Packaging technology

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Under packaging is meant procedures to products as packaged goods by means of packaging to make transportable.

Packaging glossary

According to DIN 55405, the following technical terms describe the individual packaging components and the packaging process regardless of the purpose of the packaging :

Packaging material
All the materials that make up the packaging.
Packaging component that represents the main part of the packaging and is used to hold the packaged goods. A distinction can be made between a low level of prefabrication ( cardboard , sheets , blanks made of foil ) and a high level of prefabrication ( bottle , folding box , can ).
Packaging aids
Are necessary for the design of packaging (such as adhesive tape , clips ).
Is formed of packaging materials and packaging components during the packaging process (as transport packaging , secondary packaging , blister pack ). Serves to protect the packaged goods, people and the environment, to ensure rationalization and to provide information about the packaging , packaged goods, handling and disposal of used packaging.
Packaged goods
The product to be packaged, which is basically assigned to one of the two groups of bulk goods - i.e. liquids, bulk goods or suction goods - or piece goods .
engl. packing unit
before, during and after the packaging operation conglomerated assembly, as single pack or multi-pack , transport a co-location  (engl. trading unit ).
engl. package
Is formed from packaged goods and packaging during the packaging process. In the transport sector, this is what container means : package, tray .

Methods of packaging technology

The following principle applies to packaging: "As much packaging as necessary, as little packaging as possible". The product must therefore be adequately protected against all conceivable transport loads. This is contradicted by the fact that packaging has no added value for the product manufacturer, so packaging must be as cheap as possible.

The packaging process takes place manually, semi-automatically or fully automatically. The corresponding packaged goods determine which principle is used. The fully automated packaging process by means of packaging machines , which, according to the principles of forms , filling , sealing and wrapping work.

In addition, packaging labeling and, in general, the transport technology and logistics of packaged goods are further areas of packaging technology.


In a broader sense, a sales-promoting effect through attractive and eye-catching packaging is also desired. In this context, reference should be made to printing technology :

Not to be forgotten nowadays is the manufacturer's obligation to take back packaging. This is regulated in Germany in the Recycling and Waste Management Act (KrW- / AbfG). Therefore, the later recycling of the packaging is already taken into account in the packaging design.

Optimization of packaging technology

Packaging optimization
This term describes the individual ordering of packaging materials and is increasingly used in lean management for process optimization.
Location optimization
Optimization of the environment. In this context, the Controllership has recently been frequently consulted (see also three-person body ).

Packaging optimization software

There are various computer programs to optimize the packaging and thus also the packaging, handling, transport and storage costs. These are used to:

  • Determination of space-efficient packaging sizes
  • Calculation of the optimal arrangement of packaging
  • Calculation of suitable palletizing patterns
  • Optimizing the loading of trucks and containers

See also


  • Günter Bleisch, Horst Goldhahn, Helmut Vogt, Gerhard Schricker: Lexicon packaging technology . 1st edition. Behr's Verlag, 2003, ISBN 978-3-89947-326-1 .
  • Monika Kaßmann (Ed.): Fundamentals of packaging: guidelines for interdisciplinary packaging training . 2nd Edition. Beuth Verlag, 2014, ISBN 978-3-410-24192-8 .
  • Joachim Hennig (Ed.): Packaging technology - means and methods for solving the packaging task u. a. with a contribution to 'Smart Packaging & Value Added Packaging' . Beuth Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-410-21469-4 (loose-leaf collection).