Römer (Frankfurt am Main)
The Römer has been the town hall of Frankfurt am Main since the 15th century and one of its landmarks with its characteristic stepped gable facade . As the center of city politics, it is the seat of city representatives and the mayor . The middle of the original three independent buildings on the Römerberg is the actual Haus zum Römer . The entire town hall complex has been understood by “Römer” for centuries. Why the central building is called "Römer" is unknown; there are different, contradicting interpretations.
The air raids on Frankfurt am Main in World War II left only the stone facades and ground floors of the medieval houses standing. Behind the emblematic facade is the new construction of a modern office building in the style of the early 1950s.
When the administration of the city needed a new domicile in the 14th century, the council bought the two representative town houses with the names Römer and Goldener Schwan on March 11, 1405 and made them the official residence in the center of the city at that time. In addition to the Imperial Cathedral of St. Bartholomew, they were the site of most elections for the Roman-German king or royal elections and coronations and thus were among the most important buildings in the history of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation .
Over almost five centuries, the town hall complex expanded through acquisitions from the original two to eleven structurally connected town houses, which were gradually converted into service rooms. It was not until the end of the 19th century that a large-scale new building was built based on designs by Max Meckel , Franz von Hoven and Ludwig Neher , which still shapes the exterior of the complex today.
Inside you can find remnants of historicist , but mostly simple room programs from the post-war period , after almost all buildings burned down in the air raids in World War II. Four of the eleven sub-buildings that still have to be separated out today are also external new creations from the early 1950s in the succession of completely destroyed half-timbered buildings.
Prehistory (1288 to 1405)
The original town hall was located where the tower of the cathedral stands today (see map) and was first mentioned in a document on May 25, 1288 as "domus consilii Frankenvordensis". The local proximity of the church, town hall and market square was common in urban planning in the Middle Ages and can still be found today in numerous German cities.
On June 20, 1329, Emperor Ludwig IV, according to a document issued in Pavia , allowed the citizens of Frankfurt "to paw a different councilor and go to Frankfurt, where they dunch, daz ez in and the place of all is most useful". The fact that nothing happened for almost three quarters of a century despite the imperial permit is due to the setbacks that Frankfurt had to go through in the second half of the 14th century. These include in particular the natural disaster of the Magdalene flood in 1342 , the Black Death in 1349, the feuds with the neighboring knighthood, the guild uprising from 1355 to 1368 and the defeat at Kronberg in 1389, which stagnated the population growth of the 13th century and weakened the city's finances.
The series of municipal accounting books that began in 1348 gave information about the changes to the old town hall, excerpts of which were burned in the Second World War, but have survived in the literature. In accordance with their nature, they primarily describe manual work such as inserting window glass, which was still luxurious at the time, casting bells to ring in council meetings, or even trivial expenses such as paying for firewood. However, they are unable to give an impression of the appearance of the old town hall. The only, but very schematic illustration of the construction dates back to the (also in the original lost) urban Bedebuch from 1405, the one by a stone walls and battlements shows lined courtyard (see Fig.).
In the Jewish pogrom of 1349, in which practically the entire Jewish population of Frankfurt at that time was murdered, the associated fire, which destroyed the cathedral and the entire south adjoining old Jewish quarter of the city, is said to have originated from the old town hall, and to a large extent this too have destroyed. However, this tradition by the town chronicler Achilles Augustus von Lersner from the early 18th century cannot be historically documented and can also be classified as legendary insofar as the town account books for the following years do not record any expenses for repairs that were otherwise documented with great care.
At the end of the 14th century, the old town hall had finally become too small and dilapidated, and Frankfurt with just under 10,000 inhabitants was a larger city by medieval standards. From 1401, the preparation of a new building on the Römerberg began. A builder was appointed, a model was made, building materials were taken to the Römerberg and even stone blocks were hewn. However, due to the successful negotiations with the owners of two private houses on the Römerberg, the new building could be avoided shortly before the foundation stone was laid.
The ownership structure there was comparatively clear: the brothers Konz and Heinz zum Römer owned two thirds of the two houses, namely the actual Haus zum Römer and the Golden Swan adjoining to the west , the last third belonged to the widow of Hensel zum Römer . A contract of March 11, 1405, which is still preserved today, sealed the deal (see copy); The brothers received 600 guilders and an annual annuity of 40 guilders for their share , the widow 200 guilders and an annuity of 25 guilders until the death of their daughter. With a total of 800 "guilders of good Franckenfurter werünge available" and annual annuities of 65 guilders, which did not represent a major household burden in the short-lived time, the council had made an extraordinarily good deal with two houses in such an ideal location.
The move to the new town hall dragged on for almost two years, the old town hall by the cathedral was demonstrably last used by the city officials in 1407. In 1414 the disputes over the property at the cathedral, which had dragged on since the early 14th century, ended in order to be able to make room for the new construction of the cathedral tower. On May 31 of the same year, the city sold the property to the construction company responsible for the new construction of the cathedral tower, despite a purchase offer of 350 pounds , for only 200 pounds. The old town hall must have been demolished between 1414 and 1415, as the foundation stone for the new cathedral tower was laid on June 6, 1415 on its former property.
The town hall on Römerberg until the end of the Middle Ages (1405 to 1500)
With the Golden Bull of Emperor Charles IV in 1356, Frankfurt was confirmed as the rightful place for royal elections in the empire, after 14 out of 20 royal elections had taken place here since 1147 . With the two houses on the Römerberg, the city now had two large and representative buildings that offered the elections, but also the Reichstag , which often took place here, an appropriate setting. Furthermore, there was finally enough space available for the growing city administration, and last but not least, it should serve economic purposes. This was now optimally guaranteed by the location of the new buildings: then as now the center of the city, the Römerberg with the old town to the east, dominated by various craftsmen and traders, was the center of trade, especially during the regular trade fairs . In the Römer, the Pfeifergericht , first mentioned in a document in 1380, took place every year for the autumn fair , a ceremonial confirmation of the exemption from customs duties for the merchants from Alt-Bamberg , Nuremberg and Worms who came to the fair . The nearby Main served as one of the most important traffic routes for people and goods at the time.
From the renovations to the acquisition of Frauenrode (1405 to 1423)
The building materials piled up on the Römerberg for the planned new building were included in the subsequent renovation of the two houses, which lasted from 1405 to 1408. Nothing has been passed down coherently about the details. The resulting changes must therefore be put together from the arithmetic master and builder books.
Work on the Haus zum Römer began in 1405 with an almost complete gutting , when, according to an entry in the arithmetic book of June 20, 1405, all the floors in the house were torn out. The two former upper floors were essentially a large department store , which later became known as the Kaisersaal ; behind it the large council chamber , which later became the electoral elections . Externally, the house was given three to received today ogival entrance portal and new windows. No information has been passed on about the renovation work on the upper floors of the Golden Swan.
The most important change, however, was the construction of a ribbed vault on the ground floors of both buildings. It has been preserved to this day and is better known as the Roman or Swan Hall. However, the work of the responsible master builder Friedrich Königshofen collapsed shortly after completion on October 24, 1405, which caused him to fall out of favor with the city council . Only after long negotiations and in return for a payment of 109 guilders did he waive further claims against the city on October 13, 1406 in a document that has been preserved to this day.
Now the master builder Wigel Sparre , who initially worked under Königshofen, was appointed, who completed the Roman Hall between November 1405 and February 1406. The Schwanenhalle, which began afterwards, was only completed towards the end of the renovation work in 1407. In 1408 only detailed work was carried out, such as paving the hall floor or plastering the vault. The fact that the city apparently attached particular importance to an extremely massive construction method at the second attempt was impressively demonstrated almost 550 years later when it was one of the few rooms in the town hall complex that survived the hail of bombs of World War II unscathed.
In the course of 1407, the city officials moved into the new town hall on Römerberg. Only a little later in 1414 began to be used for commercial purposes, especially during the Frankfurt trade fair. At that time the vaults of the buildings were used as a department store and each foot was rented for the price of one shilling . This purpose remained with the Roman complex until the complete decline of the classic measuring business in 1846.
Around 1415 the electoral election room was painted in an art-historically significant way. This painting was restored in 1477 by Conrad Fyoll together with his sons Conrad and Hans and finally repainted in 1583, but documented in the same year in the so-called Fetterchen Wappenbuch (see picture), which has been preserved to the present day. The attribution of the markings to the eponymous glass painter Johann Vetter is controversial. The authorship of the painting from 1415, however, has never been clarified and should be forever in the dark after the war damage to the Roman building at the latest.
According to the book, the murals showed coats of arms and portraits of various medieval classes, which were arranged in a quaternion system that was typical for the time, but extremely early . H. four representatives of each class were represented in groups that were considered representative of the same. This is remarkable from an art-historical point of view, as this is probably one of the earliest quaternion representations, which undoubtedly also influenced all subsequent representations of this type.
From the acquisition of Frauenrode to the end of the Middle Ages (1424 to 1500)
The first expansion of the town hall took place only a little later: on November 5, 1424, the town council acquired the Frauenrode house west of the Golden Swan from the Liebfrauenstift for 200 guilders. A very low price, which is explained by the certificate issued about the business - according to which it was so dilapidated that, in the opinion of the pen, it was no longer worth repairing. So in 1436 the building was completely demolished, which was followed by new buildings until 1439. They were built on the old plot around the courtyard in the middle, facing what was then Widdergasse (later Wedelgasse , now Bethmannstrasse ).
In the eastern part, under the direction of the builder Eberhard Friedberger, a stone archive tower (see picture) was built in 1436 and 1437, which was covered with slate and decorated in its vaults with four painted eagles . Since cities at that time based all their privileges, such as market rights, on written parchment and paper, such an archive has been vital since the Golden Bull at the latest. This becomes even clearer when you consider that the cities, built almost entirely of wooden frameworks, were regularly ravaged by conflagrations. As a stopgap, all important documents and privileges had been stored in the vault of the fortress tower at Leonhardstor, which was demolished in 1808.
From the beginning of 1438 the actual house with the so-called new council chamber was built on the western part of the property . The city council met in this room, which was repeatedly changed in terms of furnishings over the centuries, until the end of the imperial city period in 1806. Handicrafts in the room such as stoves, wall paintings and later stucco work have changed over the centuries in line with contemporary tastes or were completely new. The creation of the new council chamber also shows the consequences of the Golden Bull: the council chamber in the Haus zum Römer, which had been occupied only a quarter of a century earlier, served from now on essentially as a representative voting room for the electors. This essentially completed the renovations and integration of Frauenrode into the town hall complex.
The exterior of the Roman was designed more and more representative, even if no pictorial representations have survived from that time: in 1441 a large lantern with 73 panes of Venetian glass was attached to the facade . In 1452–1454, a clock that had been planned since 1448 was implemented, which had hands on the facade facing the Römerberg as well as on the inside of the imperial hall. Not only technically, for which the watchmaker Hans Hochgesang was responsible, but also artistically it must have been a remarkable work. The painter Sebald Fyoll received 200 guilders alone for figurative paintings, the goldsmith Hans Hug worked on carved models for cast dragon and lion heads as well as a case with plastic depictions of wild men . In 1470 the clock was improved by Hochgesang and a whole staff of artists, and again in 1483 by Hug, whereby an astrolabe and a sun pointer were also mentioned in the building and arithmetic master books .
Probably as a supplement to the now very representative designed upper area of the facade, the council decided in 1482 "to make a pint at the town hall, builders should see it", ie to build a shed porch on the ground floor area of the Roman. The oldest known pictorial representation from the coronation diary of Emperor Matthias , which dates to the year 1612, is relatively indistinct (see picture); However, the original structure can be reconstructed from the cost accounting from 1483:
The porch consisted essentially of wood covered with lead and ended in three pointed arches with rich Gothic ornamentation, which preceded the actual portals of the Roman. Eight elongated windows made of a total of 500 individual panes of glass, an enormous luxury for the time, generously illuminated the annex. The decorations were mainly partly gilded flowers, eyelashes and coats of arms , partly painted and partly sculptured. The coats of arms were attached to the top of the pointed arches and showed the heraldry of the king, the emperor and the city of Frankfurt.
The building was painted by the well-known painters Thomas von Strasbourg and Hans Caldenbach , and the organ builder Leonhard Mertz and gunsmith Jörg Ossenbrommer , Kellerhenne and Anthonius am Stege were used for the art casting . The artistic director was the goldsmith and miniator Hans Dirmstein . According to the cost calculation comprising 23 individual items, the total costs amounted to almost 625 guilders, other noteworthy items to be found in it were, among others. a. 104 quintals of lead and 323 pounds of tin .
The town hall in the early modern period (1500 to 1806)
After the population and economic power of Frankfurt had declined throughout the 15th century, a renewed upswing began around 1500. Shortly after the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in nearby Mainz, the no less important book fair was added to the goods fair, which was already important in the Middle Ages . After the city committed to the Reformation in 1530, the population grew steadily, also due to the immigration of religious refugees - from around 7,600 around 1500 to almost 20,000 around 1600 to around 40,000 by the end of the imperial city period in 1806.
With diplomatic skill, the city managed not only to preserve its Lutheran creed, but also its privileges as a trade fair venue and electoral location for kings and emperors between the Schmalkaldic War in 1536 and the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. In 1562, after the election of Emperor Maximilian II , the Electors' College decided to carry out the coronation in Frankfurt. Despite the separation of the place of election from the place of coronation as set out in the Golden Bull, almost all coronations have taken place in Frankfurt since then. The effects on the town hall, which was the sole center of urban politics and administration, therefore no longer only meant a steady growth in administration in line with the population, but also increasingly the provision of representative rooms for the rulers.
Conversions and extensions in the 16th and 17th centuries (1500 to 1699)
In 1510 the council bought the Viole house, adjoining Haus Frauenrode to the west and on what was then Römergasse , for 300 guilders from Jakob Heller , one of the most important patricians and councilors of the city at the time. Since Heller was generous, as he often did, and donated 50 guilders for the council's plans to replace the house with a new building for city offices and a library, the price was reduced accordingly.
According to a year on a coat of arms eagle, the new building took place in 1511. It removed the eastern firewall and from this point on enabled the city officials to access the viole via Haus Frauenrode without having to step out onto the street. The library, housed in a fireproof vault on the ground floor, was enlarged by donations from Frankfurt citizens and remained in the building until 1668. In that year it was combined with the library of the Barefoot Monastery, which was then where the Paulskirche stands today. Later the Frankfurt City Library emerged from it.
In 1542 the council also bought the Schwarzenfels house , which adjoins the Viole to the south, from Justinian von Holzhausen for 640 guilders. Like his father Hamman von Holzhausen, he came from an important Frankfurt patrician family and was a leading exponent of urban politics and diplomacy. In the same year he represented the city at the Reichstag in Nuremberg and in 1543 held the office of senior mayor .
With its latest acquisition, the city now owned all of the buildings adjoining the Romans to the west. Schwarzenfels shared the eastern firewall with Haus Silberberg , which in turn adjoined Haus Alt-Limpurg , south of Haus zum Römer . Both houses were at that time in possession of the same name ganerbschaft Alt-Limpurg. When a completely new fire wall was built between Schwarzenfels and Silberberg, which suggests a new building shortly after the acquisition, the inheritance contributed 135 guilders to the construction costs. More precise details of this new building, which presumably mainly increased the usable area of the previously purchased house Viole, remain in the dark.
When Frankfurt also became the coronation site in 1562, this was apparently an immediate occasion for further construction work on Frankfurt City Hall in order to adapt the interiors to the taste of the times and the new meaning. Due to the poor documentation, it can only be said that the Golden Swan received a new roof structure by 1563 and that the electors' electoral room was equipped with larger windows. Until it was destroyed in World War II, this could also be identified on a cartouche on a window pillar facing the Römerhof with the year 1562. The room's quaternion cycle had suffered so much over the years that it was whitewashed in 1583. Until 1731, the decoration of the walls was mainly used in oil paintings , which painters made in order to obtain the master's license.
The rapid population growth made new extensions to the town hall necessary within a few decades. Therefore, on December 18, 1596, the council acquired the Wanebach house , which is located to the east of the Golden Swan, and the Löwenstein house , which borders the house to the Römer to the north . For the previous owner, the merchant Ludwig Clar , the purchase price of 18,000 guilders was a good deal, as he had only recently acquired the house for the same price and now received various discounts in addition to the purchase price. The town hall thus already extended to seven individual buildings (see plan). The subsequent construction work in the years 1597 to 1604 to integrate the two acquisitions was very complex, as they had floor heights that were completely different from the previous system.
In the firewall between the Golden Swan and Wanebach, a connection was created between the upper floors at the point where it met the north wall of the Kaisersaal. Behind it, a connecting passage to the old staircase was created that led between the Löwenstein house and the Römer house from the Römerberg directly to the imperial hall. Like another staircase down to the back yard of the Wanebach house, it was only preserved until the imperial staircase was built in 1741. The first floor of the Löwenstein house was set up as a hall for trade fair purposes, the upper floors and later that of the Wanebach house as apartments for city officials . The window frames on the facade were enlarged and the old pointed arched gates were replaced by round arched gates , which made the building probably the first of the group of houses on the Römerberg to lose its very Gothic character.
In 1603 and 1604 the rebuilding of Haus Wanebach decided to start building. After its demolition, which apparently only left out parts of an older connecting wing between the front and rear buildings, it was rebuilt as a half-timbered building on a stone ground floor. It also received its open galleries in the Renaissance style , which gave the inner courtyard, later known as Wanebachhöfchen , its picturesque face. In order to make it accessible from the south, a large ogival gate had already been broken into the north wall of the Roman Hall.
In 1612, the imperial hall was finally given a completely new character in view of the increasingly pompous coronation celebrations, which at least in terms of its proportions has been preserved to this day. The flat ceiling , which had existed since 1405, was removed and replaced by the well-known, vaulted wooden ceiling, which the painter Johan Hoffmann adorned with grotesque decorations popular at the time . The windows of the previously separate attic that was added for this purpose were walled up and the arched hall windows were enlarged accordingly. The coronation diary from the same year shows the result of this work (see picture).
The last major construction project in the 17th century was the Baroque transformation of the shed porch from 1483. In 1650 and 1651, it was mainly carried out by the master carpenter Friedrich Unteutsch , the painters Johann Lorenz Müller and Hans Jacob Schöffer and a handful of other artists and craftsmen. They not only extended the porch to include the Löwenstein house, which is now owned by the city, but also provided it with new gables, coats of arms and ornamental decorations.
Then Philipp Hummel and Heinrich Schäfer painted the facades of the Römer, Löwenstein and Alt-Limpurg houses uniformly with scrollwork that was still typical of the Renaissance, which was worth 100 guilders to the council. The uniform design for the first time was only possible because the Ganerbschaft Alt-Limpurg, who still owned the house of the same name, gave their consent. In addition to adapting to contemporary tastes, the purpose of this measure may have been to adapt the style of the three -gable façade to the adjoining private houses Frauenstein and Salzhaus , which had already been given magnificent Renaissance façades at the beginning of the 17th century. After completing this work, the Roman presented himself externally as he is shown in the well-known picture from the coronation diary of Emperor Leopold I in 1658 (see picture).
From the 18th century to the end of the imperial city period (1700 to 1806)
In the age of absolutism , the ever increasing pomp at European royal courts left its mark not only in the secular buildings of the city, but also on and in the Frankfurt City Hall. It is characteristic that practically all structural changes to the Römer in the 18th century were used exclusively for the representative premises necessary for the execution of the imperial coronations, while during this time there were no extensions or major extensions of the official rooms. The city experienced a total of six imperial elections and coronations in this century, of which Johann Wolfgang von Goethe impressively documented the Emperor Joseph II (see picture) in his work Poetry and Truth .
In 1702 a bell tower was built on the Haus zum Römer, which has been preserved in its appearance to this day and has changed little. When the coronation celebrations for Joseph I approached in 1705, the elector's room was redesigned in line with contemporary tastes by breaking out the old wooden paneling and replacing it with wallpaper. Only the election and coronation of Charles VI. 1711 also gave the Kaisersaal a completely new look, which again brought it closer to its current state. After replacing the apparently run-down and now out of date paneling, wall niches were created, which the painter Johann Conrad Unsinger painted for 500 guilders with illusionistic bust portraits depicting the kings and emperors from Konrad I. Although it can be assumed that the imperial hall had already been adorned with portraits of rulers, there was at least no direct indication in the medieval building and arithmetic master books that it was carried out before Unsinger's activity; Likewise, pictorial representations of such an imperial gallery are missing in all previous coronation diaries.
As early as 1731, under the direction of the city architect Johann Jakob Samhaimer , who u. a. also responsible for the construction of the main guard , another phase of brisk construction activity. Initially, only a renewal of the roof of the Golden Swan, the facade of the same to the Römerhöfchen and an enlargement of the entrances to the Elector's Room were planned, but during the construction work it was discovered that large parts of the wooden structure had become dilapidated since the last renovation in 1562. Therefore, by the end of 1731, the entire facade facing today's Paulsplatz was renewed in the style of the time (see picture), in which it has essentially been preserved to this day, including an inscription plaque dating from that year.
When the roof was completely rebuilt, the anteroom of the actual elector's room had been provided with a large, rotunda dome with a helmet, into which the room opened upwards. In the same year, the Gothic roof of the Frauenrode archive tower, which was contrary to the taste of the time, was replaced by a baroque mansard roof.
In 1732 and 1733 the rotunda was painted by the art and history painters Georg and Christian Leinberger , as was the flat ceiling of the elector's room with magnificent frescoes. Moreover, for the latter, they created five Supra Port paintings with allegorical representations of the imperial regalia choice. Another, with only his family name Hennicke known Mainzer artists adorned in those years probably based on drawings by Bartolomeo Remola addition to the above two areas, many offices of the Roman with masterly stucco work. Hennicke's work was worth 800 guilders to the council, and that of the Leimberger brothers even the proud sum of 1,200 guilders. But that's not all: further gilding and stucco work, new stoves made of Dresden porcelain , walnut paneling, a new clock, wall sconces made of pure silver , furniture, wallpaper, curtains and the life-size portrait of the reigning emperor all added up to the perfect design of the two rooms towards the end of 1734 to the enormous sum of 20,000 guilders.
In view of the impending coronation of Emperor Charles VII , there were again minor repairs that were not worth mentioning in 1741, including a. the painting of the facade to the Römerberg from the 1650s was painted over in favor of a monochrome version. What was really significant, however, was the renewal of the steep, medieval staircase that led from the Römerberg between the houses to the Römer and Löwenstein into the Kaisersaal.
Already in the 19th century no complete invoices had been received from the year 1742, but the fact that the master locksmiths Alb and Diestmann were paid 540 guilders for the iron railing and the door to the staircase alone leaves those in view of the large number of those at the Kaisertiege suspect artists and craftsmen involved at least in the middle four-digit range. In addition to the bricklayers Springer and Jähnisch , the stonemasons Doctor Barba and Scheidel , the sculptor Aufmuth and the plasterer Jäger , the Swiss painter Giovanni Battista Innocenzo Colombo was also involved in the construction of the stairs (see picture). In just four weeks he decorated the ceiling with a large fresco and the sides of the staircase with illusionistic architectural painting in order to artificially enlarge the space, which in its cubature was still determined by medieval narrowness.
Although the Römerberg and the town hall saw four pompous coronations in the second half of the 18th century, hardly anything changed about the Römer from now until the end of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in 1806. Probably under the effect of the burgeoning classicism , some rooms in the town hall were whitewashed in 1790 and the only a few decades old pictures of Coloma in the area of the imperial staircase were painted over, around 1800 the shed porches in front of Haus zum Römer and Haus Löwenstein also disappeared.
From the end of the imperial city period to the Roman Building Commission (1800 to 1885)
After the decline of the German Empire, many of the Roman's rooms, such as the Imperial Hall or the Elector's Room, lost their function practically overnight. In their pompous furnishings, they also no longer corresponded to the comparatively simple taste of the time. Nevertheless, the respect for the historical significance was too great to be adapted to the new style and thus robbed of its value - which happened not infrequently elsewhere in secular architecture; A good example of this is the demolition of the city's most important Gothic patrician house, the Great Stalburg on Kornmarkt, in 1789 . At least the council, a few years later the senate of the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt or the Free City of Frankfurt and after 1866 the magistrate finally saw the new room situation practically and after almost 400 years moved its meeting room from the Frauenrode house to the much more splendid electoral room.
The first decades of the 19th century were characterized by purely inventory-preserving measures such as repairs to roof trusses, masonry and floors or the removal of the last medieval remains such as the wooden shops in the Roman and Swan Hall. All this could not prevent the Roman's decline in the long run, however, as he was in the middle of the old town, which was suffering from its increasing loss of importance, which began above all with the decline of the Frankfurt trade fair and the creation of new, spacious living quarters in front of the now abandoned medieval ramparts . It is true that the violent political upheavals of the 19th century, through the French occupation , the role of the de facto capital of the German Confederation and the location of the first German parliament in 1848 were more of an advantage than a disadvantage due to skilful political action.
But at the latest the annexation by Prussia in 1866, which degraded Frankfurt to an independent provincial city, made it clear to the last that the old days of complete independence were finally over. Likewise, around 1870 the Roman, together with the old town, was a desolate sight (see picture), which hardly suggested that coronations of emperors were celebrated there less than 100 years earlier. It was not until the Wilhelmine Empire , together with nationalism as an intellectual movement and historicism in architecture and art, that efforts to seriously change something grew again.
Since the turn of the century, part of the city library was housed in the Kaisersaal. The Frankfurt historian Anton Kirchner complained in 1818: "Of course we now find the niches with the portraits of the emperors, from Konrad the First on, hidden behind high bookcases, a situation that will soon be remedied by a separate book room." Opened the city library and the holdings of the Kaisersaal had been given their new purpose, some damage from this misappropriation became apparent. It was therefore decided to renovate the building, initially estimated at 2,500 guilders, but in 1827 and 1828 only 1,920 guilders were actually needed. The work took place under the, for the time, astonishingly modern monument preservation principle of “keeping the historically memorable hall in its old state without creating a new work of art”. The floor made of red sandstone with floorboards was repaired, as was the woodwork of the Lambria. The 50 portraits of the emperors , which were painted busts in partly raised, partly only painted niches on the walls, were restored by the painters Michael Anton Fuetscher and Johann Daniel Schultze , two missing portraits of Emperors Leopold II and Franz II von Karl Thelott re-manufactured.
The hall remained in this condition for just under 10 years - on September 10, 1838, the Städelsche Kunstinstitut approached the city with the idea of replacing the painted portraits with framed oil paintings . Donors from all walks of life and even internationally were quickly found - from the Emperor of Austria to associations and artist societies to individual private individuals for the 52 pictures to be created; on July 5, 1842, the plans were finally approved by the city's senate. Parallel to the creation of the pictures, the last of which was completed in 1853, the Kaisersaal was also rebuilt again. In order to better accentuate the future pictures, the western windows of the room facing the courtyard were considerably enlarged, as were the windows facing the Römerberg; the dangerously sinking ceiling was repaired as well as the floor and large parts of the room were repainted and partially gilded. As early as April 1846, when all measures to change the room had been completed, but not all of the pictures had been inserted, general opening times were issued for the room, which underlined its increasingly museum-like character. The city spent around 15,000 guilders for all these measures, which brought the imperial hall as close as it is today, and the external donors of the pictures another 30,000 guilders.
In 1842, the Löwenstein house was supposed to be massively rebuilt in order to create new space, which the Permanent Citizens' Representation, however, refused - the acquisition of further houses for official purposes is preferable to conversions or even new buildings. In 1843, the Frauenstein town houses north of the Löwenstein house and the salt house came into municipal ownership. For the first one paid the owner Anna Philippina Menschel 30,000 guilders, for the latter the widowed Sara Catharina Lindheimer 32,000 guilders. Both houses were in a completely shabby condition at the time of purchase (see picture). However, since the dispute over the future of the Romers continued to smolder in the committees and deliberations, despite the use of the two acquisitions, the urgently needed renovation was not initially carried out. The ground floors were even rented out to private individuals, as evidenced by early photographs of the time through large advertising signs and address books.
In the 1860s, the time had come that almost the entire town hall was demolished in favor of a new building and only the ground floor halls of the Golden Swan and the Roman, as well as the Imperial Hall and the Elector's Room, were preserved. This time, the Senate refused to approve the radical plan , "because it would be incompatible with the unaltered preservation of those spaces which are of historical value not only for Frankfurt, but for the entire German fatherland, as dictated by piety." Due to the annexation by Prussia in 1866, which not only meant the end of the free city, but initially also reprisals and high reparation payments, all restoration efforts now fell asleep for almost 20 years.
Since the mid-1870s, the early days , which were mainly borne by the French reparations payments , also began in Frankfurt am Main. Probably with not inconsiderable support of these funds, the city acquired Alt-Limpurg , which borders the House of Römer to the south, as well as Silberberg to the west, for the high amount of 214,000 marks from the Alt-Limpurg estate. Thus, all five with the gable facing the Römerberg, as well as the six to the west of it, belonged to the town hall complex.
When in 1883 the Frankfurt city council moved their meeting room to the acquisition, the Alt-Limpurg house underwent major internal changes. While the rooms on the ground floor, also known as the sex room, were only restored and thus left in their old condition with magnificent stucco ceilings, the two floors above were combined and redesigned in neo-Renaissance forms . Together with various repairs, including the stair tower from 1627 on the western side of the courtyard (see picture), they spent almost 50,000 marks on it. Despite the now artistically appealing premises, the seat of the city council only remained there until 1919. The Frankfurt saying "Peace in the Limpurg House!", Which was still common well into the 20th century, lasted longer - as an allusion to the call to order when a discussion had once again become louder.
From the renovations under the Roman Construction Commission to the time of National Socialism (1885 to 1933)
A few years later, on June 24, 1885, under the chairmanship of Mayor Johannes Miquel , the Roman Construction Commission met for the first time, which was supposed to finally bring movement to the town hall's messy construction situation. The more well-known personalities of the 23-member committee included the founder and then director of the Historical Museum , Otto Cornill , the Frankfurt painter Carl Theodor Reiffenstein , the director of the School of Applied Arts Ferdinand Luthmer , the urban planning inspector Adolf Koch and the Frankfurt architects Alexander Linnemann , Ludwig Neher , Franz von Hoven , Oskar Sommer and Theodor Schmidt . As early as the beginning of 1886, contrary to some plans of the past decades, it was agreed that the greatest possible preservation of substance should be the main goal of all efforts.
After the painter Karl Julius Grätz had restored the paintings of the baroque imperial staircase that had been whitewashed almost 100 years earlier in 1885 and the substance of the same had been renovated, the urgently needed renovation of the Frauenstein and Salzhaus houses was started in 1887 and 1888 (see picture). Only fragments of the magnificent painting of the Frauenstein house from the 18th century could be made out on the facade, the salt house , which was completely decorated with oak carvings, showed subsidence and severe weather damage everywhere. The tried and tested Grätz, revealed during the renovation of the Imperial Staircase, made the painted parts of the façade completely new with modern mineral paints based on the remains . At the salt house, the damaged parts of the carved façade were cemented with a special wood paste and, where necessary, carved again. Likewise, the sandstone ground floors made of Main sandstone, contaminated with centuries-old oil paint, were cleaned and the beams and roofs of the essentially half-timbered buildings were renewed.
In the subsequent renovation of the half-timbered house in Wanebach in 1889, the majority of the joist layers were also replaced without changing their sequence, and the compartments, which were then lined with new bricks, were plastered; the roof was also improved so that its angle of incline was adapted to that of the surrounding Roman buildings. By 1891, the city building inspector Rügemer also removed the wall that separated the Roman guards of the Frauenrode and Goldener Schwan houses from the courtyard of the Silberberg and Alt-Limpurg houses. The stair tower belonging to the latter house has now been extended to the north in neo-renaissance forms in accordance with the new spatial conditions. For the amalgamation of the courtyards, 13,089 marks were spent, for the addition of the stair tower another 5,000 marks.
The original simple facade with Gothic stepped gables no longer met the aesthetic expectations and the need for representation of the citizens and could no longer compete nationally with the sometimes pompous new town hall buildings of the imperial era. For a long time there was disagreement in the Roman Building Commission as to which historical condition, if any, should be used as a guide for the restoration. In early 1889, for example, a competition was announced, the jury of which in October of the same year chose the design, simply called Dreigiebel , by the architect Max Meckel, who holds the office of diocesan master builder, and the painter Peter Becker .
The original winning design was incredibly rich in details, both in terms of filigree stone carving and painting of the facades (see picture). So he met the taste of the emperor, who noted on Meckel's sketch:
- “The design is great, elegant and artistically beautifully conceived and designed. It corresponds perfectly to the great traditional importance of the Roman and the beautiful city of Frankfurt. I can congratulate the latter when she erects such a noble monument to the emperors and herself. "
However, the Roman Construction Commission unanimously found this first version too overloaded and probably too expensive, so that Meckel was asked for several simplified revised drafts practically immediately after the competition decision. Meckel complied with the request by February 1890 (see picture), further deliberations within the commission followed, and in October 1891 the selected design with a cost estimate of 373,100 marks was presented to the city council for approval.
But this refused with reference to a lack of consideration for the historical character of the Roman, and a long dispute across politics and within the Roman Construction Commission ensued. Several more and more simplified drafts were necessary until in the last instance at the end of 1894 the responsible Berlin ministry also gave its approval for the implementation draft estimated at 186,000 marks. However, the design that was ultimately implemented was no longer approved by the emperor:
- "This design does not even remotely match the grandeur of the earlier one, and in no way corresponds to the house or the dignity of the city."
The design in the pure neo-Gothic style, which can still be seen today and was carried out between 1896 and 1900 under the construction management of the Frankfurt architect Claus Mehs , changed a few things despite the fact that the facade structure was ultimately retained compared to the original state and the iconographic program was greatly reduced compared to the original design . In addition to countless detail changes, the well-known balcony was added to the central Römer house, the stepped gables, window frames and portals on all houses were Gothicized and the renewed clock was given a rich pinnacle crown .
The iconographic design - which a commission appointed by Lord Mayor Adickes had drawn up, deviating from the original suggestions of Meckel - extended to the figure of Francofurtia in the southeast corner of the Alt-Limpurg house, the Frankfurt eagle under the top of the house to the Römer, the figures the emperors Friedrich I , Ludwig IV. , Karl IV. and Maximilian II. as well as the coats of arms of old Frankfurt patrician families on the balcony or from cities closely associated with Frankfurt in the Middle Ages below the windows of the Löwenstein house. A competition was announced for the design and decoration of the Ratskeller, which Joseph Kaspar Correggio won; the work was carried out between 1904 and 1905 and has largely been preserved to this day.
Meckel's work, however, extended not only to the well-known three-gable facade, but also to a redesign of the Kaisersaal, another change in the assembly room of the city councilors in the Alt-Limpurg house and the uncovering of the half-timbered houses of the Silberberg house. Despite the renovations in the middle of the 19th century, the Imperial Hall had retained remnants of its original, actually "imperial" furnishings such as the baroque entrance doors to the Kurfürstenzimmer and the Imperial Staircase, which were now also a victim of a stylistic adjustment.
new town hall
The most far-reaching of all construction measures, the construction of the New Town Hall, was only finally sealed by a resolution of the city council on April 24, 1900, after long previous consultations in the Roman Construction Commission, which approved funds of around 5.5 million marks. It was preceded by a competition in 1897 that selected a combination of designs by Frankfurt architects Franz von Hoven and Ludwig Neher as the winner.
In 1898, the extension of Bethmannstrasse from the Großer Hirschgraben was broken through the adjacent blocks to the west and brought up to the intersection of these with the Großer Kornmarkt and Buchgasse . Now several dozen houses (19 pieces of land were officially bought for around 2.8 million marks) as well as the three westernmost parts of the town hall, Frauenrode with the medieval archive tower, Viole and Schwarzenfels, fell victim to the wrecking ball to make room for the new town hall . The streets of Römergasse, Kälbergasse and Hinter dem Römer that separated the demolished buildings were completely abandoned, while Limpurger Gasse , which once only reached to the rear of the Klein-Limpurg house , led along the new building to Buchgasse (see map).
The new Bürgersaal building with the Ratskeller on the ground floor was built on the parcel of Frauenrode, to the west and south of it, bounded by Buch- and Limpurger Gasse, the simply titled south-facing building with two towers, to the north of which the correspondingly titled north-building between Großer Kornmarkt, Barfüßergasse and Paulsplatz . The north and south building were connected with a bridge, which the Frankfurt citizens, who paid their taxes in the north building, gave the name Bridge of Sighs , based on the Venetian original , because of the high taxes .
The two towers of the southern building were also given nicknames: The large one was named after the tall Lord Mayor Langer Franz and the small one after a contemporary hit, Kleiner Cohn . The exterior of the large town hall tower was created as a copy of the Sachsenhausen bridge tower , which was demolished in 1769 , and the smaller one as a copy of the famous Salmenstein house ; this was built around 1350 on the medieval city wall in the area of today's Wollgraben / Börneplatz. The other new buildings were also architecturally influenced by historicism: while the south building and the Ratskeller were built in the neo-Gothic style and the civil hall building above was in the neo-renaissance style, the north building was more influenced by neo-baroque forms. The interior was no less splendid and, like the exterior, included original parts from the previously demolished old town hall parts and private buildings, especially the Clesernhof , which were considered valuable . Frankfurt artists adorned the facades with over 500 sculptures, mostly allegorical depictions of traditional virtues and activities in the city of Frankfurt.
The Römerhöfchen now reached a picturesque final state - the east side with the stair tower at the Alt-Limpurg house had been vacant since 1891, as described above, and since 1900 the south side had been restored to its original state through the half-timbered exposure or addition to the Silberberg house . In 1904 a fountain with a Hercules figure , donated by Gustav D. Manskopf and created by Joseph Kowarzik , as well as a renewed and painted west or north-west side, which resulted from the new building of the town hall, was added. The western stair tower, which dates from the 16th century, was preserved, renovated and fitted with a clock. Only the south facade of the golden swan facing the courtyard with the windows of the elector's room and the sundial above remained in their old, baroque condition.
While in 1883 the genealogical room on the ground floor of the Alt-Limpurg house was left in its traditional, practically medieval state, in 1908 there was little respect for the traditional character here, too, in view of the huge renovations that had already been carried out, and here, too, idealization was carried out Redesign that left little of the original substance.
After the magistrate had moved from the electoral room to the specially built meeting room on the second floor of the southern building of the town hall, the city council continued to meet in its traditional meeting room in the Alt-Limpurg building. When the number of city councilors increased significantly in 1919 as a result of changes in the law, this had become too small, and people switched to the citizens' hall, which with around 150 seats offered enough space for the people's representatives.
National Socialism and the Destruction in World War II (1933 to 1945)
After the National Socialist seizure of power , the new Prussian municipal constitution, adopted on December 15, 1933, eliminated the municipal system of mayor and mayor, magistrate and city council that had been in effect since 1867 within a very short time. According to the now prevailing Führer principle , the city council no longer existed, which was already mandatory against the background of the ban on practically all political parties except the NSDAP , the magistrate now largely consisted of hand-picked colleagues from the staunch National Socialist and Lord Mayor Friedrich Krebs .
As a result, the historicist citizens' hall of the city council remained only a facade from 1933 - in the same year a bust of Hitler was erected in it and swastika flags were unfurled on the walls. In 1938, on the occasion of a visit by Adolf Hitler , all the furniture that had been reminiscent of its former function disappeared from the hall. The DC circuit unsuccessful literature from the same year founded this by saying that the "Bürgersaal its original purpose for [...] the ballroom of the city" was. Apart from the inauguration of a memorial in 1936 for the 980 city administration employees who died in the First World War, little was otherwise changed in those years . Even when personalities from the National Socialist leadership ranks were visited, the magnificent and historically significant interiors of the Roman were mostly not on the schedule, as the memories they preserved of the time of the emperors and a bourgeois past had little in common with the aspired national leader state.
During the Second World War , it quickly became apparent that Frankfurt would become a target for air raids. However, since the Roman's most significant art-historical values were immobile, only a fraction could be secured by outsourcing: the portraits of the emperors in the emperor's hall were all removed, as well as the carved wooden paneling of the salt house, which, however, was only possible in part, as many carved parts were carrying parts of the half-timbered house. As part of the secret “Führer mandate for color photography”, the Reich Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda issued a list of monuments across Germany that were considered valuable in 1943, whose frescoes and stucco work were to be recorded with early Agfacolor color films within a very short time . In the Römer, this also included most of the works by Baptist Innocenz Colomba and Christian Leimberger, which the renowned Frankfurt photographer Paul Wolff documented in the same year.
The first heavy attack hit the city on October 4, 1943, but only damaged a few roofs on the Römer. The fateful hour of Frankfurt only struck six months later, when a major attack on the night of March 22, 1944 destroyed practically the entire old town and unleashed a huge firestorm that was still visible for more than 100 kilometers. According to a damage plan from the same year (see picture), the town hall complex was hit directly by four heavy explosive bombs , countless incendiary bombs ignited the damaged roofs, and large-scale fires from the burning old town did the rest.
All lattice constructions, d. H. the houses in Frauenstein, Salzhaus, Wanebach and Silberberg burned down completely, the pure stone buildings Alt-Limpurg, Löwenstein, Römer and Goldener Schwan completely burned out inside. Due to the lack of internal stability, the gable of the Römer house also collapsed to the level of the window front of the balcony. The art-historically painful total loss of interior furnishings included the gender room in the Alt-Limpurg house, the imperial staircase, the imperial hall, the elector's room and its anteroom with rotunda.
The historical additions, on the other hand, were mostly only damaged in the roofs and on the upper floors. The sandstone ground floors of the three half-timbered houses, the surrounding walls of the four stone buildings, the massive vaults of the Roman and Swan Hall in the houses of the same name and the Renaissance stair tower in the otherwise completely devastated Roman courtyard have also largely been preserved.
Reconstruction and the present (1945 to today)
In 1945, immediately after the end of the war, emergency roofs made of round wood, sometimes even from flagpoles due to a lack of material, were put in over the ruins to protect them from further exposure to the weather. In 1947, the comparatively slightly damaged historicist south-facing building was given a massive flat cement roof, and at the same time security measures began on the facades of the burned-out houses, some of which were completely exposed to the street, as they threatened to topple over due to a lack of internal stability. A year later, the north building was largely repaired using a flat roof, in keeping with the inauguration of the Paulskirche, which had also been rebuilt, as was the new roof structure of the citizen hall building, which, apart from the historicist roof turret, was restored to its old form.
After completing the above-mentioned basic security work, in the summer of 1950 the magistrate commissioned the building management with the interior fittings and work on the part facing the Römerberg, which was much more problematic from an art-historical point of view, because it was really historical and also almost completely destroyed. According to the proposal of the then building construction department head Wolf , only the extension of the southern building of the town hall was carried out by the building administration itself, but the rest of the project planning was put out to tender. This was already done explicitly with the aim of finding modern architectural solutions for the reconstruction and not aiming for a complete reconstruction.
The plans of the architectural community of Otto Apel , Rudolf Letocha , William Rohrer and Martin Herdt , who were ultimately given preference from five different designs, were characterized above all by the fact that the buildings were internally combined into a single complex during the reconstruction, and in the civil hall construction in the To move an additional floor in the area of the former citizens' hall. On the one hand, this should put an end to the confusion of gears inside the town hall, which has been notorious for centuries, due to the combination of architecturally completely different buildings. At the beginning of the 19th century, Anton Kirchner found “stairs, forecourts, halls and rooms in a rather labyrinthine mix”.
Furthermore, the additional floor in the Citizens' Hall building should be able to accommodate the magistrate and city council in one place. A real discourse broke out between the citizens, the press, politics and architects, on the other hand, about the restoration of the Frauenstein, Wanebach and Salzhaus houses. The stone, richly decorated ground floors of all buildings were still there, in the case of the salt house not inconsiderable parts of the carved facade were saved, the sources of the facade paintings are comparatively good due to the restoration work that had only been carried out a few decades ago.
On the other hand, there was a body of architects and also large parts of politics that were hostile to historicisms of any kind, and there was still a great shortage of materials and finance. The majority of the initially submitted designs envisaged cubist buildings that corresponded to the taste of the time and could be built cheaply , but politicians decided against them as early as January 1951 in favor of gabled buildings in order to maintain the symmetry of the appearance towards the Römerberg.
The dispute over a true-to-original reconstruction, especially of the salt house, lasted until May 1951, when the entire project was finally approved by the city council after a few changes. The compromise was ultimately the reinforced concrete buildings with limestone cladding and glass mosaics , which can still be seen today and which were unusually rich for the time, and which included parts of the salvaged carved facade of the salt house.
In 1952, the reconstruction work was essentially complete. The houses Römer, Goldener Schwan, Löwenstein and Alt-Limpurg were restored externally unchanged; this was partly done, however, by changing the historical floor plan and using modern window and roof shapes. The burned half-timbered upper storeys of the Silberberg house were replaced by a stone structure on the largely undamaged ground floor, but in contrast to the solutions for the Salzhaus and Frauenstein house, it was built in purely functional forms.
The interiors have also been redesigned. The values of transparency and modesty were placed in the foreground. This can be seen particularly well from the stairs in Haus Löwenstein or the new Wanebachhöfchen. The imperial hall was restored in a simplified form, including the saved portrait panels of the German emperors; the restoration of totally destroyed rooms such as the elector's room was dispensed with despite the salvation of large parts of the furniture and many individual works of art. Apart from the joint accommodation of the magistrate and city council assembly in the Bürgersaalbau, only little changed internally from the uses. In 1955 the Römers was reopened by the then Federal President Theodor Heuss .
Overall, the reconstruction work is to be seen largely as exemplary against the background of the financial hardship, the shortage of materials, and the short time in which they were carried out. While other cities completely gave up their historic town halls, sometimes with similar degrees of destruction, through the symbiosis of reconstruction and new buildings, Frankfurt has managed to preserve the historical character of the monument, which is so important not only for the city's history and the image of the Römerberg, at least externally.
However, the roof landscape of the new town hall buildings and in particular the two associated towers, which have not been restored to this day, must be viewed critically, which makes them look strangely capped at second glance. For some time now, the Friends of Frankfurt have had the project on their agenda to reconstruct the roof structures of the Kleiner Cohn and Langer Franz towers, and are collecting donations for this. The question of the use of the salt house facade, of which considerably larger parts were rescued in 1943 and are awaiting use in the urban lapidary than can be seen in the post-war building today, has not yet been resolved .
The facade of the Römerberg has been renewed twice in the last few decades: in 1974 and 2005 it largely regained its neo-Gothic appearance from 1900, only the canopy over the clock of the Römer house, which was destroyed in the war, has not been replaced to this day. Inside, too, a lot changed, so in 1988 the converted hall of the city council was completed.
Today, the Römer is not a museum, despite the regular flow of tourists to the Imperial Hall, but is used by the city in a variety of ways. The vast majority of the interior is used by the municipal administration; The canteen in the historic Ratskeller, initially intended for its employees, has been open to the public again for several years since it was privatized. The Lord Mayor and Mayor have their offices on the upper floors of the Golden Swan, where Frankfurt city leaders have been sitting since 1405. A popular registry office is also housed in the Römer; the wedding halls are on the first and second floors of the Löwenstein house. An information center for tourists is located on the ground floor of the salt house.
The entire three-storey building complex covers an area of around 10,000 m² and today consists of nine connected houses that enclose six inner courtyards. The facade with today's main entrance is on the Römerberg . Other surrounding streets are Limpurgergasse in the south, Buchgasse and Berliner Straße in the north. Bethmannstrasse divides the south building from the north building.
The famous three-gable front reflects the history of the city and the empire . On the left edge of Alt-Limpurg (formerly the Laderam house owned by Hartrad ) you can see the Francofurtia , the female embodiment of the city. The middle Römer house shows four emperors , two city coats of arms, a clock face and a board with the most important information about the house. The four emperors are in detail: Friedrich Barbarossa , the first king elected in Frankfurt (1152), Ludwig the Bavarian , who extended the fair rights of the city (1330) and allowed it to expand the city (1333), Charles IV. , Who in the Golden Bulle established Frankfurt as the place of election (1356) and Maximilian II , the first ruler to be crowned in Frankfurt Cathedral (1562). Finally, the right gable belongs to the Löwenstein house .
Like the neo-Gothic facade, the balcony was only added after the renovation in 1900. He replaced some wooden canopies, called pint . The balcony is used today as it was then as a representative stage for state visits and the like. For example, in 2003 the women’s world champions appeared and in 2002 the men’s’s vice world champions.
A different approach was taken after the Second World War with the facade design of the two northeastern houses, Frauenstein and Salzhaus , which were almost completely destroyed in 1944 . The architects designed a modern facade while maintaining the historical standards and building volumes . They accepted the irreversible downfall of the historic old town and decided to make a conscious new beginning. As a sign of this, the mosaic of the phoenix rises from the ashes . Three of the salvaged relief panels of the salt house were incorporated into the facade and show the viewer the loss.
Since Frankfurt is the seat of the German Football Association , the balcony of the Römer became the place where the national football teams of men and women present themselves to the fans after their return from successful tournaments (1st to 3rd place). In 2006 the men's team celebrated for the first time in Berlin. The local football clubs Eintracht Frankfurt , FSV Frankfurt and FFC Frankfurt always celebrate their triumphs on the balcony.
Courtyards and rooms
Roman and Swan Hall
These two halls are the oldest remaining rooms in the building complex. They remained almost unchanged in 600 years. Already at the Easter fair of 1415 a flag was put on each of the two doors to Römerberg and Paulsplatz to indicate that goods were being offered for sale in the halls. For centuries the halls were used to sell trade fair goods , and the last booth was only removed in 1846. Goldsmiths and silversmiths in particular offered their goods under this vault . They were also used in this way shortly after the Second World War , as the massive halls survived the war almost undamaged. The two halls are located on the ground floor of the Römer and Goldener Schwan houses and can now be reached directly via the main entrance on the Römerberg .
Probably the most famous hall of the Römer is located above the Römerhalle on the second floor. Coronation banquets after the election of the emperor took place here in the Holy Roman Empire since 1612 . Today the Kaisersaal is especially famous for the pictures of all 52 emperors of the Holy Roman Empire . It is the only collection of its kind. The beginnings of the Frankfurt Kaisersaal go back to the 15th century. In 1711 the hall was decorated with painted busts of the German emperors in the form of bronze-colored busts on pedestals. At least since then, it has been called the Imperial Hall.
After it had served as a depot for the Frankfurt City Library for a long time, the Kaisersaal in Römer in 1825 was in dire need of repair. The bronze portraits of the emperors were still to be found in the pointed arch-shaped niches. The magistrate approved 2500 guilders for the renovation of the hall. The missing portraits of Emperors Leopold II and Franz II were added in color.
A few years later, the administration of the Städelsche Kunstinstitut made the imperial hall a "patriotic" concern. On September 10, 1838, she proposed that the hall be furnished with new portraits to be painted. The Senate of the Free City of Frankfurt approved this proposal. The future portraits of the emperors should correspond to the real appearance of the rulers. The best painters of the time were commissioned with the execution. The 51 portraits were to be financed by donors.
In fact, it was possible to get private individuals, princes, civil associations, city foundations and groups interested in the company. The most important donor was the Austrian imperial family with nine pictures. A little more than half of the pictures were paid for by Frankfurt people and institutions. By January 1841, 22 portraits had already been displayed. The other pictures followed at longer intervals, until the Kaisergalerie in the Kaisersaal was completed in 1853 with the picture of Charlemagne by Philipp Veit.
The portraits go from Charlemagne to Franz II . All emperors except for the Carolingians are represented in roughly life-size full figures; the pictures have a height of approx. 280 cm and a width of approx. 80 cm. With the exception of the first version by Ludwig IV , the Bavarian, the paintings are part of the inventory of the Frankfurt Historical Museum . A special feature is the double portrait with Arnulf von Kärnten (887–899) and his son Ludwig IV. , The child (900–911). The four kings of the interregnum, i.e. Conrad IV , William of Holland , Richard of Cornwall and Alfonso X of Castile , were not included in the Imperial Gallery. On the other hand, the anti-king Günther von Schwarzburg is a member of the gallery, probably because he is the only ruler buried in Frankfurt. Initially, only the name of the emperor was entered in the base field. Later, emperors' slogans and currencies were painted on the section by another hand.
The pictures, their painters and their donors
- Heinrich IV. Painter: Otto Mengelberg , Historical Museum Frankfurt . Abb Kaisermacher p. 292. First version, rejected by the Imperial Hall Commission. It shows the grief-stricken ruler, bowed by the Pope. The second version, created in 1845, emphasizes the powerful ruler. His left foot steps on a shield with the names of the opposing kings he defeated.
- Ludwig IV., The Bavarian. Painter: Karl Ballenberger . Private. First version, rejected by the founder because his ancestor was only depicted as a royal knight, but not as a splendid ruler. The model was the depiction of Ludwig IV, Bavaria, on a sandstone relief from the Mainz electoral cycle on the front battlements of the Mainz department store "Am Brand", created around 1332. The original reliefs are in the Mainz State Museum .
- Wenzel: The portrait of Wenceslas was the third attempt. The representation as a hunter as a worthy substitute form of the ruler. The first and second versions no longer have to be proven.
- Maximilian I. Painter: Johann Franz Brentano . Historisches Museum Frankfurt , illustration Museum Giersch, p. 35. First version, probably rejected by the donors. An emperor is shown as a knight in gold armor with a red cloak. The donors were probably dissatisfied with this representation. After Brentano's death in 1841 they commissioned Alfred Rethel to make a second version. He had already dealt with Emperor Maximilian in earlier works.
- Rudolf II. Painter: Karl Hemerlein , Historical Museum Frankfurt , cf. Museum Giersch, p. 60 note 121.
- Joseph II. Painter: Moritz Daniel Oppenheim , Historical Museum Frankfurt. Figure Museum Giersch, p. 39; Kaisermacher p. 292. First version, rejected by the founder or the Kaisersaal committee. The depiction of the emperor in courtly clothes with ruler's insignia emphasizes the monarchical principle. The picture of the Kaisersaal on display shows the emperor in civil garb.
- Germanistenag , 1846
- Architects & Engineers Association (Ed.): Frankfurt am Main and its buildings . Self-published by the association, Frankfurt am Main 1886, p. 28-33, 58, 59, 65, 67 ( archive.org ).
- Otto Donner von Richter : The Fyoll family of painters and the Roman building. In: Archive for Frankfurt's History and Art. K. Th. Völckers Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1896.
- Georg Hartmann , Fried Lübbecke : Old Frankfurt. A legacy. Sauer and Auvermann publishing house, Glashütten 1971.
- Gustav Ide: The guide through the Roman. Leo Heß, Frankfurt am Main 1938. ( ).
- Hermann Meinert , Theo Derlam: The Frankfurt City Hall. Its history and its reconstruction. Waldemar Kramer publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1952, .
- Hans Pehl: Emperors and Kings in the Romans. The Frankfurt City Hall and its surroundings. Verlag Josef Knecht, Frankfurt 1980, ISBN 3-7820-0455-8 .
- Walter Sage: The community center in Frankfurt a. M. until the end of the Thirty Years War. Wasmuth, Tübingen 1959, , pp. 27, 28, 93-99, 104. ( Das Deutsche Bürgerhaus 2).
- Wolf-Christian Setzepfandt : Architecture Guide Frankfurt am Main / Architectural Guide . 3. Edition. Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-496-01236-6 , p. 6 (German, English).
- Hermann Traut: The Römer and the new town hall buildings in Frankfurt a. M. 3rd edition. Römerverlag, Frankfurt am Main 1924, .
- Carl Wolff , Rudolf Jung : The architectural monuments in Frankfurt am Main . Second volume. Secular buildings. Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 131–258 ( digital copy [PDF]).
- Werner Wolf-Holzäpfel: The architect Max Meckel (1847–1910). Kunstverlag Josef Fink, Lindenberg 2000, ISBN 3-933784-62-X , pp. 129–146.
- Albert Schott, Karl Hagen: The German Emperors. Engraved in copper and executed in colors based on the pictures of the Kaiser-Saal in the Römer in Frankfurt am Main. With the life descriptions of the emperors. Frankfurt 1847.
- Johann Philipp Benkard, overview of the history of the German emperors and kings. To the pictures of the Kaisersaal. Frankfurt.
- Heinrich Keller (publisher), The German Emperors based on the pictures of the Kaisersaal in the Römer in Frankfurt am Main. With the motto of the emperors in Latin and German, an overview of the images of the emperors, along with details of the painters and donors. Frankfurt without a year (approx. 1890).
- Hans Pehl: Emperors and Kings in the Romans. Frankfurt's town hall and its surroundings. Frankfurt 1980.
- Heinz Schomann : Kaisergalerie - The portraits of the rulers of the Kaisersaal in Frankfurt's Römer. Dortmund 1981.
- August Gräser: The Imperial Hall in the Römer in Frankfurt. Frankfurt 1981. ISBN 3-7829-0179-7 .
- Jürgen Steen: Identities. From the electoral and coronation city to the secret capital in the 19th and 20th centuries. In: The Emperor Makers. Catalog Historisches Museum Frankfurt , Frankfurt 2006, pp. 270–331.
- Alexander Bastek (editor), Museum Giersch (ed.): The Kaisergalerie in the Frankfurter Römer. Imhof, Petersberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-86568-297-0 , ISBN 3-935283-15-6 (museum edition ).
- Nicolas Wolz, The German Emperors in the Frankfurter Römer, from Charlemagne to Franz II. Societäts-Verlag, Frankfurt 2009, ISBN 978-3-7973-1126-9 .
- Der Römer at par.frankfurt.de , the former website of the city of Frankfurt am Main with exterior and interior views
- The Roman. altfrankfurt.com
- The Römer - More than a town hall. (PDF; 1.1 MB) Press and Information Office of the City of Frankfurt am Main, February 2006, archived from the original on January 31, 2017 ; accessed on December 11, 2018 .
- Heinz Schomann : The Frankfurt Roman. (PDF, 11 MB) Monument Office of the City of Frankfurt am Main, 1997, accessed on December 11, 2018 .
- Color slide archive - color photos of the Roman by Paul Wolff from 1943
- Why is the Roman called "Römer"? at par.frankfurt.de , the former website of the city of Frankfurt am Main
- Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: The architectural monuments of Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 133; The aforementioned work contains on pp. 131–258 the most important historical and architectural monograph there is on the Romans and the neighboring buildings. Despite some inaccuracies uncovered by later research, it was still possible to draw on the entire wealth of the Frankfurt City Archives, which suffered heavy losses in the Second World War. These files, which have been lost today but are widely used for the work, include master builders, arithmetic masters and bed books as well as practically all archival documents of the building office or building deputation.
- in full length by Johann Friedrich Boehmer, Friedrich Lau: Urkundenbuch der Reichsstadt Frankfurt. J. Baer & Co, Frankfurt am Main 1901–1905, Volume I, pp. 262, 263, Certificate No. 544, May 25, 1288
- in full length by Johann Friedrich Boehmer, Friedrich Lau: Urkundenbuch der Reichsstadt Frankfurt. J. Baer & Co, Frankfurt am Main 1901–1905, Volume II, p. 260, Certificate No. 349, June 20, 1329
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 139.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 141.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 134, 135; It is, however, information from the chronicle of Lersner, which should be read critically in view of the historical scientific standards in the 18th century, full title: Achilles Augustus von Lersner: The widely-famous Freyen Imperial, Elective and Trade City Franckfurt am Main Chronica , or Ordinary description of the city of Franckfurt Origin and recording . Self-published, Frankfurt am Main 1706; according to this, the lay judge's court met in the old town hall in 1407; the record of the jury's court from January 28, 1408 would have mentioned the new town hall for the first time .
- in the Second World War, but mostly as a basis for Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898 used and printed in larger excerpts by Johann Georg Battonn: Local description of the city of Frankfurt am Main - Volume IV. Association for history and antiquity in Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main 1866, pp. 142–161 , 315-318, 331-334.
- Otto Donner-von-Richter: The Fyoll family of painters and the Roman building. In: Archive for Frankfurt's History and Art . K. Th. Völckers Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1896, pp. 92-94.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 142, 144.
- Walther Karl Zülch: Frankfurter Künstler 1223–1700. Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main 1935 ( publications of the Historical Commission of the City of Frankfurt am Main 10), pp. 61, 62.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 143.
- Johann Georg Battonn: Local description of the city of Frankfurt am Main - Volume IV. Association for History and Antiquity to Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main 1866, p. 151, excerpt from the arithmetic master book of 1414: "It xiiij (pound symbol) xii (shilling symbol) 1 hllr. han we received as in the first fasting mass from the kremers and others in the Romer fell, when one had sold many feet for 1 (shilling symbol). "
- Johann Georg Battonn: Slave Narratives Frankfurt - Volume IV. Society for History and antiquities at Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main 1866, p 156, excerpt from the Rechenmeister book of 1477: "It xij . Fl we han give Conrat Fyole painters from the upper council. ”; In the arithmetic master's book, however, there was literal reference to the “upper arithmetic room”, but since such a room is not mentioned a second time, Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Selbstverlag / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 148 based on a mistake by the writer at the time.
- See Walther Karl Zülch: Frankfurter Künstler 1223–1700. Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main 1935 ( publications of the Historical Commission of the City of Frankfurt am Main 10), p. 143.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 147.
- See Walther Karl Zülch: Frankfurter Künstler 1223–1700. Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main 1935 ( publications of the Historical Commission of the City of Frankfurt am Main 10), p. 391; According to Zülch, the artistic quality of the copies is too low to ascribe them to Johann Vetter, he speaks of a "student-like repetition". The monogram HF that can be seen in the book of arms also refers to the restoring Hans Fyoll, but not to Vetter, as he never spelled himself with an F.
- Complete color print from Konrad Bund: Finding aid of the epitaph books (1238) -1928 and the heraldic books (1190) -1801. Waldemar Kramer publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1987
- Certificate in the Institute for Urban History Frankfurt am Main, inventory of house documents, signature 1.760
- Johann Georg Battonn: Slave Narratives Frankfurt - Volume IV. Society for History and antiquities at Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main 1866, p 316, excerpt from the book by Rechenmeister 1426: "It ij c. We gave it to the foundation to our Frauenberge in Frankenford, when we bought the Gesetz Frauenrode with its accessories according to Lude's letter about it. "
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 246, 247.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 247, 248.
- Georg Ludwig Kriegk: History of Frankfurt am Main in selected representations. Heyder and Zimmer, Frankfurt am Main 1871, pp. 195–197.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 247.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 145.
- Johann Georg Battonn: Slave Narratives Frankfurt - Volume IV. Society for History and antiquities at Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main 1866, p 154, excerpt from the book by Rechenmeister 1441: "It. i (pound symbol) xiij (shilling symbol) vur LXXiij fenedische (colored?) Schyben and zu machin to a lamp in the Rathhuss. It. XI (Schilling symbol) hllr. To put cellar hens for X (pound symbol) large lamp in the lamp above to the Romer when the gentlemen were there. "
- See Walther Karl Zülch: Frankfurter Künstler 1223–1700. Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main 1935 ( publications of the Historical Commission of the City of Frankfurt am Main 10), pp. 91, 118–120, 148, 145, 175
- See Walther Karl Zülch: Frankfurter Künstler 1223–1700. Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main 1935 ( publications of the Historical Commission of the City of Frankfurt am Main 10), pp. 175–177; Here you can find almost the complete cost accounting including details of the artists involved in the construction from 1483 in the original wording, the arithmetic master book was burned in 1944.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 145; the description here is more detailed than that of Zülch's works published 30 years later (Walther Karl Zülch: Frankfurter Künstler 1223–1700. Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main 1935 ( Publications of the Historical Commission of the City of Frankfurt am Main 10)), where only the cost calculation is in the original wording is reproduced, but with regard to the names and number of artists involved, it is out of date and therefore imprecise.
- Konrad Bund: Frankfurt am Main in the late Middle Ages 1311-1519 , in: Frankfurter Historical Commission (ed.): Frankfurt am Main - The history of the city in nine articles. (= Publications of the Frankfurt Historical Commission . Volume XVII ). Jan Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1991, ISBN 3-7995-4158-6 . , P. 66.
- Certificate in the Institute for Urban History Frankfurt am Main, collection of house documents, signature 1.771
- Johann Georg Battonn: Slave Narratives Frankfurt - Volume IV. Society for History and antiquities at Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main 1866, p 334, excerpt from the book Rechenmeister of 1510: "It. Jacob Heller Schöffe give 50 fl. Hait, the council to Sture, to whose council Lyberye hinden next to the Roman in the hat to the viola, so the council buys hait (Sexta fer. Post purificationem Marie). "
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 254.
- Hermann Traut: The Römer and the new town hall buildings in Frankfurt a. M. Römerverlag, Frankfurt am Main 1922; P. 30.
- Certificate in the Institute for Urban History Frankfurt am Main, inventory of house documents for J153b
- Document in the Institute for Urban History Frankfurt am Main, inventory of house documents, signature 1,754 and inventory Alten-Limpurg, signature 332
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 257.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 149.
- Hermann Traut: The Römer and the new town hall buildings in Frankfurt a. M. Römerverlag, Frankfurt am Main 1922; P. 54.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Selbstverlag / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 150–152; there is also a (non-exhaustive) list of the paintings to be seen in the Römer.
- Certificate in the Institute for Urban History Frankfurt am Main, collection of house documents, signature 1.806
- Otto Donner-von-Richter: The Fyoll family of painters and the Roman building. In: Archive for Frankfurt's History and Art . K. Th. Völckers Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1896, pp. 110, 111.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 152, 207, 208.
- Otto Donner-von-Richter: The Fyoll family of painters and the Roman building. In: Archive for Frankfurt's History and Art . K. Th. Völckers Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1896, on pp. 109, 110 there are larger excerpts from the room calculations lost today.
- Otto Donner-von-Richter: The Fyoll family of painters and the Roman building. In: Archive for Frankfurt's History and Art . K. Th. Völckers Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1896, p. 103: Lersner II, I, p. 124: “In 1612 in the Martino, the Roman was vaulted on top with boards and gambled with Krodischcken work until the end of April. "- Construction invoice from 1612 under common expenses:" Item 11th July 1612 one zalt Johann Hofmann painters for all kinds of color fortune labels, so used on the Sahll and in the sky (canopy), fl. 35. "
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 153.
- See Walther Karl Zülch: Frankfurter Künstler 1223–1700. Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main 1935 ( publications of the Historical Commission of the City of Frankfurt am Main 10), pp. 175, 517, 531.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Selbstverlag / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 153–155; Since a detailed description of the work was inserted into the button of a gable of the canopy, which was rediscovered when it was demolished in 1791, the structural redesign of those years is very well documented regardless of archival sources.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 155, 156.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 156.
- See Walther Karl Zülch: Frankfurter Künstler 1223–1700. Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main 1935 ( publications of the Historical Commission of the City of Frankfurt am Main 10), p. 579 and Heinrich Sebastian Hüsgen: Artistisches Magazin. Bayrhoffer, Frankfurt am Main 1790, p. 576.
- See Georg Ludwig Kriegk: History of Frankfurt am Main in selected representations. Heyder and Zimmer, Frankfurt am Main 1871, pp. 197, 200; Kriegk, who as a city archivist was quite credible, spoke of such a gallery from around 1600 at the latest , but without naming its sources.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 160.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 248.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 161–165.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 167.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 168.
- Anton Kirchner: Views of Frankfurt am Main, the surrounding area and the neighboring healing springs. First part, Friedrich Wilmans , Frankfurt am Main, 1818, p. 68.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 169, 170.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 170–178.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 179, 180.
- Purchase contract in the Institute for Urban History Frankfurt am Main, inventory of house documents, signature 1.833
- Purchase contract at the Institute for Urban History in Frankfurt am Main, inventory of house documents, signature 1.795
- For example, according to the address book from 1877, a mirror factory and gold molding was located in the Frauenstein house, and a store for wood and toys in the Salzhaus .
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Selbstverlag / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 180, 181; The report on the structural value of the Roman from 1862, which is printed in extracts, is historically interesting: “If [...] conditions arise that call for the demolition of the Roman facade, then this is a completely natural matter; for nobody will claim that the outer Roman building offers any architecturally or artistically interesting details. In this respect only the Roman halls are valuable [...] "
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 215.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 217, 218.
- Hans Pehl: Emperors and Kings in the Romans. The Frankfurt City Hall and its surroundings. Verlag Josef Knecht, Frankfurt 1980, ISBN 3-7820-0455-8 , p. 42.
- See Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 181.
- Werner Wolf-Holzäpfel: The architect Max Meckel (1847-1910). Kunstverlag Josef Fink, Lindenberg 2000, p. 131; The aforementioned work is the only complete monograph on the historicist transformation of the Roman, as the important contemporary one by Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Selbstverlag / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main was printed in 1898 amid ongoing construction activities in 1898.
- After the report on the restoration work at Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 188–192.
- After the report on the restoration work at Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Selbstverlag / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 236–239 (Haus Frauenstein) and pp. 244, 245 (Salzhaus).
- After the report on the restoration work at Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, p. 213.
- After the report on the restoration work at Carl Wolff, Rudolf Jung: Die Baudenkmäler von Frankfurt am Main. Volume 2: Secular Buildings. Self-published / Völcker, Frankfurt am Main 1898, pp. 218, 219.
- See Werner Wolf-Holzäpfel: The architect Max Meckel (1847-1910). Kunstverlag Josef Fink, Lindenberg 2000, pp. 131, 132.
- See Werner Wolf-Holzäpfel: The architect Max Meckel (1847-1910). Kunstverlag Josef Fink, Lindenberg 2000, p. 138.
- See Werner Wolf-Holzäpfel: The architect Max Meckel (1847-1910). Kunstverlag Josef Fink, Lindenberg 2000, p. 140.
- See Werner Wolf-Holzäpfel: The architect Max Meckel (1847-1910). Kunstverlag Josef Fink, Lindenberg 2000, p. 141.
- See Werner Wolf-Holzäpfel: The architect Max Meckel (1847-1910). Kunstverlag Josef Fink, Lindenberg 2000, p. 143.
- See Hermann Traut: The Römer and the new town hall buildings in Frankfurt a. M. Römerverlag, Frankfurt am Main 1922, pp. 66-69.
- See Hermann Traut: The Römer and the new town hall buildings in Frankfurt a. M. Römerverlag, Frankfurt am Main 1922, pp. 31, 32.
- Heinz Schomann : The old town hall. (PDF. 1.1 MB) Monument Office of the City of Frankfurt am Main, 1996, accessed on December 11, 2018 .
- See Hermann Traut: The Römer and the new town hall buildings in Frankfurt a. M. Römerverlag, Frankfurt am Main 1922, pp. 52-55.
- See Hermann Traut: The Römer and the new town hall buildings in Frankfurt a. M. Römerverlag, Frankfurt am Main 1922, pp. 57-63.
- See Hermann Traut: The Römer and the new town hall buildings in Frankfurt a. M. Römerverlag, Frankfurt am Main 1922, p. 86.
- See Gustav Ide: Der Führer durch den Römer. Leo Heß, Frankfurt am Main 1938, p. 23.
- See Gustav Ide: Der Führer durch den Römer. Leo Heß, Frankfurt am Main 1938, p. 32.
- Description of the war damage according to Hartwig Beseler, Niels Gutschow: Kriegsschicksale Deutscher Architektur. Loss, damage, rebuilding. Volume II: South, Karl Wachholtz Verlag, Neumünster 1988, pp. 811–814 and Hermann Meinert, Theo Derlam: Das Frankfurter Rathaus. Its history and its reconstruction . Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1952, p. 27.
- See Hermann Meinert, Theo Derlam: Das Frankfurter Rathaus. Its history and its reconstruction . Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1952, p. 30.
- See Hermann Meinert, Theo Derlam: Das Frankfurter Rathaus. Its history and its reconstruction . Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1952, p. 32.
- See Hermann Meinert, Theo Derlam: Das Frankfurter Rathaus. Its history and its reconstruction . Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1952, p. 33.
- See Anton Kirchner: Views of Frankfurt am Main, the surrounding area and the neighboring medicinal springs. First part, Friedrich Wilmans , Frankfurt am Main, 1818, p. 68.
- See Hermann Meinert, Theo Derlam: Das Frankfurter Rathaus. Its history and its reconstruction . Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1952, p. 34.
- The balcony of the Frankfurt "Römer": The winner balcony, in: Damals, 42, 2010, no. 12, p. 59.