|motto||"People, nature and technology - a new world is emerging"|
|Exhibition space||160 ha|
|Number of visitors||18 million|
|Place of issue|
|terrain||Hanover and Kronsberg exhibition grounds|
|opening||June 1, 2000|
|closure||October 31, 2000|
The Expo 2000 was the first world exhibition in Germany registered with the Bureau International des Expositions . It was under the motto “People, nature and technology - a new world is emerging” and had around 18 million visitors. The exhibition took place from June 1, 2000 to October 31, 2000 on an area of 160 hectares on the exhibition grounds and a neighboring open-air area on Kronsberg in Hanover .
The Bureau International des Expositions (BIE) in Paris awarded Hanover on June 14, 1990 with a majority of only one vote - including the vote of the GDR , which was still in existence at the time - ahead of the competitor Toronto for the 2000 World Exhibition.
In the left scene in Hanover, after the Expo was awarded to the city of Hanover in 1990, there were considerable protests against the planned world exhibition. They reached into the city council and the Lower Saxony state government of the red-green alliance. Because of the protests, the city council decided to conduct a citizen survey among the adult population. Previously, however, only the SPD had declared the result of the vote to be binding for the decision whether the world exhibition would be organized. The Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen party had also campaigned for the survey, but only with the aim of preventing the Expo. The result on June 12, 1992 fell with 51.5 to 48.5 percent of the vote, the result just short of organizing the Expo. The high participation, which was made possible by a simple postcard procedure, gave the expo a democratic legitimation.
Due to the fears expressed by the opponents, who saw an intensification of the housing shortage and massive impairment of the quality of life and the environment, efforts were made in the run-up to the residents' survey to organize the expo in a social and ecological manner. Among other things, a price-bound housing estate ( Expo-Siedlung ) with a good 3000 apartments linked to numerous ecological projects was quickly built on Kronsberg . After the expo it led to a drastic oversupply of apartments. Before the construction of the exhibition facilities on the south-western slope of the Kronsberg, archaeological investigations of the building site were carried out between 1996 and 1999, as it was known that the medieval settlement of Eddingerode , which was founded in the 9th century and fell into desolation in the 15th century, was located there. The excavations led to the discovery of the remains of 43 buildings, 20 stores and four mine houses .
Shortly before the start of the Expo 2000 it was foreseeable that the originally expected rush to the Expo would not materialize. Therefore, out of 6,000 pupils and students who had been recruited as employees for the Expo by the personnel service provider Adecco , 5,000 were dismissed within a few days in accordance with the contract (one week before the start).
In Hanover's application, the aim was to create a new type of world exhibition. Visions for the future should be presented and models for the balance between man , nature and technology given. In addition, possible solutions for the coexistence of more than six billion people should be illustrated.
In order to carry out a comprehensive environmental management and to live up to the motto of the exhibition, only 30 percent of the expo area was newly developed and built on. The pavilions should find a new use after the expo, dismantled and either recycled or rebuilt in other places.
For the Expo 2000 - for the first time at world exhibitions - a theme park was set up in which adventure landscapes (future of work, basic needs, the 21st century, energy, nutrition , health , communication , people, mobility , planet of visions, environment , Knowledge ) impressions of the future were conveyed. The individual countries presented themselves on national days and in their individually furnished pavilions.
The idea of having the world exhibition with its worldwide projects not just in Hanover but all over the world was also new . In a total of 123 countries, 487 forward-looking, transferable and sustainable project ideas on all subject areas were registered as official Expo 2000 projects, and in Germany alone 280 projects were recognized by independent expert committees as models and solutions for the burning questions of the future of the new 21st century. Even after the world exhibition, there will be further work on these future topics with the WorldWide Projects network .
As the so-called “intellectual backbone” of Expo 2000, the Global Dialogues took up the themes of the theme park. Over three days, up to 500 well-known representatives from politics, business, science and civil society met in ten Global Dialogues. Guests included Carl Djerassi , one of the inventors of the anti-baby pill , the Queen of Sweden , the Queen of Bhutan , the then UNHCR Commissioner Ruud Lubbers and Nobel Prize winner Wangari Muta Maathai . The special thing about the event was the networking of different participants on the most urgent issues of the time.
A main attraction was the gondola lift with the characteristic eight-person yellow gondolas, which was built to give visitors an overview of the entire world exhibition from a height of 30 meters. Another visitor magnet was the bamboo pavilion based on The Blue Economy principles, which was developed in collaboration with Zero Emissions Research and Initiatives and Simon Velez.
General commissioner of the Expo 2000 was Birgit Breuel , who also coordinated the subsequent use of the pavilions and the site.
At the beginning of the Expo, 120 additional Deutsche Bahn trains operated daily under the category Expo-Express (EXE) and Expo-Zug (EX) to the Hannover Messe / Laatzen station . In addition, all regular long-distance trains stopped at the exhibition center. For the first time in scheduled operation, the new ICE 3 was used in Expo traffic .
Logo and trademarks
The logo of the world exhibition emerged from a corporate design competition and was presented on November 9, 1994. At the beginning of the competition, nine designers from Germany were approached who were asked to nominate young designers and design teams for participation. The winning logo was created by the Cologne design office QWER. The logo of the Expo 2000, also called impulse, was described as particularly dynamic and colorful. It aroused great interest worldwide, especially among experts, as its shape and color were constantly changing and thus described a dynamic process (that of the world exhibition).
Postage stamps and coins
On the occasion of the Expo 2000 in Hanover from 1998 to 2000, the Ministry of Finance of the Federal Republic of Germany issued a silver coin and a total of eleven postage stamps . In the silver coin is a 10 DM - commemorative coin of the Deutsche Bundesbank , the Munich medal urine Sonja Seibold had designed.
Worldwide and regional projects
In addition to the introduction of a guiding theme “Man - Nature - Technology”, which is binding for all participants, the concept of worldwide projects was also one of the innovations at the Expo. These projects meant that the world exhibition not only took place on the central exhibition grounds, but also in the entire host country and on all five continents. A total of 767 practical and exemplary solutions were selected from around 3000 applications worldwide. Of these, around 280 projects were in Germany and 67 of them in Lower Saxony.
Children and youth projects
The Pavilion of Hope ( English Pavilion of Hope , also called Expowal or Expo-Wal), for which CVJM , World Vision Germany and the German Evangelical Alliance were responsible, was the official youth pavilion of the Expo and was welcomed by readers and viewers of the magazine Bunte and of the ZDF named an EXPO landmark by TED on May 17, 2000.
The children and youth platform EXPO 2000 was the amalgamation of large youth organizations in Germany that operated the Big Tipi at Expo 2000 . Among other things, a children's summit took place there.
In December 1996, organizations involved in child and youth work in Germany came together to form the children and youth platform. The aim was to make a contribution to the world exhibition from the perspective of children and young people.
The platform was led by the German Federal Youth Association and had the following members:
- German Federal Youth Association (DBJR)
- German Sports Youth (dsj)
- German Youth Hostel Association (DJH)
The German hard rock formation Scorpions gave a concert in the TUI Arena on June 22nd together with the Berliner Philharmoniker . In the event, which was televised with a delay, the piece Moment of Glory , a more or less official Expo 2000 song, was performed live. The song called Expo 2000 by the band Kraftwerk , which was recognized as the “official title track” even before the start of Expo 2000, hardly met with popular approval due to its minimalist electronica character. The Expo 2000 commercials also featured a rock version of the 1930s hit “That's only once”, which was not officially available in stores, but quickly spread via file-sharing networks on the Internet.
In order to improve the initially weak visitor response, an advertising campaign was started with Verona Feldbusch and Peter Ustinov , which emphasized the fun factor and the uniqueness of the Expo under the slogan "This only happens once, this never comes again".
There were twelve official "world partners" who were able to present themselves at the Expo with their own pavilion and who were allowed to advertise the world exhibition in advance. These were Baan , Bertelsmann , DaimlerChrysler , Der Grüne Punkt , Deutsche Bahn , Deutsche Post AG , Deutsche Telekom , Lufthansa , Preussag , Siemens , the Sparkassen-Finanzgruppe and Volkswagen AG .
The response was greater than at any world exhibition before. The cultural and event program for the entire expo comprised around 15,000 performances and events. Nevertheless, the number of visitors remained far below expectations.
155 nations and 27 international organizations took part in the expo. The US canceled its participation in April 2000 because Congress had refused government funding and insufficient sponsorship funds had been raised.
In the run-up to the event, the Expo company had expected 40 million visitors, which should bring in 1.8 billion DM in entrance fees. However, due to the generally high ticket prices, ticket sales started very slowly. In addition to the normal tickets, there was a special train ticket for visitors who had traveled with Deutsche Bahn, which was also used to visit the world exhibition. Because of the initially unsatisfactory number of visitors, the Expo company began to issue special tickets after a few weeks. They initially cost DM 10 and later DM 15, were only valid from 6 p.m. and led to significantly higher numbers of visitors. On some days, waiting times of several hours had to be accepted at peak times.
A total of around 18.1 million visitors came and thus less than half of the calculated 40 million.
The costs of the expo amounted to 3.5 billion DM. The federal government , the state of Lower Saxony , the district and the city of Hanover as well as the holding company of the German economy were involved in the financing . The revenues of the Expo amounted to 2.4 billion DM, leaving the event with a direct loss of 1.1 billion DM. According to a study by the Munich-based management consultancy Roland Berger Strategy Consultants , this deficit of 1.1 billion DM resulted in an additional tax income of at least 2.7 Billion DM compared. However, Roland Berger had also pointed out risks.
The expo was criticized from the start for its high prices. A day ticket for an adult cost 69 DM (adjusted for inflation, that would be 46.43 euros today), a school group ticket 29 DM (19.51 euros). Some restaurants and merchandise shops on the site have very high prices. Sponsors also criticized high prices - it cost $ 4.8 million to become an official product partner and $ 14.5 million to become a global partner.
In addition to the high prices, one reason for the disappointing visitor response is an inadequate marketing concept - it was not possible to give the expo a clear concept and to anchor this and its importance as a national event in the population. Ralf Strobach from the marketing agency Scholz & Friends criticized the unclear concept in advance: "The organizers did not manage to give the public a clear picture of what Expo 2000 will be: an amusement park, a large museum or a nature reserve. Long At one time companies were unsure whether to spend money on an eco show or a showcase for their latest innovations. " Arno Brandt, NORD / LB employee who investigated the problems of the Expo, said in retrospect in 2010: “It was completely underestimated that an event of this type in a country where there had never been a world exhibition before was not a sure-fire success is. In contrast to the World Cup, the expo required an explanation and was not anchored emotionally in the broader public. ”The message education initiative points out the disadvantages that this created for many medium-sized companies.
Ernst August Prince of Hanover made headlines when he urinated against the Turkish pavilion on June 15 . A little later, the entertainment program Wetten, dass ..? broadcast. Moderator Thomas Gottschalk directly ruled out the suggestion for the hall bet to find five Turks who urinate in the German pavilion .
The bratwurst price, which is said to have been DM 9.50 on the opening days (according to today's purchasing power EUR 6.39), caused general excitement. This news was stubbornly reported for weeks, although the price had leveled off at around 4 to 5 DM (2.69 to 3.36 euros) just two days after the opening.
Chaos days in Hanover were announced again for EXPO 2000, but they did not reach the dimensions of 1995. Karl Nagel had created an extensive parody website that aroused completely exaggerated expectations. Even so, at the time of the Expo there were very many young people in the city and hundreds of arrests by the police. In addition, there was an attack by autonomists on the Hanover-Hamburg railway line in advance , relating to the Expo in Hanover.
The resistance was organized, among other things, by an officer for the protection of the constitution who had been smuggled into the scene.
For the tenth anniversary, a major event with national days as well as art and music programs was originally supposed to take place from June 1 to 13, 2010. However, after the original organizer had dropped out, a small anniversary event was held instead on June 12th and 13th at the EXPO Plaza, which attracted 2500 visitors.
Photos of pavilions during the expo
Overall, the operating company drew a positive balance in 2004. According to this, 85 percent of the area and pavilions of the eastern site will continue to be used. This subsequent utilization is the largest of all world exhibitions to date. Today the former Expo East site houses the Expo Park Hannover , an IT and media location. The western pavilion area was built over with new exhibition halls or is used as a parking lot. Among other things, the world's largest computer trade fair , CeBIT , took place here every year until 2018 .
In September 2014, the news magazine Der Spiegel described the re-use concept as “completely unsuccessful”.
Removed and demolished pavilions
- The pavilions of Korea and Croatia were not reused.
- The Singapore, Estonia, Monaco and Norway pavilions were demolished.
- The Japanese pavilion has been recycled and reused.
- The Australian pavilion was leased and returned.
- The extraordinary country pavilion of the Republic of Yemen was originally intended to serve as the backdrop for an oriental soap opera . Until its demolition in 2009 it stood on the Street of Nations and its " confectionery architecture " was particularly effective at night. The building looked anachronistic, but fitted into the picture due to its location on the "changing gardens". After the expo, the pavilion was marketed as an event location by “Brunch.TV Film”. The building, originally a showcase project of the EXPO re-use, was demolished in 2009.
Remaining pavilions and facilities
- The "changing gardens" by landscape architect Louafi remained on site.
- The exponale is still preserved as a pedestrian bridge.
- The largest self-supporting, of silver fir -supported wood roof of the world remains a landmark of the Expo 2000 for further fairs.
- The first pavilion that was subsequently used was the Finnish pavilion on the Expo East site, which was very popular with visitors and where the Finbox office center was opened.
- A sound reinforcement company took over the Swedish pavilion.
- The Belgian pavilion serves under the name Peppermint Pavilion today as an event location, music studio and headquarters of the record company of the music producer Mousse T.
- The UK pavilion stood empty for a long time and is now used by a company.
- A 3D Science Center has been housed in the Danish pavilion since 2011 . In 2018 it was sold to a company.
- The pavilion of France was initially used as a branch by the sporting goods company Decathlon for a few years , after more than unsatisfactory sales it closed and the pavilion stood empty for some time. In January 2007, the BMW branch in Hanover opened its branch in the pavilion at Expo Park Hanover . The post box next to it also moved into BMW.
- The Global House is used by Faculty III - Media, Information and Design of the Hanover University of Applied Sciences .
- " The Living Planet " is a project that was realized for the WWF . Stefan Szczesny designed the ceramic walls and André Heller designed the pavilion and the large figure made of plants. Both have been rebuilt in the Villeroy & Boch company park in Mettlach and can be viewed publicly.
- The German pavilion is still on the site and was used by several IT and media companies. In the course of the refugee crisis in Germany from 2015 , the city of Hanover acquired the building from Josef Wund for 5.7 million euros . In the winter of 2015/2016, a branch of the Braunschweig site of the Lower Saxony State Reception Authority (LAB-NI) was set up with short-term accommodation for several hundred refugees. From March to August 2016 there was an emergency shelter in the building for the long-term accommodation of up to 430 refugees. Since then it has been mostly empty.
- The Expo-Wal (Pavilion of Hope) was rented by World Vision Germany to LIM WAL gGmbH and has meanwhile also been sold to them, who operate the building as an event center, as part of a rental to a catering company and church . Since 2004 the pavilion of hope has been used for the Expowal church services under the title “Expowal - An Incredible Church” by Heino Masemann on behalf of the State Association for Inner Mission .
Moved pavilions inland
- The stones of the pavilion of Jordan were used to build a restaurant on Klagesmarkt in Hanover.
- The cycle bowl was rebuilt in the Ruhr area .
- The Sri Lanka pavilion became a warehouse for a freight forwarding company in Krefeld .
- The Christ Pavilion was to Volkenroda translocated and used as part of a church. The ecumenical church center Mühlenberg received the cross of the pavilion .
- The Mexican pavilion was rebuilt in Braunschweig as the library of the University of Fine Arts .
- The Colombian pavilion was rebuilt in 2005 in Wolfsburg's Allerpark for gastronomic purposes.
- The Swiss Pavilion architect Peter Zumthor was sold to 60 percent as timber and on a club grounds on the outskirts of Banteln installed. The remainder was used at the national exhibition Expo.02 in Switzerland.
- The cabins of the gondola lift float in the Fieberbrunn ski area through the Kitzbühel Alps or with the Belchen cable car to the Belchen in the Black Forest.
- The Nepal pavilion has been rebuilt in Wiesent near Regensburg .
- The Big Tipi , designed by the Dortmund architects Schröder Schulte-Ladbeck , is now in Dortmund's Fredenbaumpark .
- The Indian pavilion was initially a tennis hall in an industrial park in Seelze and later became a children's play paradise, Ballorig.
Relocated pavilions abroad
- The Romanian pavilion was moved to Romania.
- The pavilion from Ethiopia was transported back to the homeland.
- The Italian pavilion is located in the Rome Exhibition Park.
- The Greek pavilion was intended to be used at the Olympic Games in Greece.
- The Icelandic pavilion (Blue Cube) is now in Danfoss Universe in Nordborg, Denmark . In the cube-shaped structure there is a glacier and lightning simulator as well as an artificial geyser as a central element .
- The Holy See Pavilion was rebuilt in 2002 as St. Meinard's Church in Liepāja ( Latvia ).
- The Irish Pavilion is now the entrance building to Dublin University .
- The Buddhist community of La Boulaye in France acquired the Bhutanese pavilion and rebuilt it in Burgundy.
- The pavilion of Venezuela was the end of 2007 in Barquisimeto in Venezuela rebuilt, and the hydraulically operated roof elements were put back into operation.
- The Portuguese pavilion is used as a concert hall in the central Portuguese city of Coimbra .
- The Hungarian pavilion was dismantled in April 2008 and sold to Abu Dhabi , where it became the entrance building of a residential and commercial park.
Photos of pavilions on the former Expo site
Unused pavilion of Lithuania
Former Postbox , now a BMW branch
Belgian Pavilion, now the Peppermint Pavilion
Photos of re-used pavilions at other locations
Icelandic pavilion (Blue Cube) in Danfoss Universe
Venezuela Pavilion in Barquisimeto
The Mexican pavilion as the library of the HBK in Braunschweig
Difficulties in re-use were and still exist in the following pavilions, among others:
- The Latvian pavilion was actually intended to be used by a trading company for amber as the German headquarters, but was vacant due to bankruptcy and became an ecological training farm or machine building hall in Badbergen .
- Spain wanted to use its pavilion as a cultural center, but had no support with the concepts. The pavilion fell into disrepair and was destroyed by a major fire in 2016 shortly before it was planned to continue to be used as a classic car museum. After that it was demolished for a new building.
- The Chinese pavilion was supposed to be used as a naturopathic center, but negotiations about it came to nothing and a real estate agent tried for a long time to sell the unadorned concrete building. It was used as a model sports arena until June 2012 . It was sold in July 2012 and is used as a car care station with an integrated paint shop.
- The pavilion of the media partner Bertelsmann with its futuristic exterior and the name Planet M should only be used by Bertelsmann itself, after a change in the board of directors this idea was rejected and a demolition was imminent. The university administration of the University of Hanover has been located in this building since January 2011 and already uses several buildings next door.
- The Turkey is a cultural and commercial center wanted to set up in their pavilion, the pavilion was bought to the Turkish state. The building is currently (2019) falling into disrepair.
- After the Expo, the Polish pavilion was home to the “9-Dragon Park”, a combination of different parts of the Asian hall located on the West site. It was used by restaurants and cultural associations. Since a fire in September 2005, it was seldom opened and partially collapsed. In 2015 it was demolished.
- The Dutch pavilion was located for years in a run and marked by vandalism state, in part by arson. Re-use is difficult because of the open construction and has so far been open.
- The modern yellow pavilion of Lithuania is still standing, but is unused. There were two fires in 2019. In 2019, plans were announced to move it to the 121 meter high north mountain of the Hanover landfill .
In 2001, former Expo employees founded the Museum Exposeeum , which is located on the former exhibition grounds. The aim of the museum is to remember the first and so far only world exhibition in Germany. Photos, films, models of the site and individual gifts from the 153 participating nations are presented on 500 m² of exhibition space. The fund includes around 1,000 gifts for guests and around 3,000 films that the Expo Society has given the museum on loan. According to its own information, the museum's sponsoring association has around 220 members. The association is not publicly funded and ran into financial difficulties several times.
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- Fire in the Expo pavilion caused by humans at ndr.de on April 23, 2019
- Culture in the old Expo pavilion on the Müllberg: Roßmann supports the idea in Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung of September 12, 2019
- EXPOSEEUM e. V. In: haj.expo2000.de. Retrieved November 30, 2015 .