Series production

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Manufacturing of optical systems in China
Radio equipment production in the 1930s
Car production in the 1970s
Cigar production in the Dominican Republic

The series production ( Latin serere , "to line up", "to join ") is a type of production in the industry , which is characterized by the simultaneous or immediately following production of several similar products ( series ), which are also called series products.


Series production takes place with a large but limited number of repetitions. When the scope of a series has been completed, the production of another series begins. The characteristic of series production is accordingly the repetitive and target-oriented creation and / or processing of a (partial) product that ultimately remains the same in large numbers, which in total or partial processes to semi- finished or finished products by the workforce and / or with use has been produced or processed by machines or directly by machine and which - with the same shape in size and quantity per unit - creates a visible (shape) equality in the respective product - per series. As a partial series, deliberately chosen deviations in terms of color and / or material with the same shape and large number of the same (end) product come into question, while the production of batches or lots is based on the slight qualitative deviation of the natural raw materials to be processed for drugs and purchase food that must be consciously accepted for production and processing.

In addition to series production, a distinction is made between individual production , mass production , type production and batch production as production types .

Manufacturing process

Before a production is a product, be first prototypes manufactured (hand-made objects). On the basis of these initial samples, the appearance, texture, composition and, finally, the manufacturing process are determined. A series product is defined by defining these points. Before serial production is released, a pilot series is often made first .

With the introduction of assembly line production by Henry Ford , series production spread very quickly in the automotive industry. Due to globalization and increasing competition, for example, many vehicle manufacturers now offer their customers the opportunity to individualize the series vehicles they offer with customer-specific equipment. In addition to series production, a more or less separate special production is required.

A series of a product is usually produced for as long as it can be sold profitably on the market. The manufacturers react individually to different factors: taste of the potential customers, seasons, cheaper or better raw materials, improved production steps and the competitive situation on the market.

The first products to exceed the limit of 1000 pieces per month were likely

the Colt Pocket Percussion Revolver , of which 364,000 were produced from 1847 to 1873,
the Colt 1851 Navy Revolver, of which over 250,000 were produced from 1850 to 1873, and
the Colt Army Model 1860, of which over 200,000 were produced from 1860 to 1873.

Also to be mentioned are:

Joseph-Marie Jacquards reproducible endless textiles
Terracotta warriors in China (approx. 200 BC)


The characteristics of series production are a limited number (series) of similar products, qualitatively related products and products that are different in terms of production technology (e.g. furniture). The changeover times and costs are very important. There is a division of labor. After a series has been carried out once, the next series follows.

Differentiation types according to number

In terms of quantity, a distinction can be made between small series production with a small amount of similar products (e.g. crane construction) and large series production with large amounts of similar products (e.g. automotive industry).

  • Individual and small batch production = less than 20 pieces per month. (For a 5-day week = max. 1 pc / day)
  • Medium series production = 20–1000 pieces per month.
  • Large series production = over 1000 pieces per month.

A further distinction can be made between order-oriented and market-oriented series production. In order-oriented series production, partially standardized products are manufactured in an ordered quantity according to a customer order . In market-oriented series production, partially standardized products are produced for predominantly anonymous customers or for a number of customers not yet known to the manufacturer, to the extent of the forecast (known demand) quantity.

Examples of industries with series production

  • Automotive industry
  • Automotive supplier industry: tires, rims, paint
  • Fashion: dresses, suits, shoes
  • Standard mechanical engineering
  • Apparatus construction
  • Furniture industry
  • Pharmaceutical products
  • Metal industry
  • In 2012, Siemens announced that it would convert its wind turbine production to series production
  • Semiconductor industry

Term and meaning fields of series production

The concept of series production can be used in terms of number with simultaneous equality (e.g. green clothes of the same cut in the same size or a printed text in a magazine or a book) or similarity per product (ejection / output, e.g. of a book bound or paperback), separability from the number of the respective production goods and a simultaneously high production speed per copy per machine hour (throughput) more or less clearly locate.

The concept of equality in / on the product, for example, establishes that the production steps and their sequence must be the same, i.e. changes or even falsifications within an ongoing production process due to lack of time (throughput) can be excluded (principle of causality ).

In this way, the textual fidelity, which is indispensable for all sciences, is made possible by series production, which is of course assumed in a printed text due to the principle of causality.

Series production describes the production of the same individual items in (once) larger and now large quantities, which can also be divided into individual stations - and usually is (and within a station repetitive processes occur or are carried out, such as this This is the case originally and characteristic of the creation of individual sheets in early paper production or the production of parchment on the stenter) - or whether it corresponds to production on a so-called production line, but always with a certain lack of clarity in relation to the means of production. The concept of series production in its history is subject to an initially abstract result-oriented, i.e. H. piece-related view and also does not clearly take into account how high the proportion of work performed by production employees is for individual processes of an essentially identical product during production or whether it is almost a purely automatic machine production that is carried out solely by industrial robots.

The reasons for this can be found, among other things, in the fact that up until around 1975, progress was only made in certain areas and only in individual branches; Then, with the use of computer-aided forms of production that have become affordable, the new possibilities were harnessed across industries. Overall, the exploration fields of mass and series production shifted in the period between 1980 and 2010 in the direction of knowledge (both engineering knowledge and predictability models for management, which are ultimately also similar due to similarly designed software, but which, however, are not consistently considered series products ,) after the mechanical-physical and material-technical aspects of the production type series production have been largely researched and almost fully usable. However, so-called future industries remain; They are currently moving primarily in the areas of bio / nano, quantum and solar technology (photovoltaics / PV) and recycling / energy generation / water technologies and thus they increasingly refer to an output that is determined by qualities and quantities that are can be quantified (liters, watt hours, etc.) but are no longer isolated / isolated.

Demarcations on the mass product between equality, similarity / similarity and "as equally valid"

Products from series production can be different because of their appearance, their packaging and brand affiliation or because of their qualities, i. H. with regard to their defining ingredients, active ingredients or raw materials used in processing or production and in their intended use / consumption are considered to be the same, similar / similar and “equally valid”.

A text in a magazine or a book is considered to be the same if it appears on a certain page and there in a certain section within the series-produced work, i.e. H. the character sequence, leading and typographic sentence are the same. The same applies to the text in question even if it appears as a quotation in another work, but this quotation (or excerpt from the character sequence found) appears in a different line layout, typography, etc. In terms of its content, the selected text excerpt is the same, but its (newly) designed appearance in the new work is only identical / similar. Therefore, the concept of textual loyalty is generally better chosen. Equality of a product is given for relatively unproblematic goods (e.g. bath salts with a certain fragrance, washing powder, ready-made meals) if they are of the same brand and the same in their composition (use of basic substances and additives), even if the package sizes vary greatly.
Products of the same type can be spoken of if products serve the same purpose (e.g. wrenches for machines to adjust a machine process and wrenches for car mechanics to fasten tire rims). Identity or similarity is also found in office files with two- or four-hole mechanisms or if they come from different manufacturers / brands.

Problematic classes of goods, such as drugs or chemical substances and dangerous goods that are used in series production and then sold as portioned products (drugs, essences, cleaning agents, etc.) in pharmacies or drugstores, have an equality that is considered to be "the same". On the one hand, this has to do with the fact that herbs, for example, have a different provenance ("Roman chamomile" from Italy or Spain ) or a different harvest time, but their effect on humans and animals remains typical overall and no significant differences in effect can be determined by laboratory analyzes , as is largely the case with so-called "generics". In order to guarantee maximum safety and traceability, the individual production quantities than are lots , lots or batches referred to in the sense of a visible, often imprinted on the package Vermerkes .

Delimitation of series production, type production or mass production

Series production, type production or mass production can be distinguished as follows:

Manufacturing process Characteristic example
Series production several units of different products on different
production lines
Automobile production
Variety production several units of different products on one production line Letterpress
Mass production high quantities on a production line Beverage manufacturing

Blurring of the term series production / series production

Industry and factory department-specific perspectives / language-related fuzziness

The term series production is also blurred when one speaks of partial, type, batch, batch, batch and piece goods production and all of these production types or quantities mentioned are seen from different perspectives of an industrial company, i.e. H. from the point of view of management, controlling, the inspection body of the supplied products (input of the ingredients), the process (manufacturing factors) and ejection quality (product output).

In addition, the industry jargon also plays a certain role for the chosen, e.g. T. alternately equally used terms of parts, types, batches, batches and batches and piece goods production. It cannot be ruled out that external linguistic references are also an influencing factor, so the charge (charge) relates more to the French language tradition, whereas the lot refers to the English (lot).

Blurring also results from the synonymous use of the word, in which series production can mean both product ejection (effective products) and the process of production itself (and thus in turn forms a synonym for series production). This ambiguity is mainly due to the regional forms of dialect and colloquial languages.

Quantities, continuous products and portioning

As a rule, we do not perceive certain product categories directly as series production in the sense of many and in isolated products (i.e. an unchangeable product output): such as cables and ropes on industrial rolls, adhesive tapes, putty, pastes, glues, powders, dry goods (spices, fruits, nuts , Flours) that are cleaned automatically and by machine on production lines, processed, modified or produced / combined according to a recipe and in particular also portioned / packaged (e.g. beverages and other liquids).

Serially applicable direct methods in medicine and pharmaceuticals also belong in this category, such as thin-layer chromatography , since the basic means (strips) and mediators ("inoculations" / coatings of the strips) are produced "in series" and used individually for laboratory tests .

As another example of the blurring from the field of the paper industry shows, when the paper is hand-made with a screen frame, the maximum length and width ratios of a sheet to be processed are determined from the start and this process ultimately also produces the number of copies of paper sheets . In continuous paper production, however, which has been and is made on different types of machines in the history of paper production, the length and / or grammage of the sheet of paper can be varied precisely and - as is usual for newspaper and magazine printing - first put on rolls and then in processed into newspapers and magazines in the printing industry; The end product (i.e. the number of hand-made sheets of paper, rolls and the newspaper, magazine or book copies) is ultimately regarded as the series-produced product, since the term series production includes the intermediate steps and production effort, duration or period per copy, as they do the means of production require, first of all only summarized. The situation is similar with food packaging, which is wrapped in so-called film tubes or tunnels for light consumer products and whose contents are divided into portions by welding .

Aircraft, rail and shipbuilding

Another group of products, such as aircraft, locomotives, ships, which are assembled in shipyards and halls / hangars and given the desired shape in advance either at individual stations or on the object itself, also form series (type series or series), which are divided into product classes become. These are - in these dimensions - still individual productions and / or small series, on the other hand there are large-scale productions, for example of transport boats and have no assembly lines as the basis for their production, and also prevent a direct calculation of the throughput per machine hour.

Intermediality / logistics

Finally, there are - albeit more remote - blurring with regard to the "production line" or conveyor belts, which are almost inextricably linked with series production, which are only used as an intermediate means of transport in some industries (bulk goods in mining, gravel and concrete works) or those in bulk shipping serve to sort according to geographical criteria.

Linotype , probably the best-known typesetting machine, uses lines to cast and shape the lead letters and direct them to the page location on the die / printing plate, also as an intermediate series

Core definitions

Overall, it should be pointed out that there is a core definition that is basically not up for discussion and that makes the various (partial) series productions distinguishable from one another, the core of which is therefore assumed to be decisive. As a rule, this is done in the form of a DIN or European standard - a so-called standard sheet, issued with mutual text or illustration / sketch referencing - based on the definition depth and variants from production and delivery that are then valid for the various economic sectors -, packaging technology and legal wording vary somewhat.

Batch, batch, batch and partial production on the manufacturing and process level

Therefore, rough differentiation grids can be formed according to the qualities of the supplied product (plants for pharmaceuticals, for example) and the qualities of the product output (which can either be directly dependent on the supplied product or the production process itself). Certain aspects therefore acquire a somewhat different definition characteristic, insofar as they have to be included in mechanical production ( production technology ) or chemical-physical production ( process technology ).

The intersection between process and production technology is material science and nanotechnology . Aluminum can be considered classic, the discovery and manufacture of which (initially by chemical reduction, then by fused- salt electrolysis of bauxite) could be produced on an industrial scale. Aluminum has a second important property that has proven to be groundbreaking: reoxidation (also known as passivation ), so that injuries to the material are partially closed again in an auto-reactive manner, which, however, has proven to be insufficient with regard to corrosion protection . It is hoped that this property will be made usable for concrete (in this case bacterial) so that cracks can be closed in a “self-healing” manner. The same reaction (when an electrical voltage is applied) has already been determined in other metals and has been scientifically described.

Ideotyping: "The same is created by the same"

In the greatest possible ideotyping and abstraction, it could be said that "like is created by like", which is only approximate in the ELIZA computer program and in self-replicative software without the system requirements.

Even the "production of integrated circuits through integrated circuits" requires an environment such as that caused by microcontrollers and which as production tools themselves are and contain more quantitatively and qualitatively than the individual integrated circuit / IC created by them .

Examples of definition variants

General cargo

“Everything that can be transported in one piece is referred to as general cargo in logistics. It does not matter whether it is the smallest unit such as a package or a large unit such as a packed pallet. [...] An exact size determination of piece goods is basically not possible, because it can be a complete truck load or what a forklift can transport. This delimitation is due to definitions that have evolved over time. Reforms in transport law make a precise definition even more difficult against the background of current service concepts. [...] "

“A general cargo always designates goods of the same type, so if z. B. a load of bicycles, televisions or the like to be transported. [...] "


“In batch production, the individual production steps are essentially carried out independently of one another. [...] "

"Part of a material that is managed separately from other parts of the same material in inventory. Example (s): different production lots (e.g. for paints or drugs), delivery lots, quality levels of a material "

"[...] The [German] legislator defines a batch as the amount of a drug that is produced in a uniform manufacturing process, [...]; the European legislator, however, defines a batch as "the batch of a total quantity and / or a finished product" [...] "

Pros and cons of series production


The advantages of series production include the simpler manufacture of the product, as the processes do not change during a series, which is also reflected in higher quality both directly and indirectly through more effective quality management. The product becomes cheaper because the required machines can be optimized and better utilized. In addition, the procurement of the necessary materials in large numbers is significantly cheaper. The product is available on the market in relatively large numbers. In addition, there is high productivity, short lead times and generally low transport and storage costs. The use of semi-skilled workers is possible thanks to the standardized procedures. The unit costs decrease due to the degression of fixed costs.


The individuality of a one-off production is lost. Smaller manufacturers and manufacturers (such as the auto refinement industry) can only produce niche products at a profit. Adjustments to market changes are associated with high conversion costs (e.g. set-up costs). The storage costs rise when are to be deposited simultaneously several products that are manufactured in succession on the same machine. In contrast to individual production, a high capital requirement for production equipment is a disadvantage.

Modern series production in automotive engineering

Due to the disadvantages of classic series production and the advantages of individual production, u. a. Individual mass production, also called mass customization , developed in the automotive industry . In the automotive industry, the various vehicles for individual customer orders are produced 'in series' on an assembly line . Special customer requests and special equipment are implemented by some vehicle manufacturers in special vehicle construction, which follows on from 'series production'. In order for series production to run smoothly, the production processes are tested beforehand in one or more pilot series .

Economic-historical typifications of series production from the late Middle Ages until today

In the history of series production, as it began early, but above all with the industrial revolution, and is naturally also reflected in the information age, this always relates primarily to technical aspects for optimizing the yield, while subsequent research results also to economic ones , social and psychological circumstances and circumstances - sometimes highlighted.

The division of labor or the grouping according to producer, production or products, naturally resulted from the geographical perspective of the economy as a whole, as certain products initially only with the help of found raw materials and means of production (e.g. water and watercourses for textile dyeing works and grain mills, forests for charcoal burners) or specific productions that take place in local locations, e.g. T. came to settle outside of a community (for example leather tanning because of odor nuisance).

An approach that focuses on the technical-industrial inventions and patents in their history comes to similar results, even if institutional developments since the Renaissance - due to the founding of universities and academies - make the overall picture a little less clear.
Within the macro-economic unit of the workshops and the atelier, the principle of the production stations has emerged, which on the basis of physical principles (e.g. drying in presses or clamps for paper and wood) or (highly) specialized work processes on the product itself in this way adapted to the product.

Series production corresponds overall to a type of production with a large and today (at the labor level) largest division of labor. The principle of series production, which allows a mass product either to be further processed from semi-finished products and / or to become marketable or marketable in large series from development to the end product , is mostly manufactured at stations such as those found in the paper processing industry. Due to its own processes, it is also in the steel industry and metal processing industry (melting, casting, rolling, milling, edging, grinding, polishing) and agriculture (e.g. vegetable harvesting machines with integrated weeding and packing stations operated by on-board workers) spread. In the software and textile industry, too, one generally speaks of work stations , although in these areas the original understanding of a specialized work step per station can be greatly weakened or even dissolved (see also below in this section), as is the case with sewing machine stations, for example shows that the production of a green dress, for example, by producing a red tie (or partial steps of it) can be quickly rearranged or mutually exchanged or replaced at any time, not least because of the inherent universality of these means of production, as represented by computers and sewing machines. At this stage of production manufacturing development and depending on the orientation of an industry, there is also talk of workshop, flow and group manufacturing.

Of modular systems (usually mass and variant production) of the assembly line production is discussed in connection by single fully automated stations connected or can be disconnected, e.g. by redirecting (. B. on a module with the other packaging and / or introduction to another of closure for Containers) or through targeted setting of an integrated module within a machine (e.g. book production lines with setting options for individual integrated modules for small and large formats).
Today, however, modular (sub) systems (or free manufacturing systems, FMS) usually work with computer support, as the example of CAD shows, by transferring the corresponding production
data from a fully automated CNC machine or an industrial robot ( computer-integrated manufacturing / CIM or . Manufacturing Execution system is supplied / MES).

Overall, in the history of series or mass production, the division of work steps follows, in that the concept of the profession (and that of the workshop, with several different activities) is abandoned, towards individual activities or activity steps in order to fully develop the product To realize the scope of services (material-related and quantity-related) and its warranty (guarantees, durability, durability and deadline fulfillment). However, recent tendencies show that in addition to a segmentation into (further) sub-work steps required by the product - today possible through improved material and process processing knowledge - the design of a series or mass product is carried out at the same time in the direction of targeted individual design (mass-customizing) on ​​the product directly for each work step can and also de industrial robots, due to a diverse use of software, change closer to a universally applicable means of production. The terms system module and software in a production plant thus gain a further aspect that points in the direction of “one for all” / “one fits all”.

Serial production iconography

Special publications and photographic literature

The company, anniversary, exhibition and photo publications (sometimes also so-called photo literature), as a category of literature that also affects the economy, range from newspaper articles to articles in magazines, separate prints to voluminous (art print) book volumes and refer thus directly or indirectly on series production. Most of these retrospective literary formats (increasingly from around 1950) provide such representations in the context of the “industrial heritage to be preserved”, but rarely for a generalized history of technology or a general history of design.

Invitation card for the anniversary ascent of the five-year existence of a company with a two-part flyer on coated half cardboard processed in offset printing , tied in the classic Japanese manner; outer sheet in spiral fold.

The number of company or product-specific literature available today can hardly be overlooked and is systematized as small print ( ephemera ), also as photo literature in more extensive book editions and as commemorative and anniversary literature. The forms of these writings are sometimes also very original; Taken together, they combine a wealth of visual-product-photographic, textual-typographical, haptic and even olfactory aspects (scented pad and scented varnish printing). In any case, mass-produced products should be highlighted in their uniqueness and show their characteristic use in their typical living environment.
As in every other area of ​​technology, there is a collection of general, partly cross-brand illustrated books and monographs for mass or series production. Sometimes a founder, a situation and / or individual mass-produced objects and can optionally also take forms of advertising documentation material for individual companies and / or production sites. On the whole, this literature often has a highly bibliophile work and collection character, so that often both the printing company, bookbinding and anniversary company want to represent the uniqueness of an industrial product and its singularity together and sometimes the book edition (s) created for this purpose with accompanying events. convey.

Origins: lexical iconography and historicizing small scripts

Early discussions of activities divided into individual work steps can be found in the “Ständebuch” with woodcuts by Jost Ammann and the verses by Hans Sachs (published in Frankfurt am Main in 1568 by the printer S. Feyerabend) and later in lexical references in the engravings on tables in the Encyclopédie ou catalog raissonné des Arts et des Métiers or in the work with the title “Volledige Beschrijving von alle konsten, ambachten, handwerken.” (German: Complete description of the arts, trade and craft, 1806, Dordrecht); They proceed as early pictorial representations with a high level of factual reference and in this case not only depict professions, but also attach importance to keeping the individual production steps, as they were carried out in the workshops, understandable and product-related for the reader.

These and earlier images refer to the general character of work processes.

When exclusive sales rights were made possible, as was the case with the early granting of inventor patents by a king, these (illustrated) representations changed earlier in that they put portraits (of the inventor or founder) and works in relation to one another. They form a type of literature, also of the small literature, which could start from product presentation or representation of a generalized principle of benefit and product and manufacturing quality, without the individual (often patented or locked-up production steps and procedures and / or recipes or financial requirements ) having to bring it up. Literature examples of this kind can still be found extremely typically until the late 1980s and especially in industries with a lot of traditional awareness, such as piano and grand piano construction; Often one also finds this type of memory reference enriched with photos of the workforce, for example standing in front of and around their machines operated by drive belts (from approx. 1870).

These (anniversary) publications brought a decisive expansion from around 1960 to the present day, which were not intended solely for the founder, but rather take into account the collective performance of the workforce of a plant and the visions and ideas realized in connection with the plant expansion and other services (such as Housing construction for employees) in their and for their time. These forms of publication occupy a special place because they want to illustrate a connection between people and a collective service for a product, at the same time they often provide visual evidence of how social stratifications in connection with work were evaluated or how these evaluations were sometimes overcome ( Democratization); they check the plausibility of an awareness that good quality can be achieved with a good workforce at all times and create a lasting memory for the customer, and they also aim to combine all product benefits. Finally, retrospectives are also presented on the basis of the history of an individual entrepreneur or company, but contextualized with other elements, such as architectural history and monument protection. These publications very seldom work with special photo and film effects (interactive media) that have been made possible since the 1950s by means of production from camera series production, such as polaroid , fish-eye and wide-angle , photo coloration and coarse grain recordings , but - as far as the Ideas originating from science, which have to be conveyed in their authenticity of reproduction, so that the truthfulness and consequently the mandatory truth content - UV / IR , micro / macro photography , with complete renunciation of "epic" narrative styles or references to an artistic one usable virtuality, instead new materials are used that can be processed in large numbers in industry - albeit sometimes with great effort - and have meanwhile also found widespread use in the promotional gift industry.

Above: Lot item number note (LA), along with best before date (BBD) and production date.
Bottom: Blind / bottom embossing with expiry date on the box of a medicinal shampoo
A consistent EAN coding of partial products contained in the end product would be a z. B. by the chambers of industry and commerce ( IHK ) hardly possible to provide personnel and technical performance. In the area of ​​drugs, however, a part number integrated into the EAN has currently been introduced, based on a number assigned by the drug approval authorities (see lower dummy code in the picture).
Stages of alignment between international book numbers and EAN / ISBN 13.

Single item brands and names in series (partial) production

In order to produce a large number of products (some of which can hardly be visually differentiated) in an orderly and plannable manner and to manage them in terms of storage, it makes sense to designate or mark them in such a way that a clear distinction is possible. Usually an (alpha-) numerical system is chosen for this, which in itself is already in abstracto production year / month / day, equipment, material and / or mixed proportions of components (e.g. colors, color pigments), intended use and for electronic Components, the number of integrated circuits, programmability, compatibility and supplier becomes visible. Item names can only be used for internal purposes or for an inventor / engineer purpose, or they are also familiar and usable for consumers - where they are not directly understandable ( bar coding for orders and complaints).

Today, a labeling system accompanies a product from manufacture to sale and is sensibly to be retained for all points of its utilization (producer, reseller and consumer). Product groups that require a time-limited consumption or must use a basic material in varieties are also provided with a batch number (for drugs) or lot number (for food) at the factory to clearly identify the production date and time, purchased and processed materials, production line, etc. provided / labeled. However, they are no longer always or completely understandable for the customer, in the event of a complaint they are only available to the seller and producer for precise traceability and are used for tracing in the sense of ISO certifications 9001 and 9002. They are technically also referred to as traffic numbers. Multi-component products as offered by the computer industry have an external designation (with a clear assignment of the performance characteristics for the buyer) and a large number of hardware and software products that constitute them, each of which in turn has a unique designation (article number of the device offered by the dealer, article number the circuit board installed in the device, article numbers of the elements installed on the circuit board, software versions, etc.).

Company-specific designation systems from the 1950s to 1970s were made binding in Europe from approx. 1978 to 1985 using the EAN (European Article Number). Either older designations have been replaced directly by the EAN or, in the case of drugs and food, it must also be visible on the product (batch and lot number drawing).

Part designation

With an article number assignment for multi-component products in the final sale, a classic superposition of the aspects takes place. The view of the engineers - as it is finally laid down in technical documentation - can interact in a complex way through aspects of marketing and sales, these in turn through the perceptions and wishes / demands of the buyer. At the product level, different options would have to be considered for assigning a single number - as is intended with the EAN:

  • For products that already consist of several components for the purpose of filling, ballpoint pens or the classic mason jar, consisting of a filling container, lid, rubber ring and snap lock. If a component is missing or if it becomes unusable, the intended use can no longer be regarded as (fully) fulfilled. As a rule, there are no individually available spare parts for these products. This raises the question of how useful it would be to assign numbers, which would, for example, identify the partial products purchased from a manufacturing company.
  • A more complex view is to be taken e.g. B. for computers that are in the final sale of a hardware block (housing, housing connections, circuit boards, sound and video cards with appropriate fastenings), screen and various external connection and connection cables. A department store geared towards general customers will (in order to be able to fulfill the buyer purpose) want to sell these components as a so-called uniform (actually self-contained and purpose-fulfilling product) (with a single item number visible to the buyer) in order to give the customer easy access enable. When it comes to computers, electronics retailers will prefer a view that is focused on individual parts, since their customers pursue completely different (e.g. hardware performance) goals. The offer as a (computer) kit can represent a further range of offers geared towards the most flexible possible buyer expectation. The engineer's view of the hardware product range (and thus a sensible, purpose-fulfilling approach) will relate to the combination of components, each of which in turn has its own article number. The hardware industry, for example, sells individual processors only to engineers and processors that are permanently connected to printed circuit boards to electronics retailers. Warranty issues and product sales restrictions according to occupation / industry - due to strict product liability requirements - play the main role here.
  • Extension components - the (digital) devices of professional photography offer a good visualization for this area - correspond to a product range in which it is clear from the start that extension components are kept available to the end customer (e.g. wide-angle lenses) that are not included in the scope of delivery the first acquisition are expected / included. In the case of these products, a numbering is usually used that shows that they belong to the basic component (s).

These examples already show that the assignment of numbers, as represented by the EAN, can be a difficult task, especially for complex products. The EAN is today - due to (again) revised regulations - in part already obsolete again or it will no longer be possible to use it for all product areas in Europe - this particularly affects multi-part products / articles with regard to belonging, traceability and recallability, whereby the Product liability and safety and their specific problems could not be perceived as sufficient in the sense that they should be represented in a single product number.

The EAN has therefore proven itself particularly for publishing products, since it is an article that is unproblematic in use and can be separated as a whole or in its parts, but still belongs together, such as the bundles of a newspaper / magazine whose association is indicated by the issue or year number and date of issue is noted on each printed page (and where tears / découpages would not be visible anyway) or in the case of multi-volume book editions, which also receive a so-called total EAN / ISBN 13, which is mentioned in each individual imprint of these volumes (with so-called "explanatory additions [n] "). The ISSN for (scientific) journals and book series is similar to an overall ISBN 13; In addition to the page numbering, the author (s), the title of the respective article and the issue number are shown on each printed page. repeated to prove completeness (also with the help of mutual referencing).

From the printer's note to the imprint and the EAN / ISBN 13

An example of the step-by-step integration of the EAN may be the publishing industry, which initially used ISBN / ISSN, ISBN 10 and EAN as parallel designations, and finally made them recognizable as a merged EAN-ISBN coding, ISBN 13. The ISBN-EAN appears today both in the book imprint without - and on the dust jacket with a barcode as a thirteen-digit group of numbers. With all new designation systems, care was taken to ensure that they can be read in, captured and processed quickly using electronic reading ( MARC , OCR ), which is based on electronic data interchange ( EDI ).

See also


History of technology / manufacturing industry / product development

  • Wolfgang Weller : Automation technology through the ages. Development of a fascinating subject. 2013, ISBN 978-3-8442-5487-7 .
  • Wolfgang König : History of technology. An introduction to their concepts and research results. 2009, ISBN 978-3-515-09423-8 .
  • Hans Corsten, Ralf Gössinger: Production Management : Introduction to Industrial Production Management. 2012, ISBN 978-3-486-70569-0 .
  • Günter Fandel, Harald Dyckhoff, Joachim Reese: Industrial production development an empirical-descriptive analysis of selected industries. 1990, ISBN 0-387-52718-4 .
  • Gerd Grasshoff: culture of innovation. From science to product. ISBN 978-3-7281-3025-9 .
  • Heinz Habermann: Compendium of industrial design. From the idea to the product - the basics of design. 2003, ISBN 3-540-43925-0 .
  • Martin Reuter: Methodology of Material Selection, 2014, Munich, ISBN 978-3-446-44144-6 .
  • Wilhelm Domke: Materials science and material testing. 1987.
  • Uwe Spiekermann: The standardization of food in Germany 1850-1930. In: Ruth-E. Mohrmann (Ed.): Eating and drinking in the modern age. Waxmann, Münster et al. 2006, ISBN 3-8309-1701-5 , pp. 99-124.
  • Michael ten Hompel (eds.), Thorsten Schmidt, Lars Nagel: Material flow systems - conveyor and storage technology , 2007, ISBN 978-3-540-73235-8
  • Holbach, Rudolf, Early Forms of Publishers and Large Businesses in Commercial Production (13th - 16th Century), (Series: Publications in the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg), 1994, Stuttgart, ISBN 978-3-515-05820-9
  • Andreas Lötscher: From Ajax to Xerox - a lexicon of product names (1987) Zurich and Munich, ISBN 3-7608-0724-0 .

Automobile construction / material technology

  • Wilmjakob Herlyn: PPS in the automotive industry. Production program planning and control of vehicles and assemblies. Hanser, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-446-41370-2 .
  • Elvira Moeller (Hrsgr.): Handbook of construction materials. 2014, ISBN 978-3-446-43169-0 .

Planning / production costs and controlling

  • Georg Hanen: Production planning problems in a company with series production. Solution of a practical case. Regensburg 1981, (University of Regensburg, dissertation, 1981).
  • Reiner Steffen: Production planning at assembly line manufacturing. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1977.
  • Wolfgang Männel: Cost accounting systems. 2006, ISBN 3-927878-25-1 .

Batch, batch and batch production

  • Joachim Binnewies: Business management peculiarities in batch production with special consideration of cost dependencies. Dissertation. Münster / Freiburg i, p. 1957.
  • Peter Meier: Cost model for batch production. In: Management Journal. Vol. 55 (1986), 10, ISSN  0019-9281 , pp. 454-456.
  • Gert Auterhoff (Ed.): EU guidelines for good manufacturing practice for drugs and active ingredients. (Medicinal and Active Substance Manufacturing Ordinance), 2010, ISBN 978-3-87193-399-8 .
  • Heinz Gröflin: Optimal multiple machine allocation with variant selection using the example of chemical batch production. Dissertation. Technical University, Zurich 1977.

Training / workplace design / analyzes

  • Edmund Heinen (Hrsg.): Industrial management. Decisions in industrial operations. 9th completely revised and expanded edition. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1991, ISBN 3-409-33152-2 .
  • Dirk Winkelmann, Jürgen Dahmer (GfAH), JUVENA of Switzerland Production Division, European Foundation for Quality Management: Introduction of group work at Juvena - the example of a medium-sized company with batch production - an interim report. 1999, ISBN 3-927671-20-7 .

Cooperation with standards institutes (DIN / EN / VDE-VDI etc.)

  • German Institute for Standardization, Geuther Albrecht (Ed.): Seventy-five years of DIN. 1917-1992. A house with a history and a future. 1992, ISBN 3-410-12819-0 .
  • Paul Profos, Tilo Pfeifer (ed.): Handbook of industrial measurement technology. 1994, ISBN 3-486-22592-8 (contains a chapter on international cooperation between standardization bodies)

Measurement technology / sensors / mechatronics

Iconography / work shows / competitions

  • International Forum Design GmbH (IF), Claudia Neumann, Markus Schuler: 50 years of IF: [now and then] / 50 years of IF. Industrie Forum Design, Hanover 2003. (German and English)
  • Lutz Fichtner: The industry as a patron of the arts and client in the German Democratic Republic. The Soviet-German Stock Corporation (SDAG) bismuth. 2005, ISBN 3-631-53441-8 .
  • Winfried Kretschmer: History of the world exhibitions. 1999, ISBN 3-593-36273-2 .


  • Corinna Engelhardt-Nowitzki: Batch tracking. 2006, ISBN 3-8350-9482-3 .
  • Peter Oberländer: Data acquisition in general cargo and batch production. In: Automation technology. No. 120, Verlag der Technik, Berlin 1971.

Web links

Commons : Serial production  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Herlyn: PPS in the automotive industry. 2012, p. 57 ff., P. 88 ff.
  2. cf. for example: Božina Perović: Devices in machine tool construction. Basics, calculation and construction. 2013, ISBN 978-3-642-32706-3 , p. 211 and: Tilo Hamann: Learning intelligent production control. (Information technology systems and organization of production and logistics, Vol. 7). 2008, ISBN 978-3-940019-33-2 , p. 163 ff. Cf. also definition variant: [...] One such idea is the outsourcing of the "ancillary types" manufactured in small batches as "special production" from ongoing series production, the "Normal production" [...] , made of: metal. Vol. 313, Metall-Verlag, 1958.
  3. This statement probably refers to the "Colt Model 1849 Pocket, 31 Caliber Percussion Revolver". (Indication for Colt Pocket Revolver in the corresponding total number according to.) John F. Graf: Standard Catalog of Civil War Firearms. 2008, ISBN 978-0-89689-613-0 , p. 195.
  4. Colt Model 1851 Navy Revolver, in: Norm Flayderman: Flayderman's Guide to Antique American Firearms and Their Values. 2007, ISBN 978-0-89689-455-6 , p. 89.
  5. Colt Army Model 1860 In: Russell E. Lewis: Warman's Civil War Collectibles Identification and Price Guide. 2009, ISBN 978-1-4402-0374-9 , p. 34.
  6. Friedrich Kohl: History of the Jaquard machine and the subsequent changes and improvements, along with the biography of Jaquards, 1873, Berlin: Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung, plus Vol. 51 of the negotiations of the Association for the Promotion of Industry in Prussia, passim
  7. Already in the first early production of the terracotta warriors, a mass production process was used that could be realized with a special casting technique of individual parts; see. on this: Byung Chul Han: Deconstruction in Chinese, 2011, ISBN 978-3-88396-294-8 , pp. 62 ff. In connection with an exhibition in Hamburg, the accusation was raised that the clay figures were merely reproductions ; see. in addition: Carola Große-Wilde: Terracotta Warriors in Hamburg: Clay Army is cheap copy in: Stern v. December 12, 2007, online: accessed April 7, 2014. The terms Original and authentic are synonymous in the Chinese language, however, and objects were found during the excavations that indicate that the so-called first production of the clay warriors was also produced in series. Byung Chul Han explains : “The Chinese have two different terms for the copy. Fangzhipin are replicas in which the difference to the original is obvious [...] The second term of the copy is called fuzhipin . This is a reproduction of the original, which for the Chinese is equivalent to the original. It has no negative connotations at all. ”(Pp. 61–62)
    A comparable problem concerns the Ise Shrine , which is 1300 years old for the Japanese, but is rebuilt every twenty years and is therefore deleted from the Unesco World Heritage List has been; see. in addition: Vicki L. Beyer: Ise Shrine: Where everything old is new again [dt. Ise Shrine, where everything old is new again] , online: accessed April 5 2014, also: Takao Ōta: The problem of time in Japanese fine arts - a comparison in: Hōrin - Comparative studies in Japanese culture - a publication by the House of Japanese Culture (EKŌ), Hôrin, No. 5 ( 1998), ISSN  0945-9634 , pp. 143-154.
  8. Steffen Kinkel: Potential of industrial automation study, presented at the VDI / ISI press conference, "Automation 2009" conference, Baden-Baden, VDI, diagram on p. 5 (PDF; 103 kB)
  9. Andreas Schlegel: Conception and preparation of a tool for the determination of process quality by means of key figure monitoring and knowledge-based simulation Dissertation TU Chemnitz, 2002, diagram on p. 19 (PDF; 2.5 MB)
  10. ↑ Wind turbine construction in the future on the assembly line. on: , July 7, 2012.
  11. cf. Nina Deggele: Introduction to the sociology of technology. 2002, ISBN 3-8252-2288-8 , pp. 119–125, also: Thomas Hess: Industrialisierung des Controllings. In: Controlling & Management. Special issue 2/2006: Standardization, automation, specialization
  12. Software is not primarily a visible product, but a process that has become visible in a computer (as [source] code) or on a storage medium (CD / DVD) [mostly as an application or data storage medium which, as the latter, are series products]
  13. Industry 4.0- In the future factory. In: The time. No. 5/2014.
  14. Boris Iljitsch Ivanov: History of automation and the development of technical sciences. In: Dresden contributions to the history of technical sciences. Issue 16 (1988), Technical University of Dresden; also: Eva Susanna Medicus: Technology - Work - Education: Influence of technical change on the training and further education of skilled metal workers. University thesis. Graz 2010.
  15. cf. in addition also the comprehensive research, which treats the technological and economic questions equally, In: Andreas Moerke et al. (Ed.): Japanische Zukunftsindustrien. 2007, ISBN 978-3-540-29806-9 .
  16. or an intended series is kept in stock, as is the case with e-books or books-on-demand
  17. The term faithfulness to the text also refers to the sphere of the legal principle of "good faith"; It becomes clear that the identification of a text used is correctly noted (in the sense of the law) in the then new work as a quote or otherwise counts as plagiarism .
  18. Jens Wiemer: Quantitative analysis of the total content of essential oils in freeze-dried herbs and spices and their influence on food and the human organism, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8366-2063-5 , in particular p. 43 ff .; see. also: Verena Fackelday: DNA-based identification of real chamomile and differentiation from allergenic dog chamomile (university publication without ISBN, Vienna, 2016), passim .
  19. Consolidated federal law: RIS: Entire legal regulation for the Medicines Act, version of March 3, 2014. I. Section General Provisions / Definitions. (online at: ) especially under § 1. (19)
  20. Günter Wöhe / Ulrich Döring , Introduction to General Business Administration , 25th edition, 2013, p. 336
  21. Edmund Heinen (ed.), Bernhard Dietel: Industriebetriebslehre: Decisions in the industrial enterprise. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1991, ISBN 3-409-33152-2 , especially p. 431ff.
  22. ^ Hans-Dieter Zollondz: Basics of quality management. Introduction to history, systems and concepts. 2011, ISBN 978-3-486-59798-1 .
  23. Kai-Ingo Voigt: Industrial Management: Industrial management from a process-oriented point of view. 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-25648-9 , pp. 218-236.
  24. also as a term in the auction trading spreads, there, however, a single piece of a series / number of similar recorded in the auction objects significant for. B. diamonds
  25. Translation examples also show that “batch production” is given as an equivalent in Italian and “production of lots” in English, cf. for example in: / .
  26. In the European history of paper, book formats emerged from this, e.g. B. Imperial (57 × 78 cm) or the office format (33 × 42 cm), or so-called broken paper formats, such as Folio (2 ° / folded once, ie 2 sheets), Quart (4 ° / twice folded, ie 4 sheets) etc. and were consistent normal practice or a quasi standard; see. Jan Tschichold: About book formats and their proportions. In: Paper and Printing. Issue 14 (1965).
  27. cf. Fig. 5 (online at: ) ( Memento of the original from March 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  28. ^ Wisso Weiss: Timeline for the history of paper. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig 1983.
  29. for example the new generation of cargo ships, which are assigned to the triple E class and can hold 18,000 cargo containers, see: The largest container ship in the world , television broadcast on February 9, 2014, Discovery Channel and advance notice: Giant of the Seas. In: Listen. January 31, 2014, pp. 10-13.
  30. see: Hans Szumansky: Die Ever der Niederelbe. 1932. (Reprint: 2011, ISBN 978-3-86741-726-6 , p. 18f and p. 41)
  31. cf. for example DIN standard 2003 in relation to primary forming, reshaping, separating, joining, coating and changing material properties; or DIN 8580 (2003) with regard to the workpiece, see: Christian Eschey: Machine- specific increase in process capability in additive manufacturing. (Research reports IWB, Vol. 274). 2013, ISBN 978-3-8316-4270-0 , passim .
  32. Jürgen Pander: New production system at VW - the same is cool. on: Spiegel-Online. (undated), accessed March 7, 2014.
  33. cf. z. B. Pascal Christoph Trinkner: Concept for the series production of braided CFRP hollow components. 2012, ISBN 978-3-639-45644-8 ; also: Oskar Krämer: Recipes for metal coloring and metal coatings without a power source. Saulgau 1983, ISBN 3-87480-012-1 and - as a historical process reconstruction of staining methods - cf. Rokurō Uemura, Tōru Midorikawa and others: Shōwa-ban Engi somekagami. 1986, ISBN 4-00-009817-9 . (Book Description)
  34. 220 tons - Lighter than air (exhibition), online:, accessed April 7, 2014.
  35. Beckert Manfred: World of Metals. 1977, ISBN 3-7614-0359-3 , pp. 82-87.
  36. Stefan Rein Precht: Eco-friendly pickling of aluminum, online: accessed 7 April 2014.
  37. cf. Bridge pain (pp. 76–82) in: Stern v. March 27, 2014, ( Ideas against bridges dying , margin note, p. 82)
  38. Stefan Rein Precht: How do you design self-healing materials ?, online: accessed April 7, 2014.
  39. cf. Joseph Weizenbaum: ELIZA: a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine. (dt. ELIZA: A computer program for the investigation of natural language communication between humans and machines) In: Communications of the ACM. 9 (1966), 1. "Computational Linguistics" pp. 36-45.
  40. Replicative software: [accessed February 28, 2014].
  41. cf. also: Klaus Kornwachs: Terms are gripping tools (as a reply to Walther Ch. Zimmerli: The digital revolution turns the world upside down , NZZ of 23 Nov. 2019, p. 44–45): [.. .] The earlier calculating machines were not coded in binary, but worked with 10 or 6 number systems for technical reasons. The Turing machine as an idealized calculating machine was a conceptual construct that got along with two states for reasons of simplicity. The binary is therefore just a trick of technical simplicity, it is not the reason for the universality of the purposes and thus additional ideas for which a computer can be used. [...] (also) in: NZZ v. 23 Nov 2019, p.45.
  42. cf. for example the parts list for a processor separation machine “Amistar Axial Inserter” from Xytronics, online: ( Memento of the original from December 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed February 28, 2014. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  43. ↑ General cargo. at: , accessed February 14, 2014.
  44. ↑ General cargo. in the glossary of All car shipping GmbH, accessed February 14, 2014.
  45. ^ Peter Schoner: Operative production planning in the process engineering industry, 2008, ISBN 978-3-89958-335-9 , p. 20.
  46. accessed, February 14, 2014, [list representation in the original replaced by commas]. This definition can be found in the link given above, within the SAP library under letter 'C' in the module 'Batch (LO-BM)' - all in all, the various definitions of the batch in the SAP modules listed there show complementary views within of a company, in the sense of supply chain management .
  47. ^ Erwin Deutsch, Hans-Dieter Lippert (Ed.): Commentary on the Medicines Act: (AMG). P. 323.
  48. Andreas Gebhardt: Generative manufacturing processes. Additive manufacturing and 3D printing for prototyping - tooling - production. 2013, ISBN 978-3-446-43651-0 .
  49. Norbert Zdrowomyslaw: cost, performance and revenue accounting. 2001, ISBN 3-486-25718-8 and Thomas C. Kohler: Effects of Product Design. Analysis and measurement using the example of automotive design. 2013, ISBN 978-3-8244-7939-9 (see Diss. Univ. Karlsruhe, 2003)
  50. Herlyn: PPS in the automotive industry. 2012, p. 208 ff.
  51. cf. for example: Lutz Moll: The industrial series production. Conceptual demarcation and appearance. Dissertation, Univ. Gain. Nuremberg 1973.
  52. Hans Rieelbauch: The manufacturing problems of batch and batch production 1956. Frankfurt am Main 1957 (typescript) Wirtschaftl. - social sciences Diss.
  53. cf. Wolfgang König: Manufacturing of goods for the consumer society. In: History of the consumer society. Quarterly f. Social and Economic History, Supplement 154, ISBN 3-515-07650-6 .
  54. ^ Ropohl (eds.): The new understanding of technology. In: Income from interdisciplinary technology research - a balance sheet after 20 years. Fig. P. 18.
  55. Enrique Ponce de Léon: Development of specialization in the European Middle Ages to the beginning of the modern era. Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-927408-57-3 .
  56. ^ Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Württemberg and City of Zurich (ed.): Stadtluft, millet porridge and mendicant. 1992, ISBN 3-7941-3590-3 , p. 364 and p. 418ff and Marcus Popplow: Technik im Mittelalter. 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-58782-5 , p. 33.
  57. Peter Kurz: World history of the protection of inventions: Inventors and patents in the mirror of the times. Cologne u. a. 2000, ISBN 3-452-24331-1 .
  58. For example, punching, folding, perforation - or in machine- centered terms: paper cutting , folding, creasing, perforation , back milling and gluing machines, today individual machine types can perform a few work steps in combination or all work steps in one pass. See: Dieter Liebau, Inés Heinze: Industrielle Buchbinderei - Book production and print processing. 2010, ISBN 978-3-88013-679-3 .
  59. cf. Pictures online: [1] and [2] , [both accessed March 11, 2014]
  60. Hans-Ulrich Jaissle: Flexible series production with modular machines. In: Thyssen: Technical Reports. Vol. 18, (1986), No. 2, pp. 321-328.
  61. Study on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology / VDI / VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH / Institute for Founding and Innovation at the University of Potsdam: Technological and Economic Perspectives in Germany through the Convergence of Electronic Media, 2011, pp. 33–34 (PDF; 3.4 MB)
  63. Kirsch, Andreas Roland: Lot size optimization and just-in-time principle in production planning for industrial variety production, Hanover, 1988, Diss., Univ. Hanover; see also: Changes in customer behavior under control faster, in: Management-Zeitschrift “io”: Vol. 50 (1981) 12, pp. 583-587.
  64. cf. Iris Grässler: Customized mass production. Development, preparation of production, change management Development of configurable adaptive mechatronic systems. 2004, ISBN 3-540-20554-3 .
  65. ^ Cem Mengi: Automotive Software. Processes, Models and Variability, 2012, University of Aachen (Faculty of Computer Science, Mathematics and Natural Sciences)
  66. Martin Deutsch: VW tests new production system with the Golf 7. In: Die Presse. August 22, 2012 (online, accessed March 7, 2014)
  67. cf. for example: Erwin Haas: The Zellweger-Luwa company in Uster is celebrating its 125th anniversary, 2000. In: Tages-Anzeiger. September 1, 2000, p. 25.
  68. cf. For the 50th anniversary of Adolf Feller AG. Horgen, electrical apparatus factory. In: Lake Zurich writing case. Horgen (Switzerland) 1960.
  69. ^ Konrad Marwinski: From the Hofbuchdruckerei to Verlag Böhlau: History of the Hofbuchdruckerei in Weimar from the beginnings to 1853. Ed. on the 350th anniversary of the company in 1974 [in] Weimar by H. Böhlaus successor, Weimar [19] 74.
  70. ^ Richard Eberle: The company Josef Andre Winder in Dornbirn. The story of an almost forgotten company and its owners. 2011, In: Dornbirner Schriften. No. 39.
  71. ↑ also colloquially: Tea-Table Encyclopedy
  72. cf. for example: Tobias Opiz, Wilhelm Karmann, Wilhelm Karmann GmbH (Eds.): Karmann cars - a success story. 2006, ISBN 3-613-02612-0 , and: Robert Glückshöfer: Legendary amplifiers / The best amplifiers in the world. 2013, ISBN 978-3-944185-38-5 ; also: Elisabeth Azoulay, L'Oreal (Ed.): 100000 ans de beauté / 100 000 years of beauty. 2009, ISBN 978-2-07-012531-9 , 5 vols. In larger formats, (French / English only) and: Meißen pattern book for Höröldt chinoiseries. Leipzig 1978; (on the - silent - 160th anniversary of the Meissen Porcelain Manufactory, which has called itself the "Staatliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Meißen" since 1918 and this two-volume book edition in a noble slipcase forms the opening of a loose series of books on the history of the porcelain manufactory published by the publisher of the same name)
  73. cf. Bechstein picture book: Carl Bechstein, Bechstein piano, origin, use all over the world. Composers, pianists, pianist hands. Berlin 1927.
  74. Curt M. Meyer, Schweizer Baublatt (Ed.): Men from the building - a picture book from the publishing house "Schweizer Baublatt" - selected and compiled for our business friends. Rüschlikon (Switzerland) 1974.
  75. Richard Sennet called the Encyclopédie… des Arts et des Métiers the “Bible of craftsmanship” due to its original qualities; see. Richard Sennett: Craft. Berlin-Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-8270-0033-0 , p. 126. A rare example of cross-product and cross-brand literature today is: Hermann Scheffler: Imaginary work: an effect of centrifugal and cyral force, with applications on the theory of the top, the rolling wheel and the table jerk. With 23 woodcuts, 1866, Leipzig; online:
  76. Sonja Petersen: From the "weak market box" and its manufacturers. Knowledge rooms in piano construction 1830–1930. In: Cottbus studies on the history of technology, work and the environment. No. 37, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8309-2534-7 , pp. 43–45, there in particular notes 117 and 118.
  77. Christel Köhle-Hezinger: Time, ritual, festival in the industrial age. In: Winfried Müller (ed.), Wolfgang Flügel, Iris Loosen, Ulrich Resseaux: The historic anniversary. Genesis, order and staging history of an institutional mechanism. Pp. 291-308.
  78. cf. EW Baule (ed.): Memorandum for the seventy-five year factory and business anniversary of the company Gebr. Jänecke & Fr. Schneemann G. mb H. Hanover 1918 (with woodcuts by the author) and: Helmut Schwarz, Marion Faber [Ed .:] Museums of the City of Nuremberg / Toy Museum C. Baudenbacher: First Nuremberg wooden toy factory: Company history and annotated sample book / C. Baudenbacher: First Nuremberg wooden toy factory: company history and annotated sample book. 2008, ISBN 978-3-940594-09-9 . (German / English)
  79. ^ Company C. Bechstein Pianofortefabrik Aktiengesellschaft (ed.): Bechstein Chronicle - an excerpt from the history of the Bechstein House. Berlin 1926.
  80. cf. Ronald V. Ratcliff, Stuart Isacoff: Steinway. 2002, ISBN 3-549-07192-2 .
  81. Manfred Grieger, Dirk Schlinkert u. a .: Factory show 1. Photographs from the Volkswagen factory 1948–1974. 2004, ISBN 3-935112-20-3 (Historical Notate, Issue 10) or as PDF (6.77 MB), (online) ( Memento of the original from March 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and still Not checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  82. cf. also: Richard Sennett: craft. Berlin-Verlag, Berlin 2008, discussion in the context of the topos man, quality and machine: for paper production pp. 127–130 and for the production of window glass, pp. 135–139 based on two tables from the Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des Arts et des métiers (Eng .: Lexicon or alphabetical dictionary of the arts, science and professions).
  83. Architekturmuseum Basel, Judith Brändle, Ulrike Jehle-Schulte Strathaus et al. (Ed.): The Bata colony in Möhlin. 1992, ISBN 3-905065-17-7 .
  84. cf. about:! Mediengruppe Bitnik: Delivery for Mr. Assange / A package for Mr. Assange. Real-Verlag, Basel 2014, ISBN 978-3-905800-81-4 (exhibition catalog in 2 vols. (Dt. / Engl.)), Which are very closely at the borders between documentation , art , representation and virtuality moves
  85. cf. about: AOK Munich (Ed.): Herbal Kitchen. (Pages printed with scented varnish), 2008, ISBN 978-3-8338-1662-8 / but also calendar works or book mock-ups with punched-out book pages in the shape of the bottle as packaging for a perfume.
  86. License number for books in the American sector of Germany after 1945.
    Imprint only with order number and without ISBN
    Cataloging-in-Publication (CIP note) as a simultaneous inclusion in the German Bibliography, binding for publishers and especially the libraries for keywording and the corresponding English. Note with ISBN 10 in the imprint and ISBN 10 with EAN on the dust jacket in the barcode field.
    ISBN 13 for the print edition and the e-book edition with DOI notation, ISBN 13 and EAN in the imprint and on the dust jacket correspond to one another.
    ISBN 13 / EAN with ISSN (for book series and magazines). The print and license no. the French National Library (Dépôt légal) are currently still being run in parallel in French works.
    eISBN for e-books
  87. Erwin Schulz: What packaging printers need to know about European article numbering (EAN). In: German printer. Jg. 14 (1978) No. 18, pp. 1-14 [attached special supplement]; also: Robert Brenner: bar code, bars as information carriers. In: The electronics engineer. 4, pp. 65-71 (1987).
  88. cf. LASI - Guidelines for the Product Safety Act, LV 46, 3rd revised edition. March / 2013, ISBN 978-3-936415-75-9 , p. 26, online: (PDF 1.51 MB) lv_46.pdf
  89. Regularly appearing rubrics can also prove the completeness of a press product, such as television programs, regularly appearing event calendars, "The Last Page", "News from the Association" etc .; some newspapers also note the number of pages of the respective editions on the front page, especially on the copies intended for foreign countries.
  90. The individual copies (newspapers, magazines and book) are not marked in detail in the trade, but can have additional, later attached or useful numbers that appear as an imprint on the copy itself or on the postal protection bag (such as subscriber or customer numbers or also special bundle numbers when joining different documents in library collections).
  91. cf. for example: ISBN commission of the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels e. V./(without mentioning the author): The economic committee of the Börsenverein provides information about the necessary relationships between traffic numbers , international location numbers ( ILN ) and Eancom. In: Börsenblatt for the German book trade. 165 (1998), 10, pp. 25-27.