30th district of Frankfurt am Main
|Residents||15,863 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||4311 inhabitants / km²|
|District||10 - north-east|
|Tram and subway|
|Source: Statistics currently 03/2020. Residents with main residence in Frankfurt am Main. Retrieved April 8, 2020 .|
The core of the district is in the corner of Gießener- and Homburger Landstrasse . The connected housing developments are delimited - north by Homburger Landstrasse - by the A 661 , to the west by the Frankfurter Berg district . To the north of the Homburger Landstrasse there is a large industrial area , to the south there are buildings of the Federal Police . The modern settlement development proceeded from the historic village center with the church in the direction of Frankfurt city center. Settlements make up the largest part of the development today: the Walter-Kolb-Siedlung borders on Bornheim in the south, while the Karl-Kirchner-Siedlung is relatively central. A third - designed for around 5,000 residents - was built in 2005 with the Frankfurter Bogen settlement in a spacious curve of the A 661.
In the 1930s, construction workers found animal bones and shards from the Neolithic Age on Homburger Landstrasse . During the construction work on the new sports park in Preungesheim Nord / Frankfurter Bogen , archaeological finds from the Neolithic Age were extracted. The construction work was delayed as a result.
The name Preungesheim is derived from the founder of the village, a Franconian named Bruning . The oldest surviving mention of Bruningesheim comes from the year 772 and is recorded in a deed of donation from the Lorsch Codex . In the High Middle Ages , Preungesheim belonged to the court and later the Bornheimerberg office .
In the north of Preungesheim, in the area of the Hinterm Bachberg road, there are remains of Bachberg Castle , a former Niederungsburg that belonged to a local noble family, the Lords of Preungesheim, who died out in the 14th century.
There is evidence of a church in the village since 1215. The church patronage was originally the Empire and became a fief to the Lords of Falkenstein awarded it the 1275 German order against the chapel in Rödelheim exchanged. Berkersheim and Eckenheim belonged to the parish of Preungesheim . The middle church authority was the archdeaconate of the provost of St. Peter in Mainz , deanery Eschborn .
In 1320 King Ludwig IV pledged the Bornheimerberg - and Preungesheim as well - to Ulrich II of Hanau . In 1336 the emperor allowed the city of Frankfurt to redeem the Bornheimerberg in his place from Hanau. In 1351 King Charles IV renewed the pledge for Hanau. In 1434, Count Reinhard II von Hanau was enfeoffed with the Bornheimerberg by Emperor Sigismund . When the County of Hanau was divided in 1458, the Bornheimerberg became part of the County of Hanau-Münzenberg .
The contradicting behavior of the Reich led to a dispute between Frankfurt and Hanau, especially since Frankfurt saw itself "surrounded" by Hanau territory. All attempts by Frankfurt to prevent this failed. Although Frankfurt's claims to the office's nineteen villages were upheld by the Reichsgericht after a process that lasted over a hundred years, neither Frankfurt nor the Reich had the power to enforce the verdict. The city of Frankfurt finally agreed to a settlement in 1481: Hanau waived all claims to the villages of Bornheim , Hausen and Oberrad in favor of Frankfurt and received the Bornheimerberg office exclusively. Preungesheim thus became Hanauian.
Historical forms of names
- Bruningesheim (772, 773)
- Rungeresheim (780-817)
- Gruningenheim (780-817)
- Bruningen (831)
- Bruningesheim (1222)
- Bruningesheym (1226, 1236, 1254, 1267)
- Brunisheim (1275)
Early modern age
In the middle of the 16th century, the Reformation took hold in the county of Hanau-Münzenberg, initially in its Lutheran form. In 1548 a Protestant pastor was named in Preungesheim for the first time. In a "second Reformation", the denomination of the County of Hanau-Munzenberg was changed again: From 1597 Count Philipp Ludwig II pursued a decidedly reformed church policy. He made use of his Jus reformandi , his right as sovereign to determine the denomination of his subjects, and made this largely binding for the county.
After the death of the last Hanau count, Johann Reinhard III. , In 1736, Landgrave Friedrich I of Hessen-Kassel inherited the County of Hanau-Münzenberg and thus Preungesheim on the basis of an inheritance contract from 1643. Since then the place has belonged to the Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel .
In 1803 the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel was elevated to the status of the Electorate of Hesse . During the Napoleonic period Preungesheim was under French military administration from 1806, 1807-1810 belonged to the Principality of Hanau, Office Bergen , and then from 1810 to 1813 to the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt , Department Hanau . Then it fell back to the Electorate of Hesse. After the administrative reform of the Electorate of Hesse in 1821, in which the Electorate of Hesse was divided into 4 provinces and 22 districts, Preungesheim belonged to the newly formed Hanau district . After the war of 1866 , Kurhessen was on the losing side and was annexed by Prussia . In Prussia Preungesheim now belonged to Kassel the province of Hesse-Nassau , and from 1886 to district Frankfurt in the administrative district of Wiesbaden . On April 1, 1910, Preungesheim was incorporated into the city of Frankfurt with twelve other villages in the Frankfurt district, which was dissolved.
Preungesheim currently has15,863 inhabitants. The number of inhabitants developed over the centuries as follows:
- 1643: 36 households
- 1651: 27 households
- 1742: 40 households
- 1753: 47 households
- 1788: 237 inhabitants
- 1846: 613 inhabitants
- 1871: 919 inhabitants
- 1885: 1,255 inhabitants
- 1895: 1,941 inhabitants
- 1905: 2,546 inhabitants
- 1925: 2,990 inhabitants
- 1933: 3,399 inhabitants
- 1939: 4,241 inhabitants
- 1946: 3,946 inhabitants
- 1956: 5,687 inhabitants
- 1961: 7,270 inhabitants
- 1966: 9,398 inhabitants
- 1980: 7,904 inhabitants
- 2014: 14,732 inhabitants
Today's Protestant Kreuzkirche is the parish church of the former village of Preungesheim with a Romanesque choir tower and late Gothic tracery windows. The building dates from the 13th century and was rebuilt several times (1716, 1744 and 1754), whereby the northern side wall of the medieval hall building was completely removed and the church was extended by a third to the north. The Gothic wall paintings on the east wall from around 1300 were discovered in 1935. A Romanesque baptismal font has been preserved in the interior . Two pointed arch arcades over a column from the 14th century, which used to give access to a chapel south of the nave, can still be seen. Lina von Schauroth designed the glass windows in the south aisle in 1939. Otto Linnemann from Frankfurt created the large mural on the south side above the arcades in 1946.
The Protestant Festeburgkirche in 1969 for the 1963 charge of the southern area Preungesheims Festeburg community inaugurated.
In 1959 the Roman Catholic St. Christophorus Congregation was formed and the St. Christophorus Church was consecrated in 1962.
Well-known, sights and cultural monuments
→ Main article: List of cultural monuments in Frankfurt-Preungesheim
- The district museum Museum an der Kreuzkirche in Weinstrasse 27, opened in 2015 by the Preungesheim Cultural and History Association with the support of the Kreuzgemeinde, provides an overview of the history of Preungesheim from the Middle Ages to the period after the Second World War . The individual departments: 1. Preungesheim in the Middle Ages, 2. Denomination and war, 3. The Teutonic Order in Preungesheim, 4. From the founding of the Empire in 1871 to the Second World War and 5. From the country to the city - everyday life in the 19th century. The Preungesheim district museum is housed in the baroque rectory. Numerous historical objects from Preungesheim are shown.
- Bachberg Castle is possibly the remains of a medieval tower hill castle . The hill is still partially preserved on the site of a playground.
- Preungesheim is known nationwide for its penal institutions in Frankfurt am Main I , III and IV , which are often referred to colloquially as the Preungesheim prison . The first prison construction took place in the years 1882 to 1887. In what was then the Preungesheim penitentiary, numerous political opposition members were executed during the Nazi era and partisans during the Second World War . A memorial with name plaques and a reminder by Ricarda Huch reminds of this .
- The women's prison now includes a mother-and-child program and, according to the Hessian Ministry of Justice, is a role model internationally (training courses for vocational training and an outdoor wing). Helga Einsele , the long-time director of the Preungesheim women's penal institution from 1947 to 1975 , received the first Tony Sender Prize from the city of Frankfurt in 1992 for her pioneering work for a more humane penal system.
- The Karl-Kirchner-Siedlung, built from 1960 to 1963, is named after the Frankfurt social democrat Karl Kirchner . In 1918 he was a member of the Workers 'and Soldiers' Council and from 1919 to 1933 an SPD city councilor in Frankfurt, where he also chaired the parliamentary group from 1924. The husband of the resistance fighter Johanna Kirchner was dismissed from the city service during the Nazi era, imprisoned several times for political resistance and charged with high treason.
Education and social institutions
In addition to numerous after-school care centers and kindergartens, Preungesheim also has the
- Carlo Mierendorff School, a comprehensive school
- Theobald-Ziegler-Schule, elementary school in the district
- Liesel-Oestreicher-Schule, elementary school in the district
- SAE Institute, a university in the media field
- A city high school is being planned and will be built in Alkmenestrasse. The place has already been cleared. It is intended to complement the existing Carlo Mierendorff School. A solar roof is to be used here for the first time. However, the start of construction was delayed due to a complaint by a bidder. Operations are expected in 2021.
- On May 6, 2017, a world record attempt took place in the schoolyard of the Carlo Mierendorff School, in which the human rights declaration was read out in 55 languages in a reading relay. The world record has yet to be approved by the Guinness Book.
The main street of the district and at the same time Frankfurt's longest street is the Homburger Landstrasse , which runs through Preungesheim in a south-north direction. The old town center is located along the Homburg road . In order to relieve the old main road, through traffic will be directed parallel to the broad Gießener Straße - from Friedberger Landstraße. At its northern end - immediately before the junction with the A 661 - it joins the Homburger Landstrasse. Gießener Straße is also used by the U5 underground line from Marbachweg, on its own track. The extension of the underground line from its terminus to the Frankfurter Berg S-Bahn station is planned. From 2009 to 2011 a tram line (line 18) was built from Konstablerwache to Preungesheim Ost, Gravensteiner-Platz. The opening took place in December 2011. Thus, the Frankfurter Bogen and the eastern area of Preungesheim received a fast connection to the city center.
- Hans-Jürgen Becker: The court Bornheimer Berg . In: Tradition, Preservation and Design in Legal History Research. 1993, pp. 1-21.
- Michael Gockel: Carolingian royal courts on the Middle Rhine . Göttingen 1970, p. 255, note 301.
- Wolf Erich Kellner: The Reichsstift St. Bartholomäus in Frankfurt am Main in the late Middle Ages (studies on Frankfurt history, 1). Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1962, p. 33.
- HO Keunecke: Die Münzenberger = sources and research on Hessian history 35 (1978), p. 318.
- Gerhard Kleinfeldt, Hans Weirich: The medieval church organization in the Upper Hesse-Nassau area = writings of the institute for historical regional studies of Hesse and Nassau 16 (1937). ND 1984, p. 74.
- Anette Löffler: The Lords and Counts of Falkenstein (Taunus): Studies on territorial and property history, on imperial political position and on the genealogy of a leading ministerial family; 1255-1418. = Sources and research on Hessian history 99. Vol. 1. Darmstadt 1994, ISBN 3-88443-188-9 , p. 401f.
- Wolfgang Pülm: Preungesheim. Old village - young part of town . 1990.
- Heinrich Reimer: Historical local dictionary for Kurhessen . Marburg 1926, p. 369.
- Regina Schäfer: The Lords of Eppstein = publications of the historical commission for Nassau. Wiesbaden 2000, SS 560 (register).
- Heinz Schomann u. a .: Monument topography city of Frankfurt am Main . Braunschweig 1986, pp. 694-699.
- Fred Schwind : The "Grafschaft" Bornheimer Berg and the royal people of the Frankfurt Treasury. In: Hessisches Jahrbuch für Landesgeschichte. 14, pp. 1-21 (1964).
- Jörg Seiler: The German Order in Frankfurt. Shape and function of a spiritual and knightly institution in its imperial public environment = sources and studies on the history of the Teutonic Order 61. 2003, pp. 218–223.
- My district - my home on YouTube
- "Preungesheim, City of Frankfurt am Main". Historical local dictionary for Hessen. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Literature on Frankfurt-Preungesheim in the Hessian Bibliography
- The website for Preungesheim: https://preungesheim.net/
- City of Frankfurt am Main, Environment Agency (ed.): The green belt leisure map . 7th edition, 2011
- City of Frankfurt, accessed on Feb. 20, 2020
- Minst, Karl Josef [transl.]: Lorscher Codex (Volume 5), Certificate 3324a, January 20, 772 - Reg. 725. In: Heidelberger historical stocks - digital. Heidelberg University Library, p. 152 , accessed on April 11, 2016 .
- City of Frankfurt - Statistics 2014, accessed on Feb. 27, 2020
- Information from the city council. Retrieved February 22, 2017 .
- Frankfurter Rundschau of February 24, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017 .
- Frankfurter Neue Presse from August 16, 2018. Retrieved September 2, 2018 .
- Frankfurter Neue Presse of May 8, 2017. Retrieved May 8, 2017 .