmid: Frankfurt in the firestorm. The history of the city in World War II. Frankfurt am Main 1984. ISBN 978-3-7973-0420-9
  • Frankfurt Historical Commission (ed.): Frankfurt am Main - The history of the city in nine contributions. (=  Publications of the Frankfurt Historical Commission . Volume XVII ). Jan Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1991, ISBN 3-7995-4158-6 .
  • Frolinde Balser : From ruins to a European center: History of the city of Frankfurt am Main 1945–1989 . Ed .: Frankfurter Historical Commission (=  publications of the Frankfurter Historical Commission . Volume XX ). Jan Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1995, ISBN 3-7995-1210-1 .
  • Ralf Roth: The emergence of a modern civil society. History of the city of Frankfurt am Main 1789–1866 . Ed .: Frankfurter Historical Commission (=  publications of the Frankfurter Historical Commission . Volume XXV ). Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2013, ISBN 978-3-7995-0762-2 .
  • Hilde Kathrein and Laura Krüger: love for Frankfurt. The city in the judgment of poets, thinkers, diplomats. Frankfurt 1990.
  • Wolfgang Klötzer : Frankfurt then, yesterday and today and truly a beautiful and lively city Stuttgart 1979 and FFM 1985.
  • Günther Mick: Win the peace. The example of Frankfurt. and The Paulskirche . FFM 1985 and 1988.
  • Hessian town book; Volume IV 1st part of the German city book. Handbook of urban history - on behalf of the working group of historical commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the German Association of Cities and the German Association of Municipalities, ed. by Erich Keyser, Stuttgart 1957.
  • Hans-Otto Schembs : Walk through Frankfurt history , Frankfurt am Main 2002, ISBN 3-7829-0530-X .
  • Lechtaler / Mick: Frankfurt am Main, the heart of Europe. Frankfurt Societätsdruckerei 1993.
  • Barbara M. Henke, Thomas Kirn, Ruth Rieger: Edition The German Cities - Frankfurt. Verlag CJ Bucher, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-7658-0873-3 .
  • Elisabeth Ehrhorn, Carmen Sorgler, Renate Schildheuer: (S) spiers. Societätsverlag, ISBN 3-7973-0618-0 .
  • Christian Setzepfandt : Mysterious Frankfurt am Main. Wartberg Verlag, ISBN 3-8313-1347-4 .
  • Henning Roet de Rouet: Frankfurt am Main as a Prussian garrison from 1866 to 1914 . Frankfurt am Main 2016.
  • Peter Fasold: The Romans in Frankfurt . Frankfurt's Archeology Volume 3. Schnell and Steiner, Frankfurt am Main 2017, ISBN 978-3-7954-3277-5 .
  • Daniel Kaune: On the way to Frankfurt . Frankfurt's function as a transport hub from late antiquity to the beginning of the early modern era, in: Kurt Andermann, Nina Gallion (eds.), Weg und Steg . Aspects of transport from late antiquity to the end of the Old Kingdom (Kraichtaler Kolloquien vol. 11), Ostfildern 2018, pp. 153–167.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Johann Friedrich Böhmer , Friedrich Lau (ed.): Codex diplomaticus Moeno-Francofurtanus. Document book of the imperial city of Frankfurt. tape 1 (794-1314) . J. Baer, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1901, p. 1 ( archive.org [accessed June 27, 2016]).
  2. Libellus sacrosyllabus
  3. Lothar Gall (ed.): FFM 1200. Traditions and Perspectives of a City . Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1994, ISBN 3-7995-1203-9 , p. 69.
  4. Lothar Gall (ed.): FFM 1200. Traditions and Perspectives of a City . Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1994, p. 75.
  5. More information in the article Population development in Frankfurt am Main
  6. ^ The Limburg Chronicle of Tilemann Elhen von Wolfhagen. Edited by Arthur Wyss . Monumenta Germaniae Historica. German Chronicles 4.1. Berlin 1883, unaltered reprint Munich 1993, p. 80, no. 147. Online edition
  7. Arthur B. Schmidt: The historical foundations of civil law in the Grand Duchy of Hesse . Curt von Münchow, Giessen 1893, p. 75, note 65.
  8. Richard Schwemer, Hist. Commission d City FFM: History of the Free City of Frankfurt a. M. (1814-1866) Volume 2 . J. Baer, ​​1912, p. 512 ff . ( online at: archive.org ).
  9. ^ Hans-Ulrich Wehler: German history of society 1815–1845 / 49 . 4th edition. Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-32262-X , p. 363 ff . ( online at: books.google.de ).
  10. ^ Roet de Rouet, Henning: Frankfurt am Main as a Prussian garrison from 1866 to 1914. Frankfurt am Main 2016. P. 107.
  11. ^ AG Linde: "75 Years Linde", 1954, p. 52
  12. ^ Franz Neuland: The sailors of Frankfurt . Frankfurt, 1991
  13. Dennis Egginger-Gonzalez: The Red Assault Troop. An early left-wing socialist resistance group against National Socialism. Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3867322744 , et al. P. 566
  14. Initiative November 9th : Synagoge Friedberger Anlage pdf, accessed November 27, 2014
  15. Salomon Korn : November 9, 1938 in Frankfurt am Main , Evangelical Working Group Church and Israel, accessed November 27, 2014
  16. Wolf Arno Kropat : Kristallnacht in Hesse, the pogrom of November 1938 , Wiesbaden 1988, ISBN 3-921434-11-4
  17. ^ City of Frankfurt am Main, Institute for Urban History: Frankfurt am Main 1933–1945
  18. fr-online.de October 19, 2011: Three out of 1180 people returned
  19. Frankfurt1933-1945: Wirtschaft und Arbeit , accessed November 30, 2014
  20. New ECB building , ECB, (accessed on March 2, 2015)
  21. ^ Landesfeuerwehrverband Hessen (Hrsg.): All the strength of the fire brigade! - 50 years of the State Fire Brigade Association of Hesse . Kassel 2004, ISBN 3-927006-48-3 , p. 20-45 .
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on July 15, 2005 .