The primary forming is a main group of production processes and combines according to DIN 8580, all production processes in which a solid body is made of a shapeless material, which has a geometrically defined form. Archetypes are used to produce the initial form of a solid body and to create the material cohesion. Starting materials in liquid, gaseous, plastic, granular or powdery state, i.e. with different rheological behavior, can be used for primary shaping . A distinction is made between electroplating , powder metallurgy and foundry technology on the basis of different combinations of individual procedures . The concept of “archetype” goes back to Otto Kienzle , who proposed it in 1948 at a conference of the Working Group of German Industrial Engineers (later VDI Society for Production Technology). The various production processes in this group have long been grouped under the term “create cohesion”, but they did not yet have a term for the main group, such as joining for “increasing cohesion” or separating for “reducing cohesion”.
Classification according to DIN 8580
Primary forms represents the first main group of manufacturing processes according to DIN 8580. This main group is divided into the following seven subgroups:
- Group 1.1: Primary forms from the liquid state (e.g. molten metal)
- Group 1.2: Primary forms from the plastic state (e.g. polymer melt)
- Group 1.3: Primary forms from the pulpy state (e.g. ceramic slip)
- Group 1.4: Archetypes from the granular or powdery state ( sintering, which is suitable for metal powder and ceramics, and is assigned to archetype in technical literature and practice, is assigned to the main group change material properties in DIN 8580ff .)
- Group 1.5: Archetypes from the chip or fibrous state
- Group 1.6: (not applicable)
- Group 1.7: (not applicable)
- Group 1.8: Primary forms from the gaseous or vaporous state
- 1.8.1 Deposition from the vapor phase in a mold (single process)
- Group 1.9: Archetypes from the ionized state
- 1.9.1 Electrolytic deposition in a mold
In the specialist literature, 3D printing ( generative manufacturing process ) is counted among the primary forming processes, but cannot be assigned to a specific state because it uses different starting materials. It is not mentioned in DIN 8580.
- Stöfferle, Spur: Handbook of Manufacturing Technology - Volume 1: Urformen , 1981, p. 2.
- Alfred Herbert Fritz, Günter Schulze (ed.): Manufacturing technology , Springer, 9th edition, 2010, p. 2.