International Motor Show
The International Motor Show ( IAA ) is one of the largest and most important international automotive - trade fairs . Until 1939 it took place mainly in Berlin, after an interruption due to the war from 1951 to 2019 every two years in Frankfurt am Main . Since 1991 the exhibitions for passenger cars and commercial vehicles have been separate. The IAA Commercial Vehicles has been held in Hanover every even year since 1992 . The IAA for passenger cars took place in Munich for the first time in 2021 as the IAA Mobility platform . A distinction is made between trade visitor, press and public days in terms of dates. The IAA is organized by the Association of the Automotive Industry (VDA).
The beginnings: 1897–1911
On September 30, 1897, the founding event of the Central European Motor Vehicle Association (MMV) took place in the Hotel Bristol in Berlin . Eight “motor vehicles” from the founding members were on display: four Benz , two Lutzmann , a Kühlstein and a Daimler . According to the number of the organizer of the IAA, this is rated as the first automobile exhibition in Germany.
The second motor vehicle exhibition took place on May 24, 1898 in the Berlin State Exhibition Park . 13 vehicles were presented, including a truck for the first time.
In September 1899 an international motor vehicle exhibition took place in the parade house in Berlin, in which more than 100 exhibitors, including 13 from France, took part. The structure of the motor vehicles shown was still largely similar to horse-drawn carriages .
From May 14 to 25, 1902, the Association of German Motor Vehicle Industrialists , the predecessor organization of today's organizer VDA, organized an exhibition for the first time. For the first time it was called the Motor Show instead of the Motor Car Show . The vehicles were shown in the light rail arches of the Friedrichstrasse station .
Six more exhibitions were held by 1911.
The years 1921–1931
Due to the First World War and its consequences, there was no vehicle exhibition in Germany until 1920; the first auto show after the war took place in 1921. Only German products were shown at this 14th automobile exhibition, which was held from September 23 to October 2. The aerodynamic Rumpler teardrop car and a horn known as a Bosch horn with an electro-acoustic signal generator, which went into series production a few months later and replaced the traditional horn with bellows, attracted particular attention . Until 1939, the venue was a representative exhibition hall that was newly created during the war on Berlin's Kaiserdamm . In 1921, 67 manufacturers were still represented with around 150 vehicles; at the 15th exhibition in February 1923, 653 exhibitors were already showing their products.
The 16th German Motor Show from December 10th to 18th, 1924 was all about new types of small cars. If the automobile was previously considered a luxury object for the wealthy upper class , affordable vehicle types have now been presented, at least for the independent middle class . This included automobiles such as the Hanomag 2/10 PS called " Kommissbrot " and the 4 PS Opel, known as the "Tree Frog" .
The 19th IAA took place from May 20 to 31, 1927, under political pressure from the mayor at the time, Konrad Adenauer, on the exhibition grounds in Cologne . Only commercial vehicles were shown. The aim was to increase Cologne's economic influence. However, it remained the city's only automobile exhibition. The 20th exhibition from March 4 to 14, 1928 at the Leipzig Trade Fair was just such an episode .
The 21st automobile exhibition, which took place eight months later from November 8th to 18th, 1928 in Berlin, showed the technical progress in automobile construction: With the Röhr 8 , a German car with rack and pinion steering and independent wheel suspension was shown to the public for the first time. The luxury car Opel 24/110 PS "Regent" was the first Opel with an eight-cylinder engine . The first crank window regulator developed by the metal works Max Brose & Co. , now Brose Fahrzeugteile , also attracted particular attention . Because of the global economic crisis , no IAA took place in 1929, 1930 and 1932.
In the middle of the global recession, the 22nd IAA opened in Berlin in the spring of 1931 with great difficulty and attracted around 295,000 visitors. For the first time, vehicles with the previously unusual front-wheel drive were presented: the “ DKW front- wheel drive” was considered the cheapest automobile and at the same time one of the first series vehicles with front-wheel drive . There was an increasing trend towards diesel engines in commercial vehicles . The IAA was canceled again the following year.
time of the nationalsocialism
Shortly after the seizure of power of the NSDAP was from 11 to 23 February 1933 in Berlin the 23rd International Automobile and Motorcycle Exhibition under the theme "full speed ahead" instead. Since motorcycles, at that time more common than cars, were also shown at the exhibitions from 1933 to 1939, they were now called IAMA. It was not until 1951 that the name IAA was used again. In the opening speech, the recently appointed Chancellor Adolf Hitler announced tax relief for car owners and generous road construction plans . In doing so, he dealt with the obstacles to the general spread of the automobile that the automobile industry has lamented since the Weimar Republic . He also announced the state subsidy for motorsport. The technical innovations at the fair included the Ford Cologne and the Standard Superior as two of the first hatchback sedans ; The Maybach Zeppelin DS 8 was presented as the most expensive car in German production .
The automobile and motorcycle exhibitions in the following years came more and more under the influence of the Propaganda Ministry , led by Joseph Goebbels , which intervened directly in the design of the fair in some cases To convey an impression of German unity. Another requirement was the construction of a temporary hall of fame , in which German engineers such as Gottlieb Daimler and Carl Benz as well as factory workers were honored as national heroes as “workers of the forehead and the fist” .
The media presence was also considerably expanded, among other things due to the increasing spread of the Volksempfänger . The IAA or IAMA changed from an event for a few wealthy people to a mass event : From March 8th to 18th, 1934, the exhibition already had 600,000 visitors. This was made possible by nationwide advertising on advertising pillars , short advertising films in the Ufa cinemas and the provision of special trains and buses. The poster for this exhibition, which had the motto “Will works wonders”, was the first and only IAA poster with a swastika . In typical Nazi propaganda pose, an arm with a swastika armband stretched a car chassis towards the sky over smoking factory chimneys.
At the opening of the 24th automobile and motorcycle exhibition in 1934, Hitler demanded the abolition of the “class-emphasizing character” of the automobile as a means of transport for only a few and announced the construction of an affordable family vehicle for all “ national comrades ” for the first time . At the same time he proclaimed a state program for self-sufficient fuel supply in Germany. In line with this self-sufficiency efforts, more and more vehicles with wood gas generators were shown, such as a Westwaggon bus constructed under Imbert's patent and a steam truck exhibited by Henschel . One of the most conspicuous vehicles was a double-decker long-distance coach from the coachbuilder Gebr. Ludewig on a Büssing-NAG chassis with herringbone armchairs, with the seats facing outwards in the lower area and inwards in the upper area. In the passenger car sector, the fair showed the increasing trend towards rear-mounted engines , such as the Mercedes 130 , which was presented for the first time , and towards streamlined shapes . Particular attention was paid to the Tatra 77 , one of the first aerodynamically designed series vehicles.
The IAMA increasingly served Hitler to present himself as the leader of a modern movement. At the 26th IAMA in 1936, a bust of Adolf Hitler was placed in the center of the entrance area, around which star-shaped swastika-decorated automobiles were grouped. Some of these vehicles were historical models, others were visibly heavily used vehicles that Hitler had used in the 1920s to build up the party: These cars were presented as an indispensable means of seizing power.
A central theme of all IAMA up to 1939 was the preparation for the introduction of a Volkswagen. In the opening speech of the 25th exhibition in 1935, Hitler announced the completion of the preliminary drafts, a year later he referred to the already implemented introduction of such a vehicle for the masses in America , alluding to Henry Ford , whom he admired . At the IAMA in 1937 and 1938, too, Hitler announced the imminent production of a Volkswagen; he attended these fairs twice. The new " KdF-Wagen " - the later VW Beetle - was only presented at the 29th IAMA from February 17 to March 5, 1939. With around 825,000 visitors, this 29th exhibition represented a new visitor record in the history of the IAA. The Second World War , which began on September 1, 1939 with the German invasion of Poland , prevented further automobile exhibitions from being held.
Post-war period 1945–1959
Companies from Germany, which was responsible for the war, were not allowed to take part in the first European post-war automobile exhibition held in Paris in 1946. Therefore, from 1947 to 1949, German automobile manufacturers presented their vehicles at the Hanover export fair in a separate hall for the automobile industry . These exhibitions are subsequently rated by the VDA as the 30th to 32nd IAA. In 1950 the newly founded VDA organized a car show in Berlin, which was subsequently counted as the 33rd IAA. The 34th IAA took place in Frankfurt am Main in April 1951. Although most German citizens could not even afford a car, 570,000 visitors already came. In addition to new large models such as the BMW 501, the small cars popular at the time of the economic miracle, such as the Lloyd 300, as well as the dump trucks and heavy trucks required for the reconstruction , including the MAN MK 26 as the first German truck with a diesel exhaust gas turbocharger, were exhibited . Small vans such as the DKW Schnellaster and the Tempo Matador were exhibited as a completely new class of commercial vehicles . Also striking were the round hood trucks from Magirus-Deutz , which were presented for the first time, with a new type of fluid body design that was previously unusual in commercial vehicles. In his opening speech at this 34th IAA, Federal President Theodor Heuss described the automobile as “a banal matter” - in sharp contrast to the euphoria of the 1930s. At the same time he criticized the outdated technology of German products.
A "car show", counted as the 35th IAA, took place from September 6 to 16, 1951 in Berlin. Only about 290,000 visitors came to her. Because of the difficult access to the four-sector city and because Berlin could only be reached in a time-consuming manner for West German companies and visitors via the territory of the German Democratic Republic , which had been founded two years earlier, future IAA took place in Frankfurt am Main until the 1980s every two years.
750,000 visitors came to the 36th IAA, which took place from March 19 to 29, 1953 in Frankfurt am Main. They were particularly interested in affordable vehicles such as the new Messerschmitt cabin scooter and a Lloyd 400 that was upgraded with steel parts instead of wood . For larger vehicles such as the Opel Olympia Rekord shown for the first time and the also new DKW special class , the trend was towards ever larger window areas. The station wagons presented for the first time offered a largely new body design . In the commercial vehicle sector, the newly developed Ford FK 1000 was presented as a competitor to the VW Transporter . 568 companies exhibited, 43 of them from abroad, representing vehicle production from ten nations.
The 37th IAA in 1955 also offered a large number of newly developed models that shaped the streets of the 1950s and 1960s for a long time. In addition to the large DKW 3 = 6 and the Isabella TS, the small cars Lloyd 600 and Maico MC 500/4 belong here . An exhibited Dornier Delta , in which the occupants sat back to back, and three-wheeled open two-seaters from Brütsch appeared curious . At the other IAA in the 1950s, visitors who could not yet afford a Volkswagen Beetle due to their low purchasing power were also particularly interested in cheaper small cars such as the NSU Fiat Jagst 600 and the NSU Prinz , which also have a small cubic capacity were beneficial in terms of road tax. A Goggomobil with a panoramic window and two-tone paintwork was considered a small sensation at the 1957 IAA .
An attraction at the IAA 1959 was the Mini , which was presented to the public for the first time in Germany , mainly because of its space-saving design, and the DAF 600 because of the unique Variomatic transmission. For the first time, a Moskvich-407 and a GAZ M-21 were Volga Vehicles from the Soviet Union can also be seen at an IAA. The eye-catcher of the fair was the elevation of a huge ship, inside of which a large number of VW Beetles are being transported.
The 1960s and 1970s
The 40th IAA in 1961 achieved a visitor record with 950,000 visitors; this record was only exceeded in 1977.
The Mercedes 600 exhibited at the 41st IAA in 1963 contained everything that was possible in terms of technical refinements in automobile construction in the early 1960s . At a price of around 50,000 marks and an average annual salary of 7,775 marks, it was only less of a representative vehicle.
In 1965 a Japanese company was represented at the IAA for the first time with the manufacturer Honda . Until then, there were hardly any Japanese vehicles on the German market. The most discussed vehicle at the 1967 IAA was the NSU Ro 80 : Its aerodynamically favorable wedge shape and the twin-disc rotary engine were rated as revolutionary . In 1969, the first generation of an anti-lock braking system from the US company ITT was presented to the public for the first time at the IAA .
The 45th exhibition was canceled at short notice in 1971 for economic and political reasons. This was the hour of birth of the Automechanika ; Messe Frankfurt thus gave the motor vehicle, equipment, accessories and similar companies usually represented at the IAA the opportunity to make a corresponding presentation.
The 50th IAA took place in 1983 under the motto “Computers and Electronics”. Many models had digital displays for the first time. The manufacturer British Leyland presented the first talking on-board computer at an IAA in an Austin Maestro . The trend towards electronics was also shown by a fuel terminal from the Kienzle company, which was presented to the public for the first time at the 1983 IAA .
The focus of the technical discussions at the 52nd IAA in 1987 was the Herborn tanker accident : It was discussed whether the EPS electro-pneumatic circuit of the accident vehicle , which was innovative at the time, was jointly responsible for the accident. In 1989 the last IAA with the joint passenger car and commercial vehicle divisions took place in Frankfurt am Main and achieved a visitor record with 1,233,100 trade fair visitors. Due to the increase in the number of manufacturers presenting, the trade fair was divided from 1989 onwards into the IAA passenger vehicles in Frankfurt and the IAA commercial vehicles in Hanover, which take place alternately every two years.
The 1990s heralded a change in the theme of the presentation of automobiles: increasingly models were shown under the aspect of economy, especially with regard to low fuel consumption. The Korean manufacturer Hyundai , which was represented for the first time at this exhibition, also showed inexpensive automobiles at the IAA 1991 .
The first IAA Commercial Vehicles took place in Hanover in May 1992: Since around 287,000 interested people visited the fair and 1284 exhibitors from 29 countries presented their products on an area of 252,000 square meters, the organizer considered the fair's division into IAA Commercial Vehicles and IAA Passenger Vehicles to be correct Decision. This was confirmed at the IAA Commercial Vehicles 1996, when 1400 exhibitors from 45 countries were represented. An attraction at the IAA 1997 was the Smart as a newly designed model of a miniature car . The market launch in Germany for hybrid electric vehicles began at the IAA 1999 with the Toyota Prius, which was presented for the first time .
Since the 2000s, the IAA Cars has been offering more and more Hollywood-style shows, in which, in addition to world premieres and concept vehicles , the focus is on corporate evenings and trade fair parties, as well as artistic performances that are attractive to visitors. The IAA Commercial Vehicles, on the other hand, has developed into a specialist exhibition in which, in addition to trucks and buses, the entire value chain of this area including suppliers , financiers, mobility management and logistics is depicted. If the conception of the IAA Cars is aimed more at the general public and the media, the IAA Commercial Vehicles has an increasing share of trade visitors. While their share at the IAA Commercial Vehicles in 1991 was 66%, in 2001 it was over 90%. Trade visitors use this IAA to make decisions about investments and to initiate contracts.
The 58th IAA Commercial Vehicles took place - due to the simultaneous World Exhibition Expo 2000 - exceptionally in Frankfurt.
In 2005, Chinese car brands were also represented at the IAA for the first time . The 940,000 visitors came from 99 countries. One in seven of them was from abroad, over 70% from Europe. 10% came from America, more than twice as many as at the previous IAA. The proportion of trade visitors from Asia rose from 9% to 15%.
In a survey in 2005, almost 90% of Germans knew the IAA as a trade fair for the automotive industry. More than 14,000 journalists reported, 40% of them from abroad. In 2006 a Chinese commercial vehicle manufacturer was represented at the IAA for the first time with the brand CAMC .
With almost one million guests, the 2007 IAA Cars was one of the most visited IAA since the split. The main topics were fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide reduction. There were 88 world premieres, 46 of them from German manufacturers, such as hybrid vehicles .
The IAA Cars 2009 was in the shadow of the global economic crisis and some well-known manufacturers canceled their participation. Nevertheless, there were a total of 100 world premieres from the manufacturers, including 55 from Germany, as well as 87 world firsts from the suppliers. One focus of the fair with around 850,000 visitors was environmental protection: The focus was primarily on cars with electric drives.
In the 2010s, the IAA Cars recorded an increasing decline in visitors: Whereas one million visitors came in 2007 and around 800,000 in 2017, there were only around 560,000 in 2019. In addition, the exhibition space became smaller and the number of exhibitors fell: In 2019, alongside Toyota, the world's second largest automobile manufacturer, and almost all other Japanese companies, large manufacturers such as Peugeot, Citroën, Fiat / Chrysler and Volvo also decided not to participate. There were also many smaller brands that were popular with the public, such as Ferrari, Aston Martin, Rolls-Royce, Bugatti, Bentley and Maserati.
1751 exhibitors from 43 countries were represented at the IAA Commercial Vehicles 2010. It showed the development of environmental technologies for commercial vehicles such as fuel cell vehicles , particularly clean diesel trucks and hybrid trucks .
The 64th IAA Cars 2011, at which 1012 exhibitors from 32 countries presented themselves, was attended by 928,100 guests. First one was Hall of Electric Mobility provided. At the IAA Commercial Vehicles 2012, 1904 exhibitors from 46 countries were represented. The fair showed, among other things. the growing trend towards alternative drives , telematics and aerodynamics for trucks and semi-trailers . The 65th IAA Commercial Vehicles 2014 was characterized by the presentation of the possibilities of networking and automation in commercial vehicles, such as the maneuvering of driverless trucks using a tablet . What was striking was the high number of exhibitors from China, who, as in 2012, had the largest share among foreign manufacturers.
One focus of the 66th IAA Cars 2015 was electromobility; It also highlighted the increasing importance of the topics of autonomous driving and connected cars . This was also the guiding principle of the 66th IAA Commercial Vehicles 2016 (networking of transport and logistics) and the 67th IAA Cars 2017. The 67th IAA was overshadowed by the discussion about the emissions scandal and the associated loss of confidence in the German automotive industry.
The focus of the 68th IAA Cars 2019, under the motto Driving tomorrow, should include electric cars as well as digitization and networking. For the first time in the history of the IAA there were demonstrations by climate activists and party organizations. The demands ranged from a quick exit from the internal combustion engine to climate-neutral transport by 2035 to a limitation of the maximum speed to 120 km / h on motorways. The dismissal of Lord Mayor Peter Feldmann also caused controversy . According to the organizers, a total of 25,000 participants attended a demonstration on September 14 for the traffic turnaround, 18,000 of them by bike; the police said about 15,000. On September 15, the main entrance to the IAA was occupied by hundreds of activists.
IAA Mobility 2021
In 2021, both the concept of the fair and the location were changed. From now on, the fair will take place under the new name IAA Mobility on the exhibition grounds in Munich and includes the topic of mobility solutions . For the first time, bicycle manufacturers were among the exhibitors.
At the Open Space , mobility concepts are shown directly in the city. Various inner city squares are planned for the IAA Mobility in Munich. In the Open Space, citizens should have the opportunity to experience events such as concerts, presentations or dialogue events right on their doorstep. The event area is part of the revised IAA Mobility concept. In terms of content, it is closely related to the topics on the exhibition grounds:
- Brienner Strasse
- Odeonsplatz and Feldherrnhalle
- Residential courtyards
- Wittelsbacher Platz
The Blue Lane connects the event locations in downtown Munich with the exhibition center. There are routes for transfers and test drives. With the connection, the mobility solutions should be made directly tangible for visitors beyond the exhibitor platforms and dialogue formats.
The meeting will take place on the exhibition grounds. It is aimed primarily at international industry experts and journalists from the mobility industry. The area forms the core of the event. The formats focus on panel discussions, networks and specialist exhibitions. Compared to the earlier IAA events in Frankfurt, a smaller area than before has been earmarked for exhibitions.
The conference on the exhibition grounds includes lectures and discussion formats that are at the center of the debates at the IAA Mobility. The event area planned as a mobility forum will take place entirely in English. In addition, discussions with politicians and the public at national level are to take place in German-language dialogue formats.
On the exhibitor side, a large number of national and international automobile manufacturers and suppliers take part. Compared to previous years, however, there are no major automobile manufacturers such as Toyota, Peugeot, Fiat, Opel or Skoda. In addition to the participation of tech companies and startups, the integration of the World Cycling Forum is planned for the first time at the IAA 2021 in Munich . This is intended to underline the new focus on mobility beyond the automobile.
The IAA 2021 will take place with the addition of Mobility. The focus on sustainable mobility is to be emphasized. Critics such as the #noIAA alliance accuse the IAA of “just painting itself green ”. Various protest actions have been announced against the IAA Mobility, the counter-event #KonTraIAA draws its vision for a climate-friendly mobility transition .
Various protests took place during the IAA Mobility. On September 10, 2021, 16 activists were arrested after clashes with police. The next day, several thousand people criticized the IAA Mobility concept at a rally on Theresienwiese . Previously, various organizers such as the ADFC , Attac , the Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland , Deutsche Umwelthilfe , Greenpeace and the Verkehrsclub Deutschland organized a bicycle rally and a demonstration parade through Munich. The rally led to the Theresienwiese on 16 different routes. Various speakers there called for "a clear departure from the car-dominated transport policy and priority for pedestrian, bicycle and local traffic". The organizers complained about the greenwashing of the IAA, i.e. the feigned traffic turnaround and the automotive industry's low interest in climate protection. The organizers spoke of 25,000 participants in the protests, the police of around 14,500 participants.
On Saturday, September 11, 2021, there was a massive police operation with batons and pepper spray against the demonstrations.
Reactions September 12, 2021
Bündnis90 / Greens are calling for a comprehensive reappraisal of the violent hard clashes between the police and the demonstrations.
The Bavarian Interior Minister Joachim Herrmann praises the police IAA deployment concept.
Location and date
The IAA Commercial Vehicles takes place every even year in September at the Hanover Exhibition Center . The IAA Cars took place every odd year from 1991 to 2019, also in September at Messe Frankfurt . On March 3, 2020, the organizer VDA presented the new concept of an IAA Mobility from 2021. The event will no longer take place in Frankfurt, but in Munich.
In 2021, the IAA Cars was renamed IAA Mobility, as the content focus was extended to the topic of mobility beyond automobiles. The 1st IAA Mobility took place in Munich from September 7th to 12th, 2021.
IAA passenger cars
The fair was only open to the press for two days before the opening on Thursday; Afterwards, the fair is open for two days, on Thursdays and Fridays, primarily to the specialist audience. The fair will be open to the general public from Saturday. Individual trade fairs have special topics:
- The motto of the 60th IAA Cars from September 11 to 21, 2003 was “Fascination Cars ” .
- As in 2003, the 61st IAA Cars from September 15 to 25, 2005 was themed “Fascination Cars ” .
- The motto of the 62nd IAA Cars from September 13 to 23, 2007 was “See what will move tomorrow” .
- The motto of the 63rd IAA Cars from September 17 to 27, 2009 was “Experience what moves you” .
- The motto of the 64th IAA Cars from September 15 to 25, 2011 was "Future series production" .
- The motto of the 65th IAA Cars from September 12 to 22, 2013 was “The most automotive show in the world” .
- The motto of the 66th IAA Cars from September 17th to 27th 2015 was "Mobility connects" .
- The motto of the 67th IAA Cars from September 14th to 24th 2017 was “Experience the future” .
- The motto of the 68th IAA Cars from September 12 to 22, 2019 was “Driving tomorrow” .
IAA commercial vehicles
In addition to vehicle manufacturers, the supplier industry is also represented at the IAA Commercial Vehicles. The first two days are usually reserved for trade visitors and the press. Some trade fairs have special themes:
- The motto of the 60th IAA Commercial Vehicles from 23 to 30 September 2004 was “Mobile Future” .
- The motto of the 61st IAA Commercial Vehicles from September 21 to 28, 2006 was "For us all on the road" .
- The motto of the 62nd IAA Commercial Vehicles from September 25 to October 2, 2008 was “For everyone on the move” .
- The 63rd IAA Commercial Vehicles from September 23 to 30, 2010 was themed “Efficient, Flexible, Future-Proof” .
- The motto of the 64th IAA Commercial Vehicles from September 20 to 27, 2012 was “Engine of the Future” .
- The motto of the 65th IAA Commercial Vehicles from September 25 to October 2, 2014 was “Moving the future” .
- The motto of the 66th IAA Commercial Vehicles from September 22 to 29, 2016 was “Ideas are what drives us” .
- The motto of the 67th IAA Commercial Vehicles from September 20 to 27, 2018 was “Driving tomorrow” .
- The 68th IAA Commercial Vehicles was to be held from September 24th to 30th, 2020 in Hanover under the motto “Beyond Transport & Logistics” . Due to the Covid 19 pandemic, the VDA decided on May 6, 2020 to cancel the trade fair.
- The 69th IAA Commercial Vehicles is planned for September 20-25, 2022.
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