18th district of Frankfurt am Main
|Residents||20,730 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||1403 inhabitants / km²|
|Post Code||60528, 60529, 65929|
|District||6 - West|
|Source: Statistics currently 03/2020. Residents with main residence in Frankfurt am Main. Retrieved April 8, 2020 .|
The population is20,730.
Schwanheim borders the Frankfurt districts of Höchst , Nied and Griesheim in the north, Niederrad in the east and the Frankfurt Airport district in the south . The town of Kelsterbach is located west of Schwanheim .
The Goldstein settlement , which was built in the 1930s and has 11,000 inhabitants today - more than the old Schwanheim - belongs to Schwanheim.
Middle Ages and Early Modern Times
The first mention of the parish church in Schwanheim is in a document from 880 (November 17th). Ludwig , a grandson of Charlemagne and King of Eastern Franconia, gave away the "Church of Schwanheim with lands, farms and their residents" (originally Sueinheim ). So it wasn't just a simple chapel, but a real parish with everything that goes with it.
The church of St. Martin im Feld must have been standing for a number of years at the time of the document. Because King Ludwig had died four years earlier in 876, the document was merely a reassurance of his sons. But can the actual origin of the little church be proven? Presumably there was a previous building made of wood. During excavations in 1956, grave remains with ceramics from the 6th to 8th centuries were found in a churchyard. Due to the lack of additions, they could be identified as Christian burials. They can be dated to the beginning of Christianization by Irish-Scottish wandering monks who proselytized the Eastern Franconian empire up the Main.
Kilian , the Franconian Apostle, is their best-known representative and founder of the Diocese of Würzburg. According to tradition, he is said to have rested and preached at this very place in Schwanheimer Unterfeld, across from Sindlingen, on a flood-free ridge around the year 680. In the current praise of God, hymn book of the Diocese of Limburg, this event is mentioned on page 968, no.700. At "eye level" with other saints who are important for the diocese, such as Albertus Magnus, Bernhard von Clairvaux or Bonifatius. In the old parish church Am Abtshof there is a relic of St. Kilian in the Marien altar! To the historical classification: With Kilian we are 60 years before Bonifatius (Apostle of the Germans) passed Frankfurt on his mission way from Mainz to Fulda to found his monastery there.
Nothing is left of this old Martinskirche above the ground. The area in Schwanheimer Unterfeld is completely built over industrially, optically or structurally there are no signs of recognition for this once sacred and culturally and historically significant place. At most, old winning and district maps point to its past: "At the Martinscapelle, Martins Weg, Im Martinsgrund, Martinskirch". The exact point can be found again by overlaying old maps with current maps and the satellite image.
In its time, the Martinskirche was one of the few churches on the right bank of the Rhine. The next were the St. Jakobuskapelle south of Rüsselsheim in Nauheim and the Palatine Chapel St. Salvator in Frankfurt. Its catchment area probably extended beyond the borders of the elongated Schwanheim original mark, which went in the west from Mönchhof near Raunheim via Klaraberg, Kelsterbach, the Goldstein, Niederrad and Sachsenhausen to Oberrad.
The decline of this Martinskirche, also popularly called "Merteskerch", dragged on for a whole century. It began 50 years before Luther posted his theses in Wittenberg. In 1467 the Schwanheimers celebrated their last curb on Sunday after Ortisei. The notch day had nothing in common with this Saint Ulrich. It arose from a pragmatic solution to celebrate in the summer instead of the actual Martin's Day on November 11th. In addition, this November day also stood for the submission of Martin's tithing, so it was an unpopular tax-paying day. But why St. Ulrich in particular ? In the summer of 372, on its anniversary, Martin was ordained Bishop of Tours. For the residents of this original Schwanheim district, July 4th was the weather-related more pleasant memorial day for St. Martin than in cold November.
From the following year, 1468, the Schwanheimers finally moved their church consecration to a Sunday in Mauritius (September 22nd). They celebrated the patron whose name they had given to the Mauritius chapel, which was closer to the village (1410). With that they began to break away from the Martinskirche in the field, probably because of the long way and because the pastor also lived in the village. The final end of the Martinskirche was sealed with the effects of the Reformation of 1517, which also had an effect in the local Maingau: Due to a church dispute with the evangelical Kelsterbach , the Martinskirche, which had been used until then, was cleared from 1557 and the sacred objects were moved to the respective village churches . The St. Mauritius branch chapel with cemetery near the Altdorf Schwanheim was elevated to a parish church and expanded between 1557 and 1562. The Martinskirche in the field was therefore without function and fell into disrepair. It served as a quarry during the Thirty Years' War and when the “new” church in the village was built a good 100 years later (1687), 72 wagon stones were obtained from this ruin for the foundations of this third church in Schwanheim. Schwanheim remained true to the name Mauritius from now on, especially since the evangelical Kelsterbach “kidnapped” the original name of saints and calls his church St. Martin's Church to this day . "Santa" in the name, a rather rare term for this denomination.
Presumably as early as 1684 (according to the inscription around 1700) a baroque field cross made of red Main sandstone was erected on the site of the old church, exactly where the altar of this former parish church stood. The sculptor is not known. However, it is documented that until 1684 there were prayers to the holy place twice a year and the pastor preached there on St. Mark's Day (April 25). Saint Mark is supposed to bring good weather and harvest. The cross was temporarily surrounded by a large hedge and was also later the target of corridor processions. In 1909 the area around it was described as "desolate Trieschplatz" with a crippled linden tree. In the early 1950s, the cross was in a desolate state. When in 1963 it had to give way to the Hoechst AG, which was expanding into Schwanheimer district, it was set up after a restoration on the site in front of the parish church of St. Mauritius. The original base including the weathered inscription has been completely replaced and re-labeled. But already in 1998 after renewed deterioration due to strong environmental influences it was worked up again and finally brought into the protective church.
In the Middle Ages, the surrounding forests belonged to the Dreieich Wildbann , which also maintained one of its 30 Wildhuben in Schwanheim . During the 11th century the village and court of Schwanheim became the property of the St. Jakob monastery of Mainz, the bailiwick was owned by the lords of Eppstein . In the 14th century the free imperial city of Frankfurt tried to gain a foothold in Schwanheim.
In 1439 Frankfurt and its wealthy citizen Johann von Holzhausen each bought half of the Eppsteinschen Vogteirechte over Schwanheim. A little later, the Archbishop of Mainz became the owner of Schwanheim . 60 years later, Mainz bought back the bailiwick rights. During the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) the place was destroyed as well as the neighboring Niederrad.
In 1803 Schwanheim fell to the later Duchy of Nassau in the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss . Around 700 people lived there at this time. In the 19th century, Schwanheim slowly developed from a pure farming village to a workers' settlement , also influenced by the chemical industry in Höchst and Griesheim and the increasing economic ties with Frankfurt.
Schwanheim received a stop on the Main Railway of the Hessian Ludwig Railway . But it was very far from the village. On April 18, 1889, the village received a much closer connection to the Frankfurt Forest Railway . As a result, the stop at the Hessian Ludwig Railway was almost no longer used. From November 15, 1901, the ticket office was closed. In 1904, the Schwanheim stop of the former Ludwig Railway , which had since been incorporated into the Prussian-Hessian Railway Community, received exit signals .
At the instigation of local seniors and the Catholic parish (parish administrator Joseph Bonn), medical care was improved. Between September 1st, 1859 and October 26th, 1866, the Dernbacher sisters, also from the duchy, the so-called poor servants of Jesus Christ , performed outpatient nursing on site. In the 1866 war, Schwanheim became Prussian with the Nassau territory and Frankfurt. The population at that time was 1700. It was not until September 15, 1900 that the o. G. Sisters there again. Now they were active in both outpatient and inpatient nursing and ran a custody school (kindergarten).
Since the 20th century
In 1905 the construction of the first Main Bridge between Schwanheim and Griesheim began, which was opened at Easter 1907.
On December 14, 1918, French troops occupied a 30-kilometer bridgehead on the right bank of the Rhine in the vicinity of Mainz , including Schwanheim. The Allied occupation of the Rhineland lasted until June 30, 1930.
On April 1, 1928, Schwanheim with 5850 inhabitants and 1793 hectares, of which 667 hectares were forest, was incorporated into the Frankfurt urban area. In the spring of 1932, construction of the Goldstein settlement began. The first construction phase included 380 settler sites. The first groundbreaking took place on February 1, 1932 at Sauerackerweg 56. The name of the settlement goes back to the Goldstein castle, first mentioned in the 13th century , which was owned by the Frankfurt patrician family of the Goldstein , but was destroyed in 1552.
The Griesheim barrage was built between 1929 and 1932 to replace two older needle weirs in Höchst and Niederrad. Linked to this was another crossing over the Main, albeit one that was only usable for pedestrians. On March 26, 1945, shortly before the US troops marched in, pioneers of the German Wehrmacht blew up the Schwanheim Bridge. A temporary bridge built in 1947 was torn down again in 1963 after the new Schwanheim Bridge , which had been built about 500 meters downstream , was inaugurated by Mayor Werner Bockelmann on September 21.
In 2005 the district's 1125th anniversary was celebrated. On January 1, 2019, the district 53 3 Goldstein-Ost , which previously belonged to Schwanheim, was assigned to the Niederrad district and renamed 37 3 Niederrad-West . The border between Schwanheim and Niederrad now runs along the A 5 .
The village bought a school building, which was built from 1827 to 1832 as a classicist corner building in the old town center. After 1961 it served cultural and social purposes and was named Wilhelm-Kobelt-Haus. Today it also houses the district library and the local history museum.
St. Mauritius Church
In 1901 the St. Mauritius Church , built in neo-Gothic style, was consecrated. The architect was Joseph Dormann from Wiesbaden, who died in 1905 and a student of Max Meckel (including the conversion of the Frankfurt Römer) from Freiburg. From a previous building (presumably a Mauritius chapel at the same location), the cover plate buried in the ground with the Christ body of a late Gothic entombment group from shortly after 1400 with the two heads of surrounding figures of saints was discovered. The finds are the oldest stoneware in Schwanheim and have been in the church since 2008.
Transport Museum Frankfurt am Main
The Schwanheimer Wiese in the south of the district is Frankfurt's largest forest meadow. This is where the Urmain flowed 10,000 years ago and formed the fertile ground on which the Schwanheim Forest was created. The meadows were created through clearing and subsequent leasing of the land. In 1483, a place name was first mentioned at this point as Neue Wiese . The old meadow , which stretches from the toboggan run to Schwanheimer Bahnstrasse, fell into bush during the Thirty Years' War and was restored as such in the 19th century. A forest nature trail set up in 1978, about six kilometers long, with explanations and objects to illustrate the prehistory of the area, leads around the entire Schwanheim meadow.
- The Schwanheim old oaks are a group of around 30 English oaks on the northern edge of the Schwanheim forest. The trees, which are around 500 years old, served as fruit trees in the Hutewald there until the 20th century . Several text panels on site provide information about the history of the trees.
- A scenic feature in the south of the Schwanheimer district is the Kelsterbach terrace, which runs through the Frankfurt city forest . It is an eight-kilometer-long river terrace that was created in the Pliocene Age and was formed by the Ur-Main during the cold ages .
- The Kobelt Zoo is located on the northern edge of the Schwanheim Forest. The zoo got its name from the first doctor in the then farming village of Schwanheim, Wilhelm Kobelt .
- The Schwanheim Historic Hiking Trail leads through the Schwanheim Forest . The nature trail has 18 stations that provide information about the history of the district from the Stone Age to the 19th century. Several archaeological sites can be visited along the trail.
In Frankfurt-Griesheim, directly opposite Schwanheim on the other bank of the Main, a serious accident happened on February 22, 1993 at 4:00 a.m.: 10 tons of chemical mixture escaped from the Hoechst AG plant . The yellow cloud, which mainly consisted of the harmful yellow meta-nitroanisole , but also contained the poisonous substance ortho- nitroanisole , drifted over the Main and fell over the districts of Schwanheim and the Goldstein settlement. The yellow substance covered houses, cars, trees. Schools and kindergartens were closed, and many residents complained of sore eyes, malaise, vomiting and skin changes. A long-term study was carried out in order to be able to prove any late damage.
- Franz Gastell (1840–1927), sculptor
- Peter Herrmann (1828–1902), Member of Parliament
- August Gräser (1877–1961), local politician, city councilor
- Josef Esser (1910–1999), legal scholar
- Steffen Fäth (* 1990), handball player
- Namika (* 1991), singer
- Dietrich Thurau (* 1954), former professional cyclist
- Wilhelm Kobelt : Chronicle of the village Schwanheim am Main. Ed. Schwanheim Training and Citizens Association, 1888.
- A. Brühl, J. Siegel: History of the village and the parish Schwanheim. Publishing house HJ Henrich Schwanheim am Main, 1889.
- August Gräser : Schwanheim am Main then and now. Franz Jos. Henrich Ffm Schwanheim, 1953.
- The evangelical Kelsterbach 1558–1958. Ed. Pastors Walter Oelschner and Wilhelm Ackermann. Publishing house Evang. Kelsterbach rectory, 1958.
- Josef Henrich (Ed.): Suenheim - Sweinheim - Schwanheim . Publisher Franz Jos. Henrich KG, Frankfurt am Main 1971.
- The church in the village. Edited by the Catholic parish of St. Mauritius and the Frankfurt-Schwanheim Local History and History Association, 1987.
- The saints of the old parish church. Edited by the Catholic Parish of St. Mauritius Frankfurt-Schwanheim, 1987.
- Gustav Steubing, Manfred Müller: The dispute between Schwanheim and Kelsterbach over the St. Martins chapel (Merzkirche). Published by Volksbildungswerk Kelsterbach, 1994.
- Bernhard Stuck u. a .: Going forward on new paths - 100 years of St. Mauritius Church. Ed .: Catholic Parish and Friends of St. Mauritius. Printing and publishing company Henrich GmbH, 60528 Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-921606-42-X .
- City of Frankfurt am Main, Forestry Office (Hrsg.): Historischer Wanderweg Schwanheim - Wanderweg zur Schwanheimer history and prehistory . 3rd (corrected) edition, Frankfurt am Main 2002.
- The commercial, field and road names of the district Schwanheim (Main) by W. Kobelt, Annalen des Verein für Nassauische Altertumskunde und Geschichtsforschung, Volume XXXIX 1909
- Eisenbahndirektion Mainz (ed.): Collection of the published official gazettes of November 9, 1901. Volume 5, No. 53, Announcement No. 508, p. 372.
- Eisenbahndirektion Mainz (ed.): Official Gazette of the Royal Prussian and Grand Ducal Hessian Railway Directorate in Mainz of March 5, 1904, No. 11. Announcement No. 113, p. 138.
- stadtgeschichte-ffm.de ( Memento of the original from April 5, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- bridge completely pointless , FR Online from May 27, 2015, accessed on December 30, 2019
- Bernhard Stuck u. a .: Going forward on new paths - 100 years of St. Mauritius Church . Ed .: Catholic Parish and Friends of St. Mauritius. Printing and publishing company Henrich GmbH, Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-921606-42-X , p. 189 .
- Website of the Diocese of Limburg ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Urban waters. Rivers-brooks-oxbow lakes , published by the environmental office of the city of Frankfurt, status 2004
- BIPS - Institute for Epidemiology and Prevention Research : Chronological outline of the research project on the Hoechst incident from 1993. ( Memento from November 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive )