28th district of Frankfurt am Main
|Residents||15,344 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||4748 inhabitants / km²|
|Post Code||60433, 60431|
|District||9 - center-north|
|Source: Statistics currently 03/2020. Residents with main residence in Frankfurt am Main. Retrieved April 8, 2020 .|
Location, area and population
The Eschersheim district is north of downtown Frankfurt in the Frankfurt-Mitte-Nord district . The district is surrounded by seven other districts. These are clockwise, starting southwest: Ginnheim , Heddernheim , Niederursel , Kalbach-Riedberg , Frankfurter Berg , Eckenheim and Dornbusch . The Nidda forms the western border to the districts of Heddernheim, Niederursel and Kalbach-Riedberg. In the north the place is bordered by the Autobahn A 661 and in the south by the Hügelstrasse. The total area is 333.9 hectares. On December 31, 2011, 15,191 people lived here. The population is 15,344.
The Eschersheimer Landstrasse runs through the district from south to north, one of the longest streets in the city. In the Eschersheim district there are two underground stations ( Weißer Stein and Lindenbaum ), which are served by the U1, U2, U3 and U8 lines.
The historic center of Alt-Eschersheim , which is rural and characterized by numerous Huguenot families , extends over a narrow space between the Main-Weser Railway , at the Frankfurt-Eschersheim train station and the Nidda (lido) in the north-west of Eschersheim. While in the south and south-west there are mainly single-family houses and villa colonies from the Wilhelminian era, there are mainly multi-family settlements in the east, such as the Anne Frank settlement .
The oldest surviving mention of Eschersheim comes from around 1000. It belonged to the Bornheimerberg office .
Around 1000, the landlady in Eschersheim was initially the Seligenstadt monastery , which in 1253 gave part of its property to the Haina monastery . The bailiwick for the monastery estates in Eschersheim and Ginnheim was owned by the Lords of Hagen-Münzenberg . Through the Munzenberg inheritance it came to the Lords of Eppstein , Königstein and Falkenstein . In 1278 the Haina monastery sold its Eschersheim goods to the Arnsburg monastery .
In 1320 King Ludwig IV pledged the Bornheimerberg - and so also Eschersheim - to Ulrich II. Von Hanau . In 1336, the emperor then allowed the city of Frankfurt to redeem the Bornheimerberg in its place of Hanau. In 1351, however, Emperor Charles IV renewed the pledge for Hanau. In 1434 Count Reinhard II von Hanau was enfeoffed with the Bornheimerberg by Emperor Sigismund . When the County of Hanau was divided in 1458, the Bornheimerberg became part of the County of Hanau-Münzenberg .
The contradicting behavior of the Reich naturally led to a dispute between Frankfurt and Hanau, especially since Frankfurt saw itself "surrounded" by Hanau territory. All attempts by Frankfurt to prevent this failed. Although Frankfurt's claims to the office's nineteen villages were upheld by the Reichsgericht after a process that lasted over a hundred years, neither Frankfurt nor the Reich had the power to enforce the verdict. The city of Frankfurt finally agreed to a settlement in 1481: Hanau waived all claims to the villages of Bornheim , Hausen and Oberrad in favor of Frankfurt and received the Bornheimerberg office exclusively. Eschersheim finally became Hanauian. As early as 1467, the remaining possessions of the Seligenstadt monastery in Eschersheim began to be pledged to the Counts of Hanau-Münzenberg . 1478 any remaining in Eschersheim rights of the monastery came as compensation for debts that the monastery at Count Philip I of Hanau-Münzenberg had to Hanau-Münzenberg. The bailiwick was excluded from this. It was a fiefdom of Philipp von Eppstein.
Historical forms of names
A Franconian abbot farm , whose owner was called Ensco , from which the name Enciresheim developed, should have given the name. Evidence for historical name forms are:
- Enscriresheim (around 1000)
- Eischersheim (1253)
- Eischersheim (1260)
- Escherssheym (1267)
- Eschersheim (1278).
Early modern age
Until the early modern period, there was a court or hub court of the Fulda monastery in Eschersheim , the so-called Cremser court . It included the places Ginnheim , Frankfurt-Bonames , Ober-Erlenbach and perhaps Eckenheim .
In the middle of the 16th century, the Reformation took hold in the county of Hanau-Münzenberg, initially in its Lutheran form. In a "second Reformation", the denomination of the County of Hanau-Munzenberg was changed again: From 1597 Count Philipp Ludwig II pursued a decidedly reformed church policy. He made use of his Jus reformandi , his right as sovereign to determine the denomination of his subjects, and made this largely binding for the county.
During the Thirty Years' War , the imperial city of Frankfurt buried the Niddafurt in order to be able to stop the invasion of enemy troops, as the city itself had just started building the new fortification. In 1632 the Hanau government counted 32 households with 150 inhabitants in 40 families. In 1635 the plague raged in the city of Frankfurt and the surrounding area. In 1707 the village had only 27 families.
After the death of the last Hanau count, Johann Reinhard III. , In 1736, Landgrave Friedrich I of Hessen-Kassel inherited the County of Hanau-Münzenberg and with it the village of Eschersheim on the basis of a contract of inheritance from 1643. Since then the place has belonged to the Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel . Today's Emmaus Church was built between 1752 and 1754 and consecrated on February 10, 1754. This was donated by the sovereign and built with the help of the villagers. In 1754 there were 43 houses in the village, including the parish hall and the aristocratic manor house.
In autumn 1792 the French occupied the entire Frankfurt area, including Eschersheim. The Prussians and Hesse tried to repel the French and liberate Frankfurt. So on December 2, 1792 there was a battle near Eschersheim between Prussian and French troops. The Prussian soldiers quartered in Eschersheim for months, until September 1793 in 1931 there were people who had to be accommodated in the few houses.
During the Napoleonic period Eschersheim was under French military administration from 1806, 1807-1810 belonged to the Principality of Hanau, Office Bergen , and then from 1810 to 1813 to the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt , Department Hanau . After the French were expelled from the Frankfurt area, it fell back to Hessen-Kassel, now known as the “ Electorate of Hesse ”. A fundamental administrative reform took place here in 1821: The Bornheimerberg was added to the newly formed Hanau district. After the war of 1866 , Kurhessen was on the losing side and was annexed by Prussia . Here it belonged to the Wiesbaden administrative district of the Hesse-Nassau province and from 1886 to the Frankfurt district .
The industrialization drew largely past Eschersheim. This favored the influx of workers from Frankfurt in the second half of the 19th century, as the land prices here were quite cheap. The brickworks became an important economic factor for the village. In the area around the village there was a large amount of clay, which was essential for the construction of new townhouses in the village and the city of Frankfurt. These brick factories shaped the image of Eschersheim until the 20th century. The Eschersheimer Landstrasse was expanded to transport the bricks to Frankfurt and the surrounding area .
In 1886 the idea came up to build a narrow-gauge steam tram from Frankfurt to Bad Homburg , which was to be run along the Eschersheimer Landstrasse. In 1887 the rails were laid and a waiting hall was built in Eschersheim. On May 12, 1888, the first section from Eschenheimer Tor to the first houses in the village was opened. At first the trains were pulled by horses, and later by the steam engine. In the same year the construction of the first villa colony in Eschersheim began. New streets were built, including Ginnheimer-, Linden-, Park- and Ulmenstraße.
In 1901 the first waterworks was built, for which the still standing water tower in the street Am Lindenbaum was built. In 1903 the village received a post office. In 1904 gas lighting was introduced on the street from Eschersheim. The population grew accordingly. At the beginning of the 20th century, the suburb of Frankfurt now had 2,400 inhabitants. At that time Eschersheim was jokingly called Das Charlottenburg von Frankfurt , as it was, like the Berlin district of Charlottenburg, with high standards and free from industry.
From 1899 until his death, the Kommerzienrat Gottfried Kleinschmidt lived in Eschersheim, who among other things donated the war memorial on the White Stone and a bell of the Catholic Church of St. Joseph.
As a Frankfurt district
On April 1, 1910, Eschersheim was incorporated into the city of Frankfurt with twelve other villages in the Frankfurt district. At that time Eschersheim was still a small rural community. In the years before the First World War , more villas were built in the south. Construction activity ceased during the war and also in the post-war period. However, due to the great housing shortage in the 1920s and 1930s, the Neues Frankfurt project and in Eschersheim new settlements quickly to the south at the water tower, where there was the so-called "Negerdorf" as a collection of single-family row houses, and on the street Am Lindenbaum (architect Walter Gropius ). The railway building at Eschersheim station was built in 1923, the Eschersheim lido in 1927/28 and the Ludwig Richter School on Eschersheimer Landstrasse in 1928/29 . At that time Eschersheim was served by tram lines 23, 24 and 25.
During the National Socialist rule in Germany, associations, including the district association, were banned in Eschersheim. Despite its proximity to the Heddernheim armaments factories, Eschersheim was largely spared from the bombing of the air raids on Frankfurt am Main during the Second World War . Numerous residents from the city center and other more severely affected districts could be accommodated here. As a result, the population increased by almost 20% after the war. The displaced and refugees were mostly housed in the settlements from the 1920s and 1930s. Despite this settlement densification, the area northwest of the Lindenbaums and Hügelstrasse in particular was characterized by market gardens even after the Second World War . As in almost all of Germany, there was lively construction activity from the 1950s. The Albert Schweitzer settlement was established in 1955, and from 1958 to 1961 the Im Mellsig and Anne Frank settlement were expanded . Most of the new apartments were built by housing associations , but also by the Bank deutscher Länder , later Deutsche Bundesbank , as well as Dresdner Bank , Deutsche Bank and Lurgi , which provided accommodation for their employees.
- 1632: 32 households
- 1753: 34 households with 179 people
- 1834: 458 inhabitants
- 1840: 525 inhabitants
- 1846: 578 inhabitants
- 1852: 626 inhabitants
- 1858: 649 inhabitants
- 1864: 690 inhabitants
- 1871: 794 inhabitants
- 1875: 950 inhabitants
- 1885: 989 inhabitants
- 1895: 1433 inhabitants
- 1905: 2843 inhabitants
Economy and Transport
In 1877 the village received a stop on the Main-Weser Railway. On May 12, 1888, the Frankfurter Lokalbahn AG opened the Eschersheimer Lokalbahn , a horse-drawn tram from Eschenheimer Tor via the then almost undeveloped Eschersheimer Landstraße to the train station in Thielenstraße (today's Weißer Stein stop ). It was converted into a steam tram on September 1st of the same year . For the steam tram between Frankfurt and Eschersheim was in the Eschersheimer Landstrasse 552, the Wagenhalle Eschersheim opened, which until 1967 by the Frankfurt tram was used. The influx of Frankfurt citizens increased steadily due to the improved transport connections, especially the wealthy built their villas mainly on today's Kurhessenstrasse and Altheimstrasse .
Since the conversion of the tram route leading from the city to Heddernheim into an above-ground route for the Frankfurt U-Bahn , this tram route has divided the district into two halves, a plan that is very controversial - also because of the associated risk of accidents.
Before the Reformation, the patronage of the village church was with Peter . The church in Ginnheim was a branch church of the church in Eschersheim. In 1467 the monastery Seligenstadt held the right of patronage. The middle church authority was the archdeaconate of the provost of St. Peter in Mainz , deanery Eschborn . The Protestant Emmaus Church was built from 1752 to 1754, the Roman Catholic St. Joseph's Church in 1914. The Protestant St. Andrew's Church was built in 1953 in the new building areas that were built in the 1950s in the south of Eschersheim .
- The Eschersheimer Linden is a striking tree, after which the street Am Lindenbaum is named. The linden tree was planted as a landmark at the end of the 17th century and was originally called Kleine Linde . The so-called large lime tree , which is around 50 years older, was located further north on the White Stone . However, it was badly damaged as early as the 19th century; their remains collapsed in a storm in 1923. The remaining Eschersheimer Linde has been a natural monument since 1937 . It is about 20 m high and has a trunk circumference of 5 m. The tree, which was increasingly endangered by the increasing asphalting, received drainage in 1968 and artificial irrigation and ventilation in 1984 . In 1955 and 1974 the linden tree was treated with tree surgery . Because of her, the underground line makes a slight bend at the Am Lindenbaum station .
- Until 1963 there was a mill on the premises of the Eschersheim volunteer fire brigade, one of five mills on the Nidda in the Frankfurt area. Due to a lack of profitability, operations were closed in 1960. As a reminder, the fire brigade's mill festival is celebrated here every two years.
- The fountain at the Weißen Stein was built in 1910 and was built on the initiative of the Frankfurt entrepreneur and patron Gottfried Kleinschmidt , whose handsome villa was built on Kurhessenstrasse as well as the Haeberlin Chamber of Commerce. The fountain - also known as the Hercules Fountain before the Second World War - commemorates the people of Eschersheim who died in the Franco-German War from 1870 to 1871. At the end of 1945 he lost the statue of Hercules originally placed on him. It was not until 2009 that the local advisory board 9 had the statue reconstructed and the replica placed back on the fountain, which had been moved a few meters when the underground railway was built on the Am Weißen Stein square . The front of the fountain is inscribed in capital letters “ With God for King and Fatherland ” and on the side is carved “War memorial donated by Gottfried Kleinschmidt Eschersheim 1910” .
- The “Am Lindenbaum” estate was designed by Walter Gropius as part of the New Frankfurt 1929–1930 project .
- The residential complex Lindenring 41–45 is classified as a cultural monument of the city of Frankfurt. It was built in 1950/51 as the director's villa of the Bank deutscher Länder according to plans by the architects Meid & Romeick .
- The "Eschersheimer village festival" (of the JE family choir Eschersheim) and the "Eschersheimer Mühlenfest" (the volunteer fire brigade) take place every two years, alternating with the "Eschersheimer weekend". The latter is jointly organized by the Eschersheim associations and, after 16 events in the Fried-Lübbecke-Schule since 1978, now after 34 years, it took place for the first time in 2012 on the landmark of Eschersheim, the linden tree, in the Ludwig-Richter-Schule. This is where the festival has found its traditional location.
- Ludwig Richter School, elementary and advanced level / secondary school
- IGS Eschersheim, integrated comprehensive school with elementary level
- Johann-Hinrich-Wichern-Schule, school with a special focus on learning
- Drawing school (European school), bilingual grammar school (German-French)
- Fried-Lübbecke School , elementary school
- FV Eschersheim 1909 (football club)
- BSC Schwarz Weiß 1919 (football club, youth club of Andreas Möller )
- SG Concordia Eschersheim 1958 (football club)
- TV Eschersheim 1895 e. V. (gymnastics club)
- Volunteer Fire Brigade Eschersheim e. V. It was founded in 1911. The original fire station was in the street Im Uhrig and was replaced in 1986 by a new building near the Niddaaue (Enge Gasse).
- JE Familienchor-Eschersheim (formerly Eschersheim Youth Choir )
- TSG 1951 e. V. (football club)
- Rifle Club Eschersheim 1903 e. V.
- Allotment garden association Eschersheim 1898 eV
- Friedrich Wöhler (1800–1882), chemist, discoverer of urea synthesis, 1828.
- Mathieu Pfeil (1862–1939), theater actor and honorary member of the Frankfurt Municipal Theaters . Grave stele in the Eschersheim cemetery.
- Mateo Cristiani (1890–1962), painter and graphic artist, lived on Neumannstrasse.
- Wilhelm Michael Schneider ( Perhobstler ) (1891–1975), Palatinate local poet, lived in Lindenring since 1936.
- Franz Altheim (1898–1976), ancient historian and philologist, born in Eschersheim.
- Wilhelm Ringelband (1921–1981), theater critic and founder of the Gertrud-Eysoldt-Ring .
- Arnold Erler: The "Cremser Court" at (Frankfurt) -Eschersheim. A contribution to the name interpretation . In: Archive for Frankfurt's History and Art, Vol. 59 (1985), pp. 103-134.
- Gerhard Kleinfeldt u. Hans Weirich: The medieval church organization in the Upper Hessian-Nassau area = writings of the Institute for Historical Regional Studies of Hesse and Nassau 16. 1937, ND 1984, p. 68.
- Franz Lerner: Eschersheim - In the Changing Times , Frankfurt 1980
- Anette Löffler: The Lords and Counts of Falkenstein (Taunus): Studies on territorial and property history, on imperial political position and on the genealogy of a leading ministerial family; 1255-1418. (Sources and research on Hessian history 99), ISBN 3-88443-188-9 , Darmstadt 1994, vol. 1 pp. 269-270.
- Heinrich Reimer: Historical local dictionary for Kurhessen . Marburg 1926, pp. 130-131.
- Heinz Schomann u. a .: Monument topography city of Frankfurt am Main . Braunschweig 1986, pp. 496-501. ISBN 3-528-06238-X
- Regina Schäfer: The Lords of Eppstein. Exercise of power, administration and possession of a noble family in the late Middle Ages . Wiesbaden: Historische Komm. Für Nassau, 2000, pp. 372–374, 378–379. ISBN 3-930221-08-X , pp. 420, 424.
- Manfred Schopp: The secular rule of the Abbey Seligenstadt 1478-1803 . In: Archive for Hessian History and Archeology NF 29 (1965/66), pp. 187–401 (300f.).
The Bremen Unterweser shipping company named the bulk carrier Eschersheim after this district in the 1960s , which among other things transported phosphate ash from Tampa to Rotterdam.
- "Eschersheim, City of Frankfurt am Main". Historical local dictionary for Hessen. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Literature on Frankfurt-Eschersheim in the Hessian Bibliography
- My district - my home on YouTube
- District portal
- Old Eschersheim. altfrankfurt.com
- City of Frankfurt Statistical Yearbook 2012 Item 7.5 by addion, accessed on March 3, 2020
- Uta Löwenstein: County Hanau . In: Knights, Counts and Prince - Secular Dominions in the Hessian Area approx. 900–1806 = Handbook of Hessian History 3 = Publications of the Historical Commission for Hesse 63. Marburg 2014. ISBN 978-3-942225-17-5 , p. 196 -230 (206).
- Monument topography city of Frankfurt am Main . Part of the monument topography of the Federal Republic of Germany. In: Monument Office of the City of Frankfurt am Main, Heike Kaiser (Hrsg.): Materials for monument protection in Frankfurt am Main . 1: Architectural monuments supplements 2000. Frankfurt am Main 2000, DNB 96298437X , p. 24 (The monument topography city of Frankfurt am Main is the basis for monument protection and preservation. It is a monument book according to § 9 (1) HDSchG in its version of September 5, 1986).