Eduard Bendemann

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Eduard Bendemann, self-portrait
The Schadow Circle (The Bendemann family and their friends) , joint work by Eduard Bendemann (second top left), Theodor Hildebrandt (third top left), Julius Hübner (bottom right), Wilhelm von Schadow (top right) and Karl Ferdinand Sohn ( First above left), started in Rome in 1830 and finished in Düsseldorf in 1831
Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein : The painter Eduard Bendemann , chalk on paper, 1838

Eduard Julius Friedrich Bendemann (born December 3, 1811 in Berlin , † December 27, 1889 in Düsseldorf ) was a German painter and an important representative of the Düsseldorf School of Painting, as well as a medalist and university professor .


Bendemann was the son of the Jewish banker Anton Heinrich Bendemann (born as Aaron Hirsch Bendix; 1775-1866) and his wife Fanny Eleonore (1778-1857), a daughter of the banker Joel Samuel von Halle. His parents had converted to Christianity before he was born; Bendemann himself was baptized and later confirmed. His family ran a bourgeois house and through invitations from his parents Bendemann met his future teacher at the Prussian Academy of the Arts , Wilhelm Schadow , who later also became his brother-in-law. With Christian Köhler , Heinrich Mücke , Karl Ferdinand Sohn and Julius Hübner , Bendemann went to the Düsseldorf Art Academy in 1827 .

In 1829 Bendemann accompanied Schadow on his study trips to and through Italy . Julius Hübner was there with his young wife Pauline Charlotte , a sister of Bendemann, Karl Ferdinand's son and Theodor Hildebrandt . In Rome he met the masters of the Renaissance in the circle of the Nazarenes . In 1831 Bendemann returned to Germany with Schadow and settled in Düsseldorf as a freelance painter. Further trips to Rome and a trip to France followed , where Bendemann stayed for a long time in Paris .

One of Bendemann's most important works was the monumental painting The Mourning Jews in Exile , with which he successfully debuted at the Great Art Exhibition in Berlin in 1832 . In his pictures Bendemann thematized scenes from the Bible and met the fashion of his time with his mostly elegiac depictions.

From April 1835 to March 1836 Bendemann did his one year military service with the Hussar Regiment No. 8 in Düsseldorf. During this time his monumental painting Jeremias on the ruins of Jerusalem was created on behalf of the Prussian Crown Prince, later King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. It was shown in a solo exhibition in Berlin in 1836. As a result of these successes, many of Bendemann's works were reproduced by graphic artists and engravers , for example The Harvest of August Eichen .

In 1838 Bendemann was appointed lecturer at the University of Fine Arts in Dresden . One of his students was David Simonson , who later founded the "Academy for Drawing, Painting and Modeling" in Dresden. Another student in Dresden was his brother-in-law Felix Schadow .

In 1859 Bendemann was appointed director of the Düsseldorf Art Academy , which at that time was located on Burgplatz in the picture gallery . He lived at Goltsteinstrasse 2 . For health reasons, Bendemann resigned from this position in 1867 and moved to Berlin. In the house of his father-in-law, Bendemann created a monumental fresco with a symbolic representation, The arts at the fountain of poetry .

Bendemann was commissioned to decorate three halls (throne room, tower room, tower room) for the royal palace in Dresden ; he did this with a contiguous mural. In the throne room, on both sides of the throne, there are the figures of great rulers and legislators on a gold background with related representations in relief below, from Moses to Albrecht the Courageous , the ancestral lords of the ruling royal family. On the wall opposite the throne there are four depictions from the life of King Henry I, with pictures underneath, which represent the professional groups of the four estates.

During his stay in Düsseldorf he created (executed 1861–1866) the monumental frescoes in the auditorium of the secondary school built in 1858 on Pfannenschoppenstrasse, today Klosterstrasse, in Düsseldorf, which related to science, trade, industry and art. His son Rudolf Bendemann and the brothers Ernst and Fritz Roeber and Wilhelm Beckmann carried out the wall paintings in the first Cornelius Hall of the National Gallery in Berlin based on his designs .

As a portraitist , Bendemann demonstrated a mastery which was highly valued by the public as well as by official critics. In addition to his wife, he was modeled on the bookseller Heinrich Brockhaus , the painters Wilhelm Camphausen and Wilhelm von Schadow , the historian Johann Gustav Droysen , the musician Joseph Joachim and Prince Karl Anton von Hohenzollern .

Bendemann was a member of the Berlin University of the Arts , the Düsseldorf Art Academy , the Kassel Art School , the Munich Academy of Fine Arts and many more. He was also awarded several medals (including Pour le Mérite for art and science).

Bendemann's death house

He died a few days after his 78th birthday on December 27, 1889 in Jägerhofstrasse 7 in Düsseldorf-Pempelfort , which in 1866 had a studio extension in the rear part and was replaced by a building designed by the architects Heinrich Joseph Kayser and Karl von Großheim . For the years 1885 and 1887, the house at Jägerhofstrasse 7 is occupied as Bendemann's house.

Just 13 months after his death, an exhibition was held in the then new art gallery in his hometown from January 18 to February 18, 1891. In this part of his life's work was shown with sketches, paintings and drawing studies made by him.


Eduard Bendemann's grave, Düsseldorf North Cemetery
Franz Krüger : Felix Schadow and his sister Lida, who later became the wife of Eduard Bendemann

Eduard Bendemann married Lida Schadow (1821–1895) on October 28, 1838 , daughter of the famous sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow and sister of his artist father Wilhelm Schadow. He had the following children with her:

  • Gottfried Arnold (born December 1, 1839, Dresden; † 1882) major, knight d. Pour le mérite ∞ Hedwig Krüger (whose son is the engineer Friedrich Bendemann )
  • Marie Henriette (born June 20, 1841, Dresden; † January 16, 1874) ∞ Otto Euler (born June 6, 1835, Opladen; † January 26, 1925, Düsseldorf), judicial officer (whose son is the painter Eduard Euler )
  • Ernst Julius (born January 1, 1844, Dresden) ∞ Alwine Jung
  • Fanny Mathilde Susanne (born March 31, 1846, Dresden)
  • Felix Eduard Robert Emil (* August 8, 1848, Dresden; † October 31, 1915, Berlin), imperial admiral, ennobled in 1905, ∞ Helene Sophia Sturz, daughter of the Brazilian consul general in Berlin Johann Jacob Sturz (her son Eduard, also a painter, was married to Margarete Susman )
  • Rudolf Christian Eugen (1851–1884), history painter

Works (selection)

Frieze in the auditorium of the secondary school
The mourning Jews in exile (around 1832, with a magnificent frame)
Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy
  • Boaz and Ruth
  • Captive Jews in Babylon , also known as The Mourning Jews in Exile (1832), Wallraf-Richartz-Museum Cologne
  • Two Girls at the Fountain (1833), Gemäldegalerie Museum Kunstpalast , Düsseldorf
  • Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1833) see picture on the right
  • Jeremias on the rubble of Jerusalem (1835/36), original in the Leineschloss destroyed in the air raids on Hanover on July 26, 1943
  • Lida Bendemann (1847), Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf
  • The arts at the fountain of poetry (fresco)
  • The painting , mural (1861)
  • The death of Abel (1860–1864)
  • The harvest
  • Removal of the Jews into Babylonian captivity (1872)
  • Nathan the wise
  • Penelope (1877)
  • Henry I defeats the Hungarians (1878)
  • The Sacrifice of Iphigenia (1887), Gemäldegalerie Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf
  • Exhibition of the works of Eduard Bendemann in the Kunsthalle zu Düsseldorf: January 18 to February 18, 1891 , Düsseldorf [1891] ( digitized version )

Illustrations (selection)

Digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf :

  • In: ABC book for small and large children / drawn by Dresden artists. With stories and songs by R. Reinick and songs by Ferdinand Hiller. Wigand, Leipzig 1845. Digitized edition
  • In: Album of German Art and Poetry. With woodcuts based on the artist's original drawings, made by R. Brend'amour. Edited by Friedrich Bodenstedt. Grote, Berlin 1867. Digitized edition
  • The frieze in the throne room of the Royal Palace of Dresden. Painted al fresco by Eduard Bendemann. Etched v. H. Bürkner. Wigand, Leipzig 1847. Digitized edition
  • In: Reinick, Robert. Songs by a painter with drawings by his friends on the margins. between 1836 and 1852.
    • Songs by a painter with drawings by his friends on the margins. - Düsseldorf: Schulgen-Bettendorff, 1838, colored portfolio edition. Digitized edition
    • Songs by a painter with drawings by his friends on the margins. - Düsseldorf: Schulgen-Bettendorff, 1838. Digitized edition
    • Songs by a painter with drawings by his friends on the margins. Buddeus, Düsseldorf between 1839 and 1846. Digitized edition
    • Songs by a painter with drawings by his friends on the margins. Vogel, Leipzig approx. 1852. Digitized edition
  • In: The Nibelungs. Translated into prose, introduced and explained by Johannes Scherr. Wigand, Leipzig 1860. Digitized edition
  • In: The Nibelunge Song. Copy of the handwriting of Baron Joseph von Laßberg. Wigand, Leipzig 1840. Digitized edition
  • In: The Nibelungenlied. With woodcuts based on original drawings by Eduard Bendemann and Julius Hübner. Wigand, Leipzig 1840. Digitized edition


  • Christian Scholl, Anne-Katrin Sors (ed.): In front of the paintings: Eduard Bendemann draws. Inventory catalog of the drawings and sketchbooks of a main representative of the Düsseldorf School of Painting in the Göttingen University Art Collection. Göttingen 2012. Full text:
  • Max Zimmermann: Memorial speech for Eduard Bendemann: at the von der Kgl. The Art Academy and the Düsseldorf artists' association held a memorial service for the immortalized artist on February 28, 1890 in the auditorium of the Realgymnasium . Bagel, Düsseldorf 1890. ( digitized version )
  • Sigrid Achenbach (Ed.): Eduard Bendemann, 1811–1889. The works in the Berlin State Museums and in the Mendelssohn Archive of the Berlin State Library Prussian Cultural Heritage. Catalog for the exhibition of the Eduard Bendemann Kupferstichkabinett. Drawings, Alte Nationalgalerie, November 16, 2007– February 24, 2008. G + H Verlag, Berlin 2007.
  • Guido Krey: Feeling and History. Eduard Bendemann (1811-1889). A study of history painting by the Düsseldorf School of Painting . Weimar 2003.
  • Silke Brandmeier: The arts at the fountain of poetry. Schadow Society, Berlin 2000.
  • Margarete Braun-Ronsdorf:  Bendemann, Eduard. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1955, ISBN 3-428-00183-4 , p. 36 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Hermann Board : Bendemann, Eduard Julius Friedrich . In: Ulrich Thieme , Felix Becker (Hrsg.): General Lexicon of Fine Artists from Antiquity to the Present . Founded by Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker. tape 3 : Bassano – Bickham . Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig 1909, p. 300 ( Textarchiv - Internet Archive ).
  • Eduard DaelenBendemann, Eduard . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 46, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1902, pp. 348-350.
  • Josef Schrattenholz : Eduard Bendemann. Reflections and memories. Düsseldorf 1891.
  • Theodor Frimmel: Eduard Bendemann †. In: Art Chronicle. NF Vol. 1 (1889/90) No. 15, columns 225-229.
  • Theodor Levin : One more word in memory of Eduard Bendeman. In: Art Chronicle. NF Vol. 1 (1889/90) No. 21, Columns 233-338.
  • Franz Heinen: Bendemann's mural in the auditorium of the Realschule in Düsseldorf . Voss, Düsseldorf 1866 ( digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf )
  • Alexander Bastek, Michael Thimann (ed.): "We sat by the waters of Babylon". Figurations of Longing in Romantic Painting. Ferdinand Olivier and Eduard Bendemann . Exhibition catalog. Petersberg 2009.

Web links

Commons : Eduard Bendemann  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Medals of merit made of gold or silver . In: Centralblatt der Bauverwaltung , January 13, 1883, p. 19; Retrieved December 15, 2012
  2. ( Memento from February 19, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF) In the summer, more Schadow students will come from Berlin: E. Bendemann, Ch. Köhler, H. Mücke u. CF son
  3. a b c d e Document is missing for this paragraph
  4. David Simonson (born March 15, 1831 in Dresden; † February 8, 1896 ibid) was a history and art painter. In the period between 1860 and 1880, Davis Simonson founded the “Academy for Drawing, Painting and Modeling” in Dresden , on, accessed on June 4, 2016
  5. Bendemann, Eduard, director of the Königl. Art Academy, Goltsteinstr. 2 , in the address book of the mayor's office in Düsseldorf, 1865, p. 9
  6. The frieze in the throne room of the Royal Palace in Dresden / painted al fresco by Eduard Bendemann. Etched v. Hugo Bürkner, Wigand, Leipzig 1847.
  7. Franz Heinen; Bendemann's mural in the auditorium of the Realschule Düsseldorf . Düsseldorf 1866.
  8. ^ Architects and Engineers Association in Düsseldorf (ed.): Düsseldorf and its buildings. L. Schwann, Düsseldorf 1904, p. 219f (Fig. 262 Part of Bendemann's frieze in the auditorium of the municipal Realgymnasium.) (Fig. 263 Auditorium of the urban Realgymnasium) (Fig. 264 Aula of the urban Realgymnasium)
  9. ^ School system: New construction of a secondary school in Pfannenschoppenstrasse , in an administrative report for the year 1856 and the city of Düsseldorf's budget
  10. Verkehrsverein Düsseldorf (ed.): Guide through Düsseldorf on the Rhine and its surroundings. Düsseldorfer Verl.-Anst., Düsseldorf 1904, p. 63 (II. Part Sights 3. Birth, living and death houses of famous people.)
  11. Klaus Pfeffer: Housing in the period from 1800 to 1880. In: Eduard Trier, Willy Weyres (Hrsg.): Art of the 19th century in the Rhineland. Vol. 2. Architecture: II, Profane Buildings a. Urban planning. Schwann, Düsseldorf 1980, ISBN 3-590-30252-6 , pp. 363-412, p. 406 there f .
  12. ^ Architects and Engineers Association in Düsseldorf (ed.): Düsseldorf and its buildings. L. Schwann, Düsseldorf 1904, p. 388, figs. 587-589.
  13. ^ Address book of the mayor's office in Düsseldorf for 1887. Second part. P. 93.
  14. ^ Address book of the mayor's office in Düsseldorf for 1885. I. Theil. P. 15.
  15. ^ Eduard Julius Friedrich Bendemann, in: Exhibition of the works of Eduard Bendemann in the Kunsthalle zu Düsseldorf , catalog for the exhibition, 1891. Online version
  16. See picture of the week
  17. Jeremiah on the rubble of Jerusalem , website in the portal , accessed on April 12, 2015
  18. Portrait of Lida Bendemann, b. Schadow, Eduard Bendemann, Dresden 1847, acquired in 1926 from Dr. E. Bendemann, Museum Kunstpalast, object number: mkp.M 4352 , on d: kult online
  19. Fratricide in the jury ( memento of the original from March 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Website for the picture Der Tod Abel in the portal , accessed on March 14, 2015 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  20. In the Gemäldegalerie after 30 years, in March 2018, Eduard Bendemann's The Sacrifice of Iphigenia from 1867 can be considered "Work of the Month" after extensive restoration. The monumental work is almost four meters wide and comes from the collection of the Düsseldorf Art Academy.