Henry van de Velde

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Henry Clement van de Velde (in Belgian Dutch also Henry Clemens V an de Velde ; born April 3, 1863 in Antwerp , † October 25, 1957 in Zurich ) was a Belgian-Flemish architect and designer .

Henry van de Velde, 1904, photograph by Nicola Perscheid

Live and act

The sixth of eight children, Henry was born into a family of pharmacists. His father, the wealthy Brussels Guillaume Charles van de Velde, also organized festivals for famous international composers.

Henry van de Velde attended the humanistic grammar school in Antwerp and made friends with the later poet Max Elskamp in the fourth Latin class at the beginning of the school year 1878/1879 . Your correspondence is in the archives of the University Library of Antwerp.

From 1880 to 1882 he studied at the Antwerp Art Academy and then painting in Charles Verlat's private studio . When van de Velde saw the painting Bar aux Folies Bergère by Édouard Manet at the Antwerp art exhibition , he decided to continue studying in Paris . Here he joined the Impressionist painter group L'Art Indépendant and Augustin Feyen-Perrin advised him to continue his education with Émile Auguste Carolus-Duran . He accepted him as one of his students in 1884/1885.

When van de Velde returned to Belgium, he was looking for solitude and lived for four years in the inn in Wechelderzande, a small town near Antwerp. In the artists' colony there he made friends with Adriaan Joseph Heymans , Florent Crabeels and Jacques Rosseels (1828–1912). In addition to his artistic work, van de Velde u. a. the works of Friedrich Nietzsche and Émile Zola . In the summer of 1887 his mother, who was already suffering from cancer, visited him and van de Velde cared for and portrayed her. In the winter of 1887/1888 they returned to Antwerp together.

Van de Velde founded the “Association pour l'art indépendant” in 1887 together with Max Elskamp, ​​Georges Serigier, George Morren and the lawyer Charles Dumercy. The association was active for three years.

From 1888 van de Velde became a member of the artists' association Les Vingt . a. and Auguste Rodin , James Ensor and Paul Signac belonged. In the winter months he was often a guest at Edmond Picard, along with other artists, writers, poets and politicians . Despite the invaluable service that the association had rendered to the new Belgian and foreign art movements in painting, sculpture, music and literature, it disbanded after ten years in 1893. With the association's assets of 50,000 gold francs , the ' Vingt' secretary, art critic and lawyer Octave Maus (1856-1919) opened the annual salon under the new name 'La Libre Esthétique' one year later. Octave Maus chose himself as the sole administrative delegate. The salon had to close in 1914 because of the First World War .

Because of an impending neurasthenia , van de Velde spent the summer of 1889 with his brother in the Blankenbergher villa and met Charles van Lerberghe , with whom he became friends, as well as Émile Vandervelde and the lawyer Max Hallet.

Later van de Velde moved to his older sister Jeanne and her husband in Kalmthout in the 'Vogelenzang' house. During this time he had u. a. Contact Auguste Vermeylen and designed for the newly established literary magazine Van Nu en Straks the title font.

Since van de Velde was not satisfied with his painterly results, he tried to achieve through art embroidery what he believed he could not achieve in painting. "A feeling of restlessness and lack of satisfaction dominated us around 1890 so generally," wrote Henry van de Velde in his craft sermons (published in German in 1902). The resulting crisis of artistic meaning made him break off his career as a painter around 1893/1894 and turn to architecture and applied art.

Van de Velde stayed with his aunt, an experienced embroiderer, in Knokke-Heist from mid-October 1892 to spring 1893 in order to learn the application technique of tapestry with her . This gave rise to the Angel Guard tapestry .

Harry Graf Kessler, Ludwig von Hofmann, Edward Gordon Craig and Henry van de Velde
Harry Graf Kessler, Ludwig von Hofmann, Edward Gordon Craig and Henry van de Velde

At Easter 1893 Théo van Rysselberghe visited him with his wife Maria van Rysselberghe (1866-1959), Émile Verhaeren , Alfred William Finch and Maria Sèthe, whom he married in May 1894 in Uccle. Her honeymoon took her to Johanna van Gogh-Bonger , Vincent van Gogh's sister-in-law , who kept all the pictures and drawings that her husband Théo van Gogh had of his brother in her house in Bussum , Holland .

After van de Velde met Julius Meyer-Graefe from the magazine " Pan ", which was founded in 1895 , van de Velde wrote various articles for the magazine over the years. When Siegfried Bing wanted to convert his gallery in Paris under the new name Hôtel de l'Art Nouveau (or Maison de l'Art nouveau) with new exhibition rooms in 1895 , van de Velde was able to create a large dining room, a smoking room made of Congo wood, and a small one Design a cabinet in lemon wood and a rotunda-like larger room with furniture and wall panels that should be coordinated with each other. The furniture, lighting fixtures, wallpaper, fabrics and carpets created by other artists should form part of a living whole.

A few weeks after the opening of the scandal-ridden exhibition, a delegation from Dresden , headed by the General Director of the Dresden Museums, Privy Councilor Woldemar von Seidlitz , visited the gallery. The four rooms designed and created in Paris for Bing were to be re-installed in Dresden in 1897 at the International Art Exhibition in the City Exhibition Palace . In addition, a large 'relaxation room' should be created for the visitors. Two large halls were made available for his artist friend Constantin Meunier for an overall view of his work. When they arrived in Dresden, they and their wives moved into the Hotel Bellevue. After the three-week exhibition, van de Velde was also known in Germany. On the return trip, they visited van de Velde's friend and first German client, Curt Hermann, in Berlin .

With their capital, Hermann and Eberhard von Bodenhausen made it possible for van de Velde to have a large house in the Brussels suburb of Ixelles by founding his 'Société van de Velde' . The company's own workshops for the production of furniture, lighting fixtures and other furnishings and also for jewelry were soon fully utilized. The new workshops and his relationships with the various 'art houses' in Paris, Berlin and The Hague made it possible for van de Velde to exhibit and sell his own products and to accept commissions from some Belgian intellectuals and art lovers who, as staunch friends of the new art movement, furniture, Ordered jewelry and book covers from him. The number of clients also grew in Germany. Among them was the young Herbert Eugen Esche , who came from a respected industrial family in Chemnitz .

Henry van de Velde in the Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt

His patron Harry Graf Kessler had his Berlin apartment on Köthener Strasse furnished by him, and later also on the one in Cranachstrasse in Weimar. Van de Velde elevated the line to the sole expression of his objects, exemplarily enhanced to the plastic form it appears in the famous candelabras from 1898, which were made for Kessler. Kessler also took part in van de Velde's “Workshops for Applied Art” and in 1901 moved him to move to Berlin by introducing him to circles interested in art and presenting his program.

The van de Velde family in front of the Hohe Pappeln house

Van de Velde is considered to be one of the most versatile artists of Art Nouveau or Art Nouveau . A fundamental renewal of the applied arts came from him. His works in different materials overcame the representational decorum of the late 19th century.

In 1900, Karl Ernst Osthaus , founder of the Folkwang Museum , contacted van de Velde and presented him with his idea of ​​a museum that would give art a higher profile in the industrial region of the Ruhr area. Van de Velde accompanied the museum project, designed the interior in Art Nouveau style and advised Osthaus, who was previously primarily interested in 19th century German painting from the area around the Düsseldorf painting school , also on purchases of Belgian and French works of art. At the end of 2013, various objects designed by him from the Osthaus family estate in Munich were auctioned, including a silver belt buckle set with Ceylon moonstones and diamond roses, a cupboard from the music room and a Havana armchair from 1897.

Harry Graf Kessler and Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche campaigned at the Weimar court to bring van de Velde to Weimar . He also had the mandate of Grand Duke Wilhelm Ernst to pay particular attention to the product culture of the handicraft businesses and industry in the country, which soon worked successfully on his designs.

In Weimar, van de Velde and his family moved into a house on Cranachstrasse in the Silberblick residential area ; it was only a few hundred meters from Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche's villa. Together with Maria, he furnished the apartment with the little movable furniture they had brought from the Bloemenwerf house . His colleague and good friend of the family, the Swedish draftsman Hugo Westberg, had taken van de Velde with him from Berlin to Weimar. Westenberg, together with the grand ducal master cabinet maker Hermann Scheidemantel, executed all of the furniture designed by van de Veldes in the Weimar years. After the original rented apartment had become too small for the family of seven, van de Velde had the Art Nouveau country house Haus Hohe Pappeln built according to his own designs in 1906/07 at Belvederer Allee 58 .

For the premises of his arts and crafts seminar, founded on October 15, 1902, and his private ateliers , he decided on the Prellerhaus.

The Grossherzoglich-Sächsische Kunstgewerbeschule Weimar was founded in 1908 on the initiative of Van de Velde and financed by Grand Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Saxony-Weimar. Until its closure in 1915, van de Vele was its director. The arts and crafts school became the nucleus of the Bauhaus school after 1919 .

In December 1996 the arts and crafts school building (Van-de-Velde-Bau) was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List together with the art school building . The art school building (also known as the “studio building” ) was built according to the plans of van de Velde in two construction phases in 1904/05 and 1911, opposite the arts and crafts school building from 1905/06.

1902, Munich Art Palace, Van de Velde Room

Van de Velde was a member of both the German Association of Artists, founded in 1903, and of the German Work Association , an association of artists, architects, entrepreneurs and experts, founded four years later .

Together with Anna Muthesius and Paul Schultze-Naumburg , he also designed artistically inspired models of reformed female clothing . In 1902, on the occasion of the Düsseldorf industrial and commercial exhibition, a “Van de Velde room” was set up in the exhibition palace. From 1908 to 1909 he also redesigned the interior of Lauterbach Castle in the Art Nouveau style. There were no building orders from the Grand Duke. Van de Velde worked successfully as an architect for private clients. In Weimar, a planned monumental Nietzsche memorial, a summer theater for the Berlin actress Louise Dumont and a restaurant at the Webicht excursion destination were no longer realized .

From 1914 to 1916, at the request of his friend Harry Graf Kessler, when he was called up for military service in World War I , van de Velde headed the Cranach press in Weimar, which Kessler founded . The arts and crafts school was closed in 1915 due to the war.

No longer suffered as a hostile foreigner during the First World War, van de Velde left Weimar in 1917. As a member of an "anti-war nation", he had to endure political pressure. For example, he allegedly had to report to the police in Weimar three times a day, even though he had a German passport.

Woodcut portrait from 1917 by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner

In the summer of 1918 van de Velde bought the former Hotel Schloss in Uttwil , where his family followed him in November 1918. Their twins went to Dozwil public secondary school . Financial reasons may have played a role here. Since van de Velde was a Belgian citizen, his assets in German banks were blocked by the young Weimar Republic, so that he was deprived of his livelihood. Friends and guests included u. a. René Schickele who also moved to Uttwil. For a few months van de Velde's dream of the unity of art and life blossomed. So many writers, musicians, artists and other “intellectuals” came to Uttwil as never before - and never again afterwards.

On van de Vele's initiative and with his financial support, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner spent ten months in the Bellevue Sanatorium in Kreuzlingen in Thurgau from mid-September 1917 . There Nele met Kirchner in the spring of 1918 and made friends with him and became his student.

From 1920 to 1926 he designed a private museum in Otterlo in the Netherlands as an architect for the patron couple Kröller-Müller , which was not completed until 1938 as a temporary measure . In 1925 he received a professorship for architecture at the University of Ghent and one year later became director of the newly founded Institut Supérieur des Arts Décoratifs (ISAD) in Brussels. The restart in Belgium was not easy. Even years after the First World War, Van de Velde was attacked as a Germanophile and accused of being a German citizen. In 1936 he retired , but took part in two world exhibitions, the Paris World Exhibition in 1937 and the 1939 New York World's Fair . In 1939 van de Velde was appointed a member of the Belgian Royal Commission for Monuments and Landscapes . Because of his work as Conseiller esthétique de la reconstruction , as a consultant for reconstruction under the German military administration, the 83-year-old was attacked again in Belgium after the Second World War . He had to submit to an appropriate procedure on the charge of collaboration , which was discontinued after a short time.

At the invitation of Maja Sacher , van de Velde and his eldest daughter Nele van de Velde settled in Switzerland in autumn 1947. For the first few years they lived in the house of the child psychiatrist Marie Meierhofer "in Holderbach", Oberägeri . The architect Alfred Roth built them a simple wooden bungalow house nearby, which they moved into in 1957 and lived in it rent-free for their entire life.

Henry van de Velde died a short time later. Van de Velde's estate remained in Brussels, but some of his friends took him into exile to write his “Journey through Life”. Nele continued to live in the house in Oberägeri with her fox terrier "Chipa" until her death.


Maria and the children

Mary's ancestors were Scots . The grandfather worked as an astronomer at the court of a prince of Hesse . He was first German, later Dutch. Her mother came from the Rhineland and gathered young virtuosos and artists from the group of artists Les Vingt in her house . Maria grew up in Paris for the first three years before the family moved to Uccle in Brussels on Dieweg in 1870 . Her father was an industrialist and one of her sisters married Paul Du Bois .

As a passionate piano player, she received lessons from the painter Théo van Rysselberghe, through whom she met van de Velde in 1893. In the same year, she traveled to London to get to know the Arts and Crafts Movement . Here she studied a. a. the fabric ornamentation by William Morris .

The Villa Bloemenwerf was Henry van de Velde's first work
Villa Bloemenwerf

After the wedding in 1894, the couple lived in Maria's parents' house. On behalf of his mother-in-law, he and Maria designed the furniture for their salon for their sister Irma, who was a gifted violinist and student of Eugène Ysaÿe . The main piece was a violin cabinet for your three instruments.

When van de Velde's first-born daughter died shortly after her birth in the spring of 1895, his mother-in-law bought a plot of land opposite her house, on which he and his wife built their own house. According to van de Velde's own creed, that anyone who wants to build a home according to his taste, his will and his heart can carry out the plans for such a house himself, it was not enough for him to draw up the plans for the house, he designed everything what belonged to the furnishings and decoration, apart from the plumbing, heating and other industrial components - which included the English brass beds - which, like the plans by Bloemenwerf, embodied the principle of the “reasonable”. They named their house Bloemenwerf after a modest country house that they discovered on their honeymoon between Utrecht and Amsterdam. They were able to move into the house in the spring of 1896.

In 1896 their son was born, who died a few days after he was born. The following daughters Cornélie Jenny (Nele) (1897-1965), Hélène Johanna Rosina (Puppie, Lene, Helen) (1899-1935) and Anne Sophie Alma (1901-1944) were born in Bloemenwerf . In 1904 the twins Thylbert (Thyl) († 1980) and Thylberthe (Thylla) († 1955) were born in Weimar . Nele, Helen and Anne visited the Free School Community of Wickersdorf from 1907 .

While the husband and father traveled a lot, the family led "a quiet life in the residence" during the Weimar period. Maria supported her financially carefree husband with many activities. She took on lodgers, organized the sale of the house and some paintings from her private collection. She brought her three older daughters with friends during the First World War.

In 1923 Helen married the Hamburg banker (ssohn) Joachim von Schinckel , with whom she moved to Gut Schwechow near Schwerin. She had two children with Joachim. In 1928, Henry built a villa for the married couple Helen and Joachim in Hamburg-Blankenese. After a long illness, Helen died in 1935.

Anne Sophie went to school after attending the Wickersdorf School in Jena and in 1919/20 lived with her brother in a boarding school in St. Gallen, then with her parents in the Netherlands. After completing her degree in chemistry, the laboratory assistant married and enthusiastic rower in 1927 the agricultural engineer Joachimus von Houweninge, with whom she moved to Java, where her husband ran a plantation. The mother of three died of malnutrition in a detention center in Surabaya in 1944 . Her children and her husband survived and returned to Europe.

Grave of Henry van de Velde and Maria van de Velde-Sèthe in Tervuren

Thyl devoted himself to agriculture early and raised rabbits as a boy. He was free to dispose of the proceeds, but donated the “rabbit fund” to the needy family during World War I. In 1929 he married Leentje, the daughter of the Flemish writer Herman Teirlinck . Thyl married Rachel van de Berghe in his second marriage. After the death of their father, he and Nele worked on the memoirs with the help of the art historian Hans Curjel. Until his death in 1980 he looked after the artistic estate of his father. Thylla was also born with her parents' artistic talent. At the age of 26, she went to the La Cambre design school in Brussels, which her father had newly founded, and married that same year, two weeks after her twin brother, Pierre Janlet, an art lover and later museum director. In 1941 Thylla married the youngest son of Anton and Helene Kröller-Müller's family , Bob Kröller. The Kröller-Müller family had been an important client of van de Velde since the 1920s. In 1955 Thylla fell seriously ill and died in Switzerland that same year.

Maria van de Velde died in 1943 of complications from cancer. Henry van de Velde died in Zurich in 1957 and found his final resting place next to his wife in the grave he designed in the Tervuren municipal cemetery .



  • 2013: Passion, Function and Beauty - Henry van de Velde and his contribution to European Modernism, Klassik Stiftung Weimar in cooperation with the Musées royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, Brussels.
  • 2013: The architect Henry van de Velde , Bauhaus University Weimar .
  • 2014: Henry van de Velde - Interieurs , Museum für Gestaltung Zürich .

Gallery of a selection of his works

Buildings (selection)

The so-called "book tower" of the University of Ghent (right in the picture)
Gut Nettehammer, aerial photo (2016)


  • For the anniversary “100 years of Bauhaus ” in 2019, Uhrenwerk Weimar GmbH brought out a Henry van de Velde watch as a special edition. In 2017, a German-Belgian consortium acquired the trademark rights for the name “Uhrenwerk Weimar” for the production of watches; Thomas Kemmerich is one of the two managing directors of Uhrenwerk Weimar GmbH .

Fonts (selection)

  • Henry van de Velde: To the new style . Selected from his writings and introduced by Hans Curjel. Munich: Piper, 1955
  • Henry van de Velde: History of my life Ed. And transferred from the manuscript by Hans Curjel . Munich: Piper, 1962 ( PDF )


  • Van de Velde: "... fight for the new style ...". Henry van de Velde's contribution to the start of the modern age 100 years ago . Edited by Birgit Schulte on behalf of the Henry van de Velde Society Hagen. With contributions by Manfred Osthaus, Ulrike Büttner, Steven Jacobs, Alexandre Kostka, Rainer Stamm, Birgit Schulte, Doreen Helms, Priska Schmückle von Minckwitz, Tilo Richter, Sabine A. Teubner-Treese. New Folkwang Verlag in the Karl Ernst Osthaus Museum, Hagen 2003, ISBN 3-926242-53-1 .
  • Birgit Schulte (Ed.): Henry van de Velde in Hagen. With contributions by Birgit Schulte, Michael Fehr, Karl Ernst Osthaus, Julius Posener and Sebastian Müller. New Folkwang Verlag in the Karl Ernst Osthaus Museum, Hagen 1992, ISBN 3-926242-11-6 .
  • Thomas Föhl: Henry van de Velde. Art Nouveau architect and designer. Weimarer Verlagsgesellschaft, Weimar 2010, ISBN 978-3-939964-02-5 .
  • Thomas Föhl, Antje Neumann: Henry van de Velde. Space art and handicrafts. A catalog raisonné in six volumes. Volume 1: Metal Art. Henschel, Leipzig 2009, ISBN 978-3-86502-221-9 .
  • Thomas Föhl, Antje Neumann: Henry van de Velde. Space art and handicrafts. A catalog raisonné in six volumes. Volume 2: Textiles. Henschel, Leipzig 2014, ISBN 978-3-86502-230-1 .
  • Thomas Föhl, Antje Neumann: Henry van de Velde. Space art and handicrafts. A catalog raisonné in six volumes. Volume 3: Ceramic. Henschel, Leipzig 2016, ISBN 978-3-86502-231-8 .
  • Thomas Föhl, Sabine Walter (eds.): Passion, function and beauty. Henry van de Velde and his contribution to European modernism. Catalog for the exhibition in the Neues Museum Weimar 2013 (April 3 to June 23), on the occasion of the artist's 150th birthday. Klassik-Stiftung Weimar, Weimarer Verlagsgesellschaft, Weimar 2013. ISBN 978-3-86539-685-3 .
  • Albert Vigoleis Thelen : An encounter with Henry van de Velde, written in Amsterdam for the builder's 90th birthday . In: Muschelhaufen , annual journal for literature and graphics ( ISSN  0085-3593 ), year 2000, no. 39/40.
  • Katharina Metz, Priska Schmückle von Minckwitz, Tilo Richter: Henry van de Velde's Villa Esche in Chemnitz. A total work of art between Art Nouveau and practicality. Birkhäuser, Basel / Boston / Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-7643-6991-4 .
  • Nicolaus Schubert: Uttwil, the village of poets and painters. Six images of life. Ges. Frohsinn, Uttwil 1986 (2nd edition 1991), pp. 13–29 (with illustrations, mainly relates to his Swiss stay in Uttwil on Lake Constance)
  • Christina Threuter: Metabolism. Modern architecture as a picture. In: From Outer Space, Modern Architectural Theory Outside the Discipline , Volume 10, Issue 2 (from September 2006). ( online ) (on van de Velde's theory and practice regarding reformed female clothing)
  • Katharina Hohmann, Heike Hanada (eds.): Hotel van de Velde. (site-specific exhibition project in the former Palais Dürckheim, with articles about the Dürckheim family and their relationship to Henry van de Velde (Thomas Föhl) and the history of the Palais Dürckheim (Katrin Greiser)) Max Stein Verlag, Weimar 2007, ISBN 978-3-939615 -02-6 .
  • AM Hammacher: The world of Henry van de Velde. Mercator, Antwerp / DuMont Schauberg, Cologne 1967.
  • Antje Neumann, Brigitte Reuter: Henry van de Velde in Poland. The interior design in the Trebschen / Trzebiechów sanatorium. German Cultural Forum for Eastern Europe, Potsdam 2007, ISBN 978-3-936168-26-6 .
  • Rouven Lotz : The Hohenhof in Hagen. The country house for Karl Ernst Osthaus by Henry van de Velde. ardenkuverlag, Hagen 2009, ISBN 978-3-932070-89-1 .
  • Ursula Muscheler: Furniture, art and fine nerves. Henry van de Velde and the cult of beauty. Berenberg Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-937834-50-4 .
  • Camilla Blechen: A man of the world endures the province. Weimar presents highlights and weak points in the work of all-rounder Henry van de Velde. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of April 3, 2013, p. 29.
  • Luise Schendel: 150 years of creativity. The exceptional Belgian artist Henry van de Velde would have celebrated his birthday today. In: Thüringische Landeszeitung from April 3, 2013.
  • Carsten Ruhl / Rixt Hoekstra / Chris Dähne (eds.): The Death and Life of the Total Work of Art - Henry van de Velde and the Legacy of a Modern Concept ", JOVIS Verlag Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-86859-261 -0

Web links

Commons : Henry Van de Velde  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. s. Velde, Henri Clemens van de in: Harald Olbrich (Hrsg.): Lexikon der Kunst. Architecture, fine arts, applied arts, industrial design, art theory. Volume VII: Stae – Z , EA Seemann Verlag, Leipzig 2004. ISBN 3-86502-084-4 (p. 576f)
  2. The right jewelry for the swinging waist in FAZ of December 28, 2013, page 36.
  3. s. Van de Velde, H., professor, architect, Weimar, Lassenstr. 29th in the DKB membership directory in the catalog 3rd German Artists Association Exhibition , Weimar 1906. P. 58 online (accessed on May 23, 2016)
  4. Urs Oskar Keller: A man of the world in the province. St. Galler Tagblatt, October 14, 2013, accessed on March 21, 2020 .
  5. Municipality of Uttwil: A place of the arts. Retrieved March 21, 2020 .
  6. ^ Alfred Roth: Henry Van de Velde on his 90th birthday In: Architektur und Kunst , Vol. 40, Issue 4, 1953, pp. 47-48.
  7. ^ Resident community Oberägeri: Van de Velde, bungalow in Holderbach. Retrieved April 16, 2020 .
  8. Thomas Föhl: Henry van de Velde: Architect and Designer of Art Nouveau. Weimarer Verlagsgesellschaft, 2010, p. 334 ( excerpt from this book page ).
  9. Klassik Stiftung Weimar : The van de Velde family ( Memento from August 26, 2018 in the Internet Archive )
  10. knerger.de: The grave of Henry van de Velde
  11. Thomas Föhl, Sabine Walter (Ed.): Passion, Function and Beauty - Henry van de Velde and his contribution to European Modernism (catalog) . Weimar 2013.
  12. ^ Announcement on the exhibition
  13. ^ Henry van de Velde - Interiors. (No longer available online.) In: museum-bellerive.ch. Christian Brändle, Museum für Gestaltung Zürich, Museum Bellerive , archived from the original on September 30, 2016 ; accessed on September 30, 2016 .
  14. Villa Leuring (Huis de Zeemeeuw)
  15. Quittenbaum auction lot 124A 20
  16. https://uhrenwerk-weimar.de/de/uhren/henry-van-de-velde/ , accessed on February 5, 2020
  17. https://uhrenwerk-weimar.de/de/our-story/ , accessed on February 5, 2020
  18. https://register.dpma.de/DPMAregister/marke/registerhabm?AKZ=017378861 , accessed on February 5, 2020
  19. https://uhrenwerk-weimar.de/de/impressum/ , accessed on February 5, 2020