drink


from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
After water  , tea is the second most widely consumed drink in the world.

Drink ( collective to drink ), also drink , is a collective term for liquids prepared for drinking . Drinks are consumed either to quench thirst and thus to absorb water by the body, as food or as pure luxury goods . The English equivalent of drink is also used in German as a generic term for cocktails and for individual portions of spirits . With mixed drink cocktails are also often meant mixed drink points to the preparation of various liquids like milkshakes or beer mix drinks out.

Systematics

In merchandise science, certain edible liquids are generally referred to as drinks, other liquids are sometimes included depending on tradition and property.

In general, this includes:

In some cases, this includes:

This does not include:

  • Pharmaceuticals,
  • Body and beauty products.

Soft drinks

Products labeled as alcohol-free may have a maximum alcohol content of 0.5 percent by volume ( grape juice up to one percent by volume). A specialty are alcohol-reduced beverages, which may contain up to four percent alcohol by volume.

In Switzerland, non-alcoholic beverages may contain up to 0.7% alcohol by volume. In the European Union there is an EU regulation, there is a general obligation to label the alcohol content from 1.2 vol .-%

water

Other

The following is partly added:

Alcoholic drinks

Various alcoholic beverages, from left to right: red wine , single malt whiskey , beer , sparkling wine , again beer, liqueur and more red wine

Alcoholic beverages or beverages containing alcohol , also known as alcoholic beverages or (especially with regard to spirits ), spirituous beverages contain potable alcohol ( ethanol ). In food, this is usually just referred to as alcohol .

In the chemical sense, however , alcohols form a whole class of substances. Alcoholic beverages are made from liquids containing carbohydrates through alcoholic fermentation . According to current food law, only agricultural products can be used as raw materials for alcohol. Alcoholic beverages may not contain alcohol of synthetic origin or other alcohol of non-agricultural origin.

Alcoholic beverages include beverages whose alcohol is only produced through alcoholic fermentation, for example beer and wine , as well as distillates from such beverages or from fermented mashes and their mixed products. Beverages whose alcohol content is directly or indirectly attributable to distillation and at least 15% vol. are referred to as spirits in the EU .

Due to the toxic effects of ethanol on the central and peripheral nervous system , the liver and other organs, alcoholic beverages are harmful to health. There is no such thing as risk-free consumption. Regular and high alcohol consumption can lead to alcoholism and serious secondary diseases; its effect is therefore clearly negative. Especially in men, but also in women, regular alcohol consumption of more than 36 grams per day accelerates memory loss by almost six years. The executive functions of the brain also suffer from alcohol consumption. In the case of depression or anxiety disorder, the consumption of alcohol can have a symptom-aggravating effect.

Because alcohol has a disinfectant effect, alcohol consumption was previously justified as a preventive measure against diseases transmitted by unclean water. The disinfecting effect of ethanol-water mixtures is only significant with an alcohol content between 50 and 80%; If the ethanol content is below 20%, it is completely absent.

ingredients

In addition to ethanol and water, alcoholic beverages also contain the by-products formed during fermentation , such as aldehydes , the alcohols glycerol , methanol and 1-propanol , and higher monohydric alcohols. It also contains aliphatic carboxylic acids , lactic and succinic acids and carboxylic acid esters . These substances influence the aroma of the drinks. When burning alcoholic liquids or mash produced spirits with an alcohol content of 15% - with the exception of eggnog , at least 14 percent by volume must have.

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: drink  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Drinks  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikibooks: Recipes for Drinks  - Learning and teaching materials

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Entry on drink in the Bertelsmann Lexikothek Online , accessed on April 26, 2009
  2. Explanations to Chapter 22 of the Harmonized System / Combined Nomenclature (Customs Tariff) RZ 02.0 - 05.1
  3. Explanations to Chapter 22 of the Harmonized System / Combined Nomenclature (Customs Tariff) RZ 06.0
  4. Position 2009 of the Harmonized System / Combined Nomenclature (customs tariff)
  5. Explanations to Chapter 22 of the Harmonized System / Combined Nomenclature (Customs Tariff) RZ 08.5 - 10.1
  6. ^ Lutz Bertling: Allowed - Prohibited in gastronomy and communal catering 2010/2011 . Behr's, 2011, ISBN 3-89947-989-0 , pp. 372 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  7. Entry on grape juice. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on March 10, 2013.
  8. Entry on wine-like drinks. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on March 10, 2013.
  9. Gerald Rimbach, Jennifer Nagursky, Helmut F. Erbersdobler : Food and Goods Knowledge for Beginners , Springer (2015), p. 319
  10. Explanations to position 2201 of the Harmonized System / Combined Nomenclature (customs tariff) RZ 01.0 - 18.0 and 05.0 - 06.0
  11. Explanatory notes on heading 2202 of the Harmonized System / Combined Nomenclature (customs tariff)
  12. ^ Gerhard Eisenbrand, Peter Schreier, Alfred Hagen Meyer: RÖMPP Lexikon Lebensmittelchemie . 2nd edition, Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 978-3-13-736602-7 , p. 34, p. 323.
  13. H.-D. Belitz, W. Grosch, P. Schieberle: Textbook of food chemistry. 6th edition, Springer, 2007, ISBN 978-3-540-73201-3 , p. 921.
  14. Regulation (EC) No. 110/2008 ("EU Spirits Regulation") , accessed on July 5, 2015 , chap. 1, Art. 3.
  15. Regulation (EC) No. 110/2008 ("EU Spirits Regulation") , accessed on July 5, 2015 , chap. 2, Art. 1.
  16. Moderate alcohol consumption shortens lifespan: lower limits. In: pharmische-zeitung.de. Retrieved May 26, 2018 .
  17. ^ S. Sabia, A. Elbaz, A. Britton, S. Bell, A. Dugravot, M. Shipley, M. Kivimaki, A. Singh-Manoux: Alcohol consumption and cognitive decline in early old age. In: Neurology. doi : 10.1212 / WNL.0000000000000063 .
  18. Janett Menzel: Anxiety after alcohol: How alcohol triggers fear. March 8, 2016, accessed March 22, 2020 .
  19. H.-H. Frey, FR Althaus: Textbook of pharmacology and toxicology for veterinary medicine. P. 469, Georg Thieme Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8304-1070-6
  20. Entry on alcoholic beverages. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on September 12, 2013.