Energy supply company
An energy supply company (abbreviated EVU , energy supplier for short ) is a company that is active in the energy supply . German energy law understands “supply” to mean the basic supply of consumers, i.e. the direct supply of private and commercial end customers with grid-connected energy sources, such as:
- Electrical energy (electricity) → electricity supplier
- Long-distance gas , LPG → gas supplier
- District heating , local heating
Because of their importance as a basic supply and because of the special market conditions (e.g. lack of competition in the district heating sector , electricity and gas networks as a natural monopoly ), energy supply companies are subject to special public controls, e.g. B. Regulation of network charges for electricity and gas networks, and must meet special legal requirements. In many cases, they are wholly or partially owned by the public sector and organized as municipal utilities or other municipal works .
While the narrowly interpreted, law-based understanding of the term is also the commonly used one, in the extended, e.g. For example, in a scientific sense, companies that are involved in the supply of non-line-bound fuels such as heating oil , coal briquettes , wood pellets, etc., as well as those from preliminary stages of supply such as energy generation , energy trading , energy storage or energy transport over long distances , are also considered to be energy suppliers .
- Martin Schacht: Local and regional energy supply concepts: on the economic and interest-related obstacles to a rational energy supply on the heating market (= contributions to applied economic research . Volume 17 ). Duncker & Humblot, 1988, ISBN 3-428-06379-1 .
- Johann-Christian Pielow: Basic structures of public supply: Requirements of European community law as well as French and German law with special consideration of the electricity industry (= Jus publicum . Volume 58 ). Mohr Siebeck, 2001, ISBN 3-16-147174-1 .
- Niels Ridder: Public energy supply companies in transition: Competitive strategies in the liberalized German electricity market . Tectum, 2003, ISBN 3-8288-8527-6 .
- Energy Industry Act (EnWG) No. 18