Manufacturing engineering is an area of production engineering and mechanical engineering . It is the study of the (economic) production of workpieces and other geometrically defined solid bodies ( piece goods ). The starting point is the design documents that define the shape of the workpieces, the permissible dimensional and shape deviations (so-called tolerances ), the surface roughness and the material , as well as the measuring and testing equipment to be used . In manufacturing technology, piece goods are always manufactured. These can be products for the end user or products that still have to be processed, such as sheet metal . Objects of art and manufacturing equipment, i.e. tools, machines and systems that are required for production, are also manufactured.
The main focus of manufacturing technology are the numerous manufacturing processes , which are summarized in DIN 8580 in main groups and groups. Further sub-areas are machine tools , tools , production metrology , production planning and control , the organizational forms of production such as workshop production or series production and quality management . Border areas to related sciences are logistics (especially production logistics ), factory planning and manufacturing management .
The manufacturing technology influences the transformation of a workpiece from the raw state to the manufacturing state. In this respect, their history is as old as humanity. However, it was not until the beginning of the industrial revolution in the middle of the 18th century that manufacturing technology was examined using scientific methods.
Many machining processes such as sawing, drilling and grinding are known from the Stone Age . Forging , casting and fire welding were added in the Bronze Age . From industrialization onwards, machine tools were built that machined known processes or made new ones such as milling possible. Most welding processes date from the 20th century.
Johann Beckmann founded the general technological science . He introduced the term technology as early as 1769. Frederick Winslow Taylor used the term business administration around 1900 and founded Taylorism . With assembly line production, Henry Ford relied on typing and mass production .
In the 20th century, many manufacturing processes and the associated machines were increasingly developed using scientific methods. This includes, for example, the laser and waterjet cutting , the laser and electron beam welding , the 3D printing , the precision forging , the Thixocasting , CNC machines . Since the turn of the 21st century, organization and information technology have increasingly played a role again, such as in Industry 4.0 , the digital factory , lean manufacturing or mass customization .
According to DIN 8580, the six main groups of manufacturing processes are:
- Manufacturing process : Process for the manufacture of geometrically determined solid bodies
- Workpiece : Individual part of a technical structure in production
- Active medium : formless, solid, liquid or gaseous substance that causes changes in the workpiece through various forms of energy and chemical reactions
- Active pair : formed from workpieces on the one hand and tool or active medium / media on the other
- Archetypes : A solid body made of shapeless material (liquid, powdery raw material or plastic mass) is created by creating cohesion, e.g. B. by casting, sintering, firing or baking.
- Reshaping : Reshaping is the process of producing by sculptural (plastic) changing of the shape of a body without changing the amount of material, e.g. B. by bending, forging, drawing, pressing, pressing or rolling.
- Joining : the introduction of previously separated workpieces into a fixed connection at the designated joining points, e.g. B. by welding, soldering, screwing, riveting or gluing
- Separating : changing the shape of a solid body in which the cohesion is broken locally, e.g. B. by dividing, machining or removing
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