The lemonade (in parts of Bavaria and Austria also Kracherl ), commonly shortens or soda ([ lɪmo ] or Austrian [ soda ]), is an alcoholic , sweetened and usually with carbonic offset soft drink with or without fruit extracts on the basis of water, which may only contain natural ingredients. In the original sense of the word, lemonade is a drink made from lemon juice diluted with water .
The lemonades also include caffeinated cola drinks and most energy drinks . Akin to the lemonade is the shower ( "soda pop"), also artificial or natural identical flavoring and coloring agents must not contain.
In Roman antiquity, a lemonade-like soft drink was known under the name Posca . To make it, drinking water was mixed with a dash of vinegar . The taste depended on the dosage of the vinegar. The type of fruit from which the vinegar was made also had a flavor-giving component.
It is unclear when the current form of lemonade came about. One of the first evidence comes from the 16./17. Century from Spain . In 1688 people at the Dresden court drank lemonades "made of lemons, roses, raspberries, cinnamon, strawberries, quinces, hippocras and orsade". Over time, other variations were developed and sold. The archetype of all modern lemonades, the English lemon squash , was originally a purely natural product made from water, sugar and lemon juice. Artificial production began at the end of the 19th century.
In 1845, lemonade was described as follows:
“Add the juice of ½ a lemon to ¼ liter of sugar water, which must be as fresh and cold as possible. On top you put a thinly cut lemon wedge and, if possible, add a piece of artificial ice. "
In Germany , according to the guidelines for soft drinks of the German food book, lemonade consists of drinking water, natural mineral water or spring and / or table water. In addition, there are aroma extracts and / or natural aromas and usually citric acid . In addition to lemon, orange is also used for the flavor base .
Lemonade has a total sugar content of at least 7 percent, which can be composed of different types of sugar (in addition to sucrose , glucose syrup , among other things ); there is no limit. With reduced -calorie lemonade, the sugar is completely or partially replaced by sweeteners . In this context, a review of the guidelines for food with regard to possible minimum levels that are harmful to health was suggested.
As a further ingredient, fruit juice concentrate, fruit pulp, fruit pulp concentrate or a mixture of these products can be added (in each case also in a preserved form). Lemonades with a fruit juice content contain at least half of the usual fruit juice content for fruit juice drinks, that is:
- 15 percent for lemonades made from pome fruit or grape juices
- 3 percent for lemonades made from citrus juices
- 5 percent for lemonades made from other fruit juices
Other ingredients may be:
- Sugar color for caffeine-containing and caffeine-free lemonades with the same flavor, as well as apple-flavored lemonades with or without fruit juice and clear herbal lemonades
- Caffeine in caffeinated lemonades in a proportion of at least 65 milligrams per liter and a maximum of 250 milligrams per liter
- Whey products
- Beta-carotene as well as riboflavin and coloring foods, except for clear lemonades with a citrus flavor
- Ginger root extracts , such as B. with ginger ale and the spicier ginger beer
- Bitter substances, e.g. B. Quinine (from the bark of the cinchona tree ). If a lemonade contains at least 15 mg / l quinine, it is called tonic water (max. 85 mg / l quinine).
The Austrian Food Book uses similar definitions of fruit juice lemonade and lemonade, a minimum sugar content is not required.
The industrial production of soft drinks is fully automated and includes only a few steps: The water is in the feed by a waterproofing pump with carbonic acid (actually CO 2 ) is added, then mixed continuously with pre lemonade base and sweetener, and filled in bottles or cans, which finally sealed gastight become. The process goes back to Jacob Schweppe , who invented a process for adding carbonic acid to water at the end of the 18th century.
In non-industrial production, fruit juice is mixed with dissolved sugar and given a pinch of salt. Depending on the recipe, the peels of untreated citrus fruits can also be used to give the drink its aroma. The peel is partially grated or whole fruit or fruit cut into slices or pieces is poured with boiling, warm or cold water and / or left to stand for a while and then possibly drained.
Origin of names and designations
The French expression lemonade , derived from limon (lemon), was adopted into German in the 17th century and until the 19th century only referred to a soft drink made from lemons. The word for lemon, which is also used in other languages, goes back to the Persian word limun , which there denotes this fruit. The word came into Arabic on the trade route , from where it got into other European languages. In the 19th century, the meaning of the Germanized word lemonade expanded to include similarly produced drinks with other fruits. The word thus became the general trade name for soft drinks.
On today's products, the flavoring fruit is also indicated, for example "apple lemonade". Terms such as “lemonade with apple flavor” or “lemonade with apple flavor” are also used to indicate the taste. In the case of lemonades with plant extracts - for example spices (such as ginger), herbs, liquorice - a designation such as "lemonade with ... extract" is also used. In the case of non-carbonated lemonades, the sales description is supplemented by a corresponding information.
In the Bavarian-Austrian language area , the expression Kracherl is also used for lemonade beverages. The name comes from the fact that the first lemonade bottles were ball-cap bottles . A glass ball served as a closure , which was pushed upwards into the conical bottle neck by the pressure of the carbon dioxide and closed it. The closure of the respective bottle was achieved either with a rubber seal or by grinding in the bottle neck and ball. The glass ball was pressed in with the thumb to open it, which resulted in a cracking noise. Since the cleaning of this cap is time-consuming, these bottles were replaced by those with swing top and later with crown corks and screw caps.
In literary terms, the Kracherl appears in the song In a small café in Hernals by Hermann Leopoldi with the line: “And Kracherl, that's the name of the sparkling wine there!”.
Mark Pereira, an epidemiologist at the School of Public Health at the University of Minnesota , suggested in 2010 that sodas could be responsible for an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer : People who eat two soft drinks a week are already at an 87 percent higher risk of cancer and consume more. Pereira holds the high sugar content responsible for this. According to the American Heart Association , excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, such as sodas and fruit juice beverages, can be linked to around 180,000 deaths worldwide each year. Excessive consumption of beverages sweetened with sugar leads to obesity, which in turn increases the risk of developing a number of serious diseases. On the basis of data that were collected as part of the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 , the researchers were able to show that the intensive consumption of sugary beverages is causally related to around 133,000 diabetes mellitus- associated deaths annually , 44,000 deaths as a result of Cardiovascular disease and 6,000 deaths from cancer here .
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