Applied Arts School

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The arts and crafts schools were until 1945 (in Germany) artistic training centers ( higher technical schools ) with a focus on applied arts .

Socio-cultural background

The impetus for artistic business promotion was triggered by the industrial competition of France and Great Britain at the world exhibitions in London in 1851 and Paris in 1855 and taken up in Great Britain by the Society of Arts with the construction of the London South Kensington Museum . The success was already evident at the World Exhibition in London in 1862. The Home arts and industries association , founded in 1884, then set itself the task of providing artistic education to the entire society. The Verein Deutsches Gewerbemuseum zu Berlin followed suit in 1867, founded the Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin in 1879 and in 1885 the " Educational Institution of the Kunstgewerbemuseum ". In the same year 1867 the Austrian Museum for Art and Industry was founded .


In Germany, following the Berlin example, and with the aim of promoting the German art industry, the Kunstgewerbeschulen in Nuremberg (1853), Munich (1868), Kassel (1869) opened in rapid succession until the end of the 19th century "Württembergische Staatliche Kunstgewerbeschule" in Stuttgart (1869), the Palatinate arts and crafts college in Kaiserslautern (1874), the school for metal industry in Pforzheim (1877), as well as other arts and crafts schools in Karlsruhe (1878), Dresden (1879), Wiesbaden and Frankfurt am Main 1878 (later integrated into the Frankfurt State University of Fine Arts in the 1920s ), Breslau , Düsseldorf , Sonneberg Industrial School with a focus on toys, ceramics and glass design (1883), Hamburg (1896) and Erfurt (1898), while the existing "United Provincial Art and Commercial Drawing School" called Sunday and evening school in Magdeburg reformed and into " Applied Arts and Crafts School e ”(1887) was renamed.

There was a renewal of the arts and crafts movement between the world exhibitions in Paris in 1900 and Brussels in 1910 by the German Werkbund founded in 1907 and the establishment of a professorship for modern arts and crafts at the Berlin School of Commerce . In 1908, Weimar moved together with the Grand Ducal Saxon School of Art ( Hans Olde ) and the Weimar Sculpture School ( Adolf Brütt ) - which was also a member of the advisory board of the Berlin educational institution under Bruno Paul - with the opening of the Grand Ducal Saxon School of Applied Arts ( Henry van de Velde ) to. Peter Behrens (1868–1940) headed the Düsseldorf School of Applied Arts for a few years (1903–1907). An applied arts college in Flensburg is documented from the sources at least between 1905 and 1909 through the participation of Emmy Gotzmann in courses in life drawing.

The Cologne Werkbund exhibition of 1914 had a major influence on the program of the arts and crafts schools.

The Weimar School operated by Olde, Brütt and van de Velde was continued by the Bauhaus (1919–1933). The Kölner Werkschulen , headed by Richard Riemerschmid , was founded in Cologne (1926–1933). The Aachen School of Applied Arts under the direction of Rudolf Schwarz also gained importance in the years 1927–1934.

During the time of National Socialism (1933–1945) the schools were brought into line and now traded as master schools of the creative crafts .

After the Second World War, a renewal took place through the establishment of the Werkkunstschulen in Aachen, Augsburg, Bielefeld , Braunschweig, Bremen, Darmstadt, Dortmund, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Essen, Hamburg, Hanover, Kiel, Krefeld, Kassel, Lübeck, Magdeburg, Mainz, Münster, Offenbach, Saarbrücken, Trier, Wiesbaden and Wuppertal. In the GDR there were technical schools for applied arts in Erfurt , Heiligendamm , Leipzig , Magdeburg , Potsdam , Schneeberg and Sonneberg from 1950 . There were also technical college courses in artistic design at various universities in the GDR.

Most of the earlier craft art schools were merged into successor universities, such as:

or, if they were not converted into independent colleges for the fine arts, were integrated into existing art colleges. For example

  • emerged from the former drawing schools of the "Hamburg Society for the Promotion of the Arts and Useful Crafts" (today the Patriotic Society of 1765 ) in addition to the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences , the Hamburg School of Arts and Crafts, forerunner of today's Hamburg University of Fine Arts ,
  • Developed from the former “Technical Institute for Tradespeople” (1873) in Bremen, after being renamed several times, into the “University of Design” (1970) and finally today's University of the Arts Bremen
  • changed the former "Kieler Gewerbeschule" (1907) into the "Technische und Kunstgewerbliche Fachschule" (1910), then into the "Muthesius-Werkschule für Handwerk und angewandte Kunst", then successively took on the status of a higher technical school (until 1972) respectively "University of Applied Sciences for Design" before it was finally raised to the Muthesius Kunsthochschule Kiel (2007),
  • The University of Fine Arts Braunschweig emerged from the " Drawing Institute" founded by the Braunschweiger Gewerbeverein in 1841, the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach am Main from the "Offenbacher Werkkunstschule" and the "State School for Art and Applied Arts, Saarbrücken" ( 1924) the "Werkkunstschule für Kunst und Handwerk" (1946–1971) became the department of art and design at the Saarbrücken University of Applied Sciences and the Saar School of Fine Arts (1989).
  • The “Barmer Kunstgewerbeschule” (1894–1947) became the Werkkunstschule Wuppertal (1948–1972) as the Department of Design and Art at the Bergische Universität Wuppertal .
  • from the "Kunstgewerbeschule Essen" (1911–1928) the "Folkwangschule" (higher technical school for design) until 1971, then part of the University of Essen / Duisburg and from 2008 (together with the music academy and the university for performing arts) the design department of Folkwang University of the Arts , the only university in Germany with the right to award doctorates in design ( Dr.des. ).
  • the Kölner Werkschulen (1926–1971) were re-established as the "Department of Art and Design" at the Cologne University of Applied Sciences and in 1993 as the Cologne International School of Design (KISD) and the Cologne Academy of Media Arts (KHM).

The following remained without a successor:



Memorial plaque for the Imperial and Royal School of Applied Arts in Vienna

Emperor Franz Joseph I founded the "Applied Arts School of the KK Austrian Museum for Art and Industry" in September 1867 and opened it on October 1, 1868. After the end of the monarchy, the adjectives imperial-royal , abbreviated as KK, were no longer used in 1919 Anniversary publication 1929. The University of Applied Arts Vienna emerged from the School of Applied Arts in 1999. The Austrian Museum of Applied Arts - MAK continues to exist independently .

In the school area, for example, the association-supported “Vienna Art School” (→ web links) is effective. The words design and media often replace the title arts and crafts.

Upper Austria

The higher education institute for artistic design (HBLA) in Linz on the Danube offers the training focus “Object, Image, Media” (→ Weblinks).


  • The Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, with locations in the city and in the federal state, offers bachelor's and master's degrees in furniture design, interior design and industrial design (→ Weblinks).


In the higher education sector, the Ortweinschule (HTBLA) in the provincial capital of Graz focuses on arts and crafts .


  • "Bilding" is the name of the art and architecture school for children and young people in Innsbruck (→ Weblinks).


The former arts and crafts schools in Basel, Bern and Zurich have now merged into the University of Art and Design in Basel , the Bern University of the Arts and the Zurich University of the Arts .

See also


  1. History of the Kunsthochschule Kassel. Retrieved July 2, 2012 .
  2. Kunstgewerbeschule des Österr. Museum for Art and Industry in Vienna (Hg): Exhibition of student work on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the establishment. School of Applied Arts, Vienna 1929.

Web links