Drink ( collective to drink ), also drink , is a collective term for liquids prepared for drinking . Drinks are consumed either to quench thirst and thus to absorb water by the body, as food or as pure luxury goods . The English equivalent of drink is also used in German as a generic term for cocktails and for individual portions of spirits . With mixed drink cocktails are also often meant mixed drink points to the preparation of various liquids like milkshakes or beer mix drinks out.
In merchandise science, certain edible liquids are generally referred to as drinks, other liquids are sometimes included depending on tradition and property.
In general, this includes:
- Water , other non-alcoholic or non-alcoholic drinks and ice,
- fermented alcoholic beverages ( beer , wine , cider , etc.),
- alcoholic liquids and beverages made by distillation ( brandy , liqueur , etc.) and ethyl alcohol .
In some cases, this includes:
- Table vinegar (also diluted),
- Milk and liquid milk products ,
- Fruit juice , grape must , vegetable juice .
This does not include:
- Body and beauty products.
Products labeled as alcohol-free may have a maximum alcohol content of 0.5 percent by volume ( grape juice up to one percent by volume). A specialty are alcohol-reduced beverages, which may contain up to four percent alcohol by volume.
In Switzerland, non-alcoholic beverages may contain up to 0.7% alcohol by volume. In the European Union there is an EU regulation, there is a general obligation to label the alcohol content from 1.2 vol .-%
- ordinary water but not distilled water
- Mineral water and carbonated water
- Ice and snow , naturally or man-made
- Water, including mineral and carbonated water, with added sugar , other sweeteners or flavorings .
The following is partly added:
Alcoholic beverages or beverages containing alcohol , also known as alcoholic beverages or (especially with regard to spirits ), spirituous beverages contain potable alcohol ( ethanol ). In food, this is usually just referred to as alcohol .
In the chemical sense, however , alcohols form a whole class of substances. Alcoholic beverages are made from liquids containing carbohydrates through alcoholic fermentation . According to current food law, only agricultural products can be used as raw materials for alcohol. Alcoholic beverages may not contain alcohol of synthetic origin or other alcohol of non-agricultural origin.
Alcoholic beverages include beverages whose alcohol is only produced through alcoholic fermentation, for example beer and wine , as well as distillates from such beverages or from fermented mashes and their mixed products. Beverages whose alcohol content is directly or indirectly attributable to distillation and at least 15% vol. are referred to as spirits in the EU .
Due to the toxic effects of ethanol on the central and peripheral nervous system , the liver and other organs, alcoholic beverages are harmful to health. There is no such thing as risk-free consumption. Regular and high alcohol consumption can lead to alcoholism and serious secondary diseases; its effect is therefore clearly negative. Especially in men, but also in women, regular alcohol consumption of more than 36 grams per day accelerates memory loss by almost six years. The executive functions of the brain also suffer from alcohol consumption. In the case of depression or anxiety disorder, the consumption of alcohol can have a symptom-aggravating effect.
Because alcohol has a disinfectant effect, alcohol consumption was previously justified as a preventive measure against diseases transmitted by unclean water. The disinfecting effect of ethanol-water mixtures is only significant with an alcohol content between 50 and 80%; If the ethanol content is below 20%, it is completely absent.
In addition to ethanol and water, alcoholic beverages also contain the by-products formed during fermentation , such as aldehydes , the alcohols glycerol , methanol and 1-propanol , and higher monohydric alcohols. It also contains aliphatic carboxylic acids , lactic and succinic acids and carboxylic acid esters . These substances influence the aroma of the drinks. When burning alcoholic liquids or mash produced spirits with an alcohol content of 15% - with the exception of eggnog , at least 14 percent by volume must have.
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