Maximilian II (HRR)
Maximilian II (born July 31, 1527 in Vienna , † October 12, 1576 in Regensburg ), also Maximilian der Ander [e] at the time , was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and Archduke of Austria from 1564 to 1576.
Maximilian was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague on May 14, 1562 , and was elected Roman-German King in Frankfurt am Main on November 24 of the same year . On July 16, 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in Pressburg . On July 25, 1564 he succeeded his late father Ferdinand I in the rule of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation .
Before beginning his rule, he showed Protestant inclinations and entered into contact with Protestant princes. In order to be able to take over the successor, he made a commitment to Catholicism. Like his father, he followed a course of compromise in church politics in the empire. His hope of overcoming the sectarian division was not fulfilled. Overall, he saw himself as the keeper of the Augsburg religious peace . As sovereign in parts of the Archduchy of Austria, he acted similarly and in his time Protestantism experienced the height of its importance there. The only major military conflict during his reign was the renewed war against the Ottomans , which in the Peace of Adrianople basically ended with a return to the status quo ante. In Italy and elsewhere, the conflicts with the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs were considerable.
Childhood and youth
Archduke Maximilian of Austria was born on July 31, 1527 in Vienna as the eldest son of the Roman-German King Ferdinand I and his wife Anna of Bohemia and Hungary . His paternal uncle was Emperor Charles V , his mother's side was King Ludwig II of Hungary and Bohemia . Maximilian had eleven (surviving) siblings. These include the brothers Ferdinand (later sovereign of the Vorlande and of Tyrol ) and Karl (later sovereign of Krain , Styria and Carinthia ), the older sister Elisabeth later married King Sigismund II August of Poland . Katharina later married this king too . The sister Anna married Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria . The other sisters were also married to noble descendants as part of the Habsburg marriage policy .
Maximilian spent his childhood in Innsbruck . Here he learned the Tyrolean dialect ( South Bavarian ), which he also spoke later as emperor, and which also strongly influenced his sometimes very idiosyncratic German spelling. Maximilian was raised together with his brother Ferdinand and enjoyed an excellent education. His teachers included the humanists Caspar Ursinus Velius and Georg Tannstetter . He was strongly influenced by his Lutheran prince tutor Wolfgang Schiefer before the teacher was dismissed in 1538. Maximilian came into contact with the Protestant Elector August von Sachsen as early as 1543 , which the family viewed with suspicion. Maximilian mastered six foreign languages such as French , Spanish , Latin , Italian , Czech and Hungarian .
Emperor Charles V brought him into his surroundings at the age of 17 and Maximilian accompanied his uncle to Brussels and into the Schmalkaldic War . Sympathy for the members of the new doctrine is shown for the first time in this war, where he fought at the side of the emperor in the battle of Mühlberg . There, after the victory of Charles V, he emphatically advocated the release of the two heads of the Narrow Kaldic League , Elector Johann Friedrich of Saxony and Landgrave Philip of Hesse .
On September 13, 1548 he was married by his uncle, Charles V, to his daughter Maria, Maximilian's cousin. This wedding served to strengthen the cohesion between the Austrian and Spanish lines of the House of Habsburg. In 1549 he was named King of Bohemia Designate as a possible successor to his father . During the emperor's absence, Maximilian ruled with his wife as governor in Spain. The idea behind this was to counteract his Protestant tendencies through "Hispanization". Contrary to what had been hoped, he did not receive governorship in the Netherlands. Although his wife was firmly Catholic and felt she was Spanish until her death, the couple had a very happy marriage. The conflicts within the family did nothing to change that. The marriage with Maria resulted in a total of 15 children.
The relationship with Charles V deteriorated in the course of his Spanish succession plan. After Karl's death, the emperor's dignity should pass to his brother Ferdinand, after his death, however, it was not Ferdinand's son, Maximilian, but Karl's son, the Infanta Philip of Spain , who should succeed him. These plans met with little approval in the empire. Maximilian opposed his uncle, threw his father compliance before and took contacts with German princes as Albrecht V of Bavaria, but also leading figures in the Protestant camp, above all, to Maurice of Saxony , Augustus of Saxony or Christoph von Württemberg , on . These remained important for Maximilian in later times. With this an anti-Spanish attitude arose, he saw himself as a German prince.
In order to take part in the family talks about the succession in the empire , Maximilian set out on a trip from Spain to Vienna in 1550. In 1551 he attended the Council of Trent . Maximilian made the trip with the elephant Soliman in the wake of a diplomatic event, which he concluded in 1552 with a triumphant entry into Vienna. Even today there are numerous inns with the name Zum Elefanten along the route .
His distrust of Charles V was so great that he suspected a poison attack in 1552 in a mild illness. Maximilian viewed the prince uprising against the emperor, in which Moritz von Sachsen played a leading role, with a certain degree of sympathy. He tried to mediate, but because he was suspected of Protestantism, he could not play a role in the negotiation of the Passau Treaty and did not take part in the Augsburg Reichstag, which led to the Augsburg religious peace.
In 1552 Maximilian was also given the management of the Austrian hereditary lands. As a result, tensions arose with his wife's Spanish-dominated court. The relationship with the father also deteriorated. The father was hostile to Maximilian's Protestant inclinations. Conversely, Maximilian resented his father for preferring his brother Ferdinand, as demonstrated by his appointment as governor of Bohemia.
Court life and Viennese humanism
There were personal and intellectual relationships between the court and the University of Vienna . Scholars not only from the Reich, but also from the Netherlands, Spain and Italy lived in Vienna at that time. So he came into close contact with the non-denominational humanism in Vienna at the time. He liked to surround himself with scholars such as the botanist Carolus Clusius or the diplomat and educator Angerius Ghislain de Busbecq . On behalf of Maximilian, they collected exotic animals and plants and recorded them scientifically. As a bibliophile, he collected books and manuscripts. Kaspar von Niedbruck helped him with this . His collection was cataloged by Hugo Blotius . The Austrian National Library emerged from it. In addition to science, he also pursued occult interests.
Music played an important role at his court. While the Dutch initially dominated, Maximilian preferred to support Italian artists. He tried to win Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina as director of his court orchestra. This failed due to financial issues.
Between 1558 and 1565 Maximilian had the Stallburg built as a residence in Vienna . After he had succeeded his father, he resided in the Hofburg . In the Stallburg which was later Riding School established. He also had the new building erected as a pleasure palace in the Renaissance style. As a botanist he had the pheasant garden laid out during his reign near Vienna. Schönbrunn Palace was later built there in the 17th and 18th centuries . He also had the residence expanded in Prague , where he presented his second elephant in a great spectacle in 1570 , which he had brought to Vienna from Spain in 1563 after Soliman , the first imperial pachyderm, died in 1553.
At that time there was a Protestant-friendly climate at the Viennese court, promoted by parts of the nobility. In the years after the Augsburg Reichstag, the Protestant inclinations that were initially still latent were further strengthened , namely through the influence of Maximilian's court preacher, Johann Sebastian Pfauser : Maximilian abandoned purely Catholic customs, read Protestant literature and refused the Lord's Supper to receive according to catholic rite. He once told his father that worshiping saints was pointless and idolatrous. There has been much discussion about the character of Maximilian's religious beliefs. It was interpreted as “compromise Catholicism” or as humanistic Christianity in the footsteps of Erasmus of Rotterdam . Some of his utterances suggest that he placed his view above denominations. “Not papal, not evangelical, a Christian.” With that he was not very far from his father, who was also influenced by Erasmus of Rotterdam. Maximilian did not make a clear break with Catholicism.
If ever there was a danger / chance that Maximilian would convert, it would be in the late 1550s. However, a conversion did not take place for two reasons: On the one hand, the Habsburgs felt increasingly repelled by the dogmatic disputes between Protestants, and on the other hand, he came under increasing public pressure. Both his father, Emperor Ferdinand I, and the curia and his Spanish relatives tried to influence him. In 1555, the father added a special addition to his will, which reflects his concern for his son's Protestant inclinations:
“And mainly I care more about you, Maximilian, than about none of you, because I have seen and noticed all sorts of things that make me suspicious, as if you wanted Maximilian to fall from our religion and go over to the new sect. God willing that this is not the case and that I am doing you injustice in this; God knows that there could be no greater suffering or sorrow for me on earth than that you, Maximilian, my eldest son, should apostate from religion. "
The Pope even threatened to refuse Ferdinand I to recognize his empire. The situation escalated when Pfauser was expelled from the Viennese court in 1560. In this situation Maximilian sent requests for help to his Protestant friends, but all of them were rejected. He had no choice but to bow to family policy. At the beginning of 1562 he made a pledge of loyalty to his father to remain in the bosom of the Catholic Church. The Pope personally granted Maximilian the lay chalice under many conditions . The German election and the Hungarian coronation as well as the hope for the Spanish throne in place of Don Carlos played a major role in the commitment to Catholicism.
Succession to the father
With the external adjustment to the religious and political conditions, the way to the successor of Ferdinand was free. Only now did Philip II finally give up the plan for an imperial candidacy. Bohemia already paid homage to him as king on September 20, 1562 (he was recognized as his successor on February 14, 1549 before he went to Spain). After difficult negotiations on November 24, 1562, an electoral convention elected him Roman-German king , the coronation followed two days later. One innovation was that the coronation no longer took place in Aachen , but also in Frankfurt am Main . This was due to the fact that the new Archbishop of Cologne had not yet received the episcopal ordination, but it meant a permanent departure from the coronation ceremony in Aachen. One year later, on September 8, 1563 in Pressburg, he was coronated King of Hungary. Significantly, communion was dispensed with during the ceremonies.
Maximilian had already gained political influence in the last few years of Ferdinand. He had good relations with the imperial princes and in particular with his brother-in-law Albrecht V of Bavaria . Ultimately, both sought in vain a reform of the Catholic Church including the abolition of celibacy and the laity cup .
On July 25, 1564 Maximilian succeeded his father as emperor and sovereign in the Archduchy of Austria . But he did not get all the power in the hereditary lands. Rather, the father had bequeathed Tyrol and the foreland to Ferdinand, and Inner Austria with Styria, Carinthia, Carniola as well as Istria (coastal regions) and Friuli (Gorizia) to Karl. Maximilian stayed in Upper and Lower Austria with the royal seat of Vienna and the Hungarian-Bohemian countries. As a result, there were clear differences between the three sovereigns, especially in religious policy. In contrast to the Kaiser, the two brothers Karl and Ferdinand were staunch representatives of the Counter-Reformation .
The change at the top of the empire did not mean a structural break. Rather, Maximilian used his father's adviser. In the area of imperial politics, the imperial vice chancellors Johann Ulrich Zasius , Georg Sigmund Seld and Johann Baptist Weber were the most important. His compromise policy on religious issues was not fundamentally different from that of his father. He benefited from the fact that the leading imperial princes had no interest in fundamentally questioning the Augsburg religious peace.
While there have been approaches to cross-territorial administration in the Austrian hereditary lands since his father's time, Bohemia and Hungary were only bound to the House of Habsburg by the dynasty. All individual territories, including those of the hereditary lands, had a pronounced national awareness and had self-confident estates that could use the sovereign's financial shortage to protect the interests of the country. In Hungary and Bohemia in particular, the support of the House of Habsburg was still low. An important aspect for the acceptance of the rule was the Ottoman threat especially to Hungary.
The society in Habsburg-ruled royal Hungary was divided into various class and denominational groups. Magnates and high clergy were more indulgent to Maximilian than the lower nobility. Overall, the emperor could hardly really influence the internal relations of Hungary. After all, the struggle against the Turks forced the country to a certain degree of unity. Western Hungary raised considerable funds for defensive struggle, although the border war strained the country. Overall, Hungary contributed around 40% to the income of the Viennese court.
Religious Policy in the Hereditary Lands
In the Austrian nobility (after a first wave at the beginning of the Reformation ) the urge towards the Protestant denomination increased in the 1560s. A large part of the nobility had converted to Lutheranism by this time. This was especially true for Upper and Lower Austria as well as in Inner Austria, less so for Tyrol and Vorarlberg. Associated with the denomination was the defense of the rights of the estates. So they were in conflict with the respective sovereigns. Due to the need to raise taxes associated with the Turkish threat, no recatholicization was possible, even if Maximilian had wanted it. "The Turk is the Lutheran happiness," it said.
Maximilian's religious policy was comparatively tolerant; he always tried to occupy a middle position between the denominations. In his Austrian hereditary lands , he endeavored in this connection to bring about a general comparison of religions , that is, he wanted to reunite the denominations. In doing so, he failed to recognize that with the end of the Council of Trent there was a dogmatic demarcation between Catholicism and Protestantism. Even remaining loyal to the old church to the outside world, despite reservations he promoted the reform efforts of the Jesuits and tended towards a state church system. He founded the monastery council as a sovereign authority against the advance of a Lutheran church, which was dominated by estates. This had the task of safeguarding the rights and property of monasteries, foundations and Catholic parishes. The institution became an important tool, on the one hand, to exert sovereign influence on the Catholic Church and, on the other, to protect Catholicism in the country.
However, he was not interested in a principle exemption from the evangelical creed, which would have meant a final split from the Roman Catholic Church. Only when he came under increasing financial pressure in terms of foreign policy due to the constant Turkish wars, in September 1568, after a high tax permit, he offered the Austrian estates the granting of a religious license. However, this was only a preliminary recognition. This made Maximilian dependent on a church order that could guarantee a certain standardization in terms of teaching and worship. In 1570 an agende was published for the Austrian Ständekirche and on January 11, 1571 he issued a religious assuration. However, this did not mean religious freedom in the current sense, because the concession was only valid for the Augsburg Confession of 1530. Calvinists were therefore still excluded, and the concession was limited to the classes of the nobility and knighthood , while the cities were excluded. The departure of urban Protestants, especially from the city of Vienna, to worship services in the surrounding aristocratic seats was a consequence of these regulations. However, the Protestants interpreted the concessions as far as possible in their favor. The nobility and in some cases the cities often de facto claimed the jus reformandi for themselves. Evangelical preachers were also employed in sovereign and spiritual areas. The Protestant state schools in Vienna, Krems and other places were expanded. Overall, the emergence of a Lutheran church in Upper and Lower Austria was characterized by the estates.
Religious Policy in Bohemia
Maximilian's religious policy in Bohemia essentially corresponded to that in the hereditary lands. In Moravia, two Jesuit colleges were founded in Olomouc and Brno. This sustained Catholicism in this area. Maximilian renewed an older mandate against the brother union . So they were threatened with persecution. In doing so, however, he triggered an opposition movement among the neo- utraquist majority of the Bohemian estates. At the general assembly of 1569/70, the estates refused him the taxes he was asked to pay. At the state parliament of 1575 Maximilian managed to come to a compromise with the estates. Maximilian granted the stands the Confessio Bohemica . However, this was not done in a majesty letter, but only verbally. The Bohemian Confession was a church system with Lutheran features. In other ways, too, he accommodated the stands. This courtesy was a prerequisite for the estates to elect Maximilian's son Rudolf as king.
Religious Policy in the Reich
Maximilian's religious policy initially aimed at a reunification of the denominations, but this failed at the Augsburg Reichstag in 1566, on the one hand because of the consolidation of the denominational camps and because of the appearance of the Reformed, unnamed in religious peace. The fact that Bavaria had switched to a counter-Reformation course also played a role. Ultimately, it turned out that the process of confessionalization could no longer be stopped by the emperor either. In the following years, the imperial religious policy in the empire remained defensive and it was essentially limited to the defense of the Augsburg religious peace.
He had already pursued this policy at the Reichstag in 1566, when he, together with the Lutheran imperial estates of Württemberg and Pfalz-Neuburg, opposed those of Elector Friedrich III. The Calvinist Reformation carried out by the Palatinate turned the Electoral Palatinate. However, the resistance failed due to the attitude of other Lutheran classes. Maximilian refused to soften the spiritual reservation laid down in religious peace in favor of the free choice of denominations for clergy princes, also in order to demonstrate his questioned Catholic denomination.
Protestantism continued to spread in the empire. In northern Germany, a number of monasteries were actually secularized, particularly in the 1560s and 1570s. This happened against the spirit of religious peace. But Maximilian's ability to intervene in northern Germany was so limited that he could not do anything about it. There was no solution to this problem in its time, rather it became a long-term area of conflict. Various secular territories such as Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel in 1568 went over to Protestantism.
Maximilian was criticized by the Pope and Philip II for his moderate religious policy. The Spanish king tried to influence the emperor through his envoys and through his sister Maria. Maximilian agreed to raise his sons at the Spanish court in the hope that one of the sons could inherit the Spanish throne.
Domestically, the imperial knights hoped to join forces with the emperor against the sovereigns. In the Grumbach feud , Maximilian did not meet these expectations, but instead handed over the execution of the Reich against Wilhelm von Grumbach in 1567 to the Elector August of Saxony. Grumbach was quartered and its protector Johann Friedrich von Sachsen lost his rule and was imprisoned in Wiener Neustadt . In this affair, the Reich Execution Law came into full effect for the first time. The suppression of the affair marked the end of medieval feuds in the empire. The formation of a corporation of the imperial knighthood was not hindered. Rather, they, like the imperial counts, found their permanent place in the imperial association through an imperial privilege of 1566. They were obliged to pay taxes directly to the emperor.
With regard to the institutions of the Reich, the priority of the Reichstag was clarified in 1564 over the Reichsdeputationtage . The Electoral Council also solidified . The imperial circles gained political importance. The Reich legislation lost momentum, however. The most important was the coinage order of 1566. The articles of war adopted at the Reichstag in Speyer in 1570 were also important. These tried to push back some excesses in the mercenary system. However, the plan to subordinate the central military power of the empire to the emperor failed. The princes' distrust of imperial obesity played an important role. The Reich Police Order of 1570 brought hardly anything new compared to older regulations. The boom of the Reich Chamber Court continued in Maximilian's time.
In terms of foreign policy, the war against the Ottomans played an important role. The background was the disputes between Maximilian and Johann Sigismund Zápolya , who ruled the Transylvanian part of Hungary and was allied with the Ottomans. He used the opportunity to take action against the Habsburgs after Ferdinand's death. At first he was successful, but was pushed back by the imperial forces, who in turn invaded Transylvania. This meant the intervention of the Ottomans on the side of their allies. For the war, the Reichstag approved a large amount of Turkish aid in the amount of 24 Roman months in 1566 . This corresponds roughly to the sum of 1.7 million guilders.
The imperial general Lazarus von Schwendi succeeded in taking the fortresses Tokaj and Szerencs . The imperial army was unusually large with 86,000 men. The Ottoman army was about 100,000 strong. It was led by Süleyman I. The Ottomans marched into Hungary in the spring of 1566. Their aim was to take the fortresses of Gyula , Szigeth and Eger . The emperor and his brothers had personally joined the army. The main imperial army was at Raab and above all protected the city of Vienna. The Imperialists were relatively inactive. Suleyman besieged the bitterly defended city of Szigeth . The sultan died in the siege. After his death, the city was conquered. As a result, the invasion largely collapsed. Maximilian could not use his advantage after the death of Suleyman I. In 1567 one could not achieve any successes worth mentioning and Maximilian turned out to be militarily little gifted. With Sultan Selim II he concluded the peace of Adrianople , which confirmed the mutual ownership of land and recognized Zápolya as the prince of Transylvania. The emperor had to agree to an annual tribute of 30,000 ducats. Johann Sigmund Zápolya renounced the Hungarian royal title in 1570 and joined the peace. This was completed for eight years and was extended several times. The guerrilla war on the borders continued. But the empire and most of Habsburg Hungary were spared major battles with the Ottomans for the next 25 years. The Holy League against the Ottomans at the beginning of the 1570s did not join the emperor or empire.
Marriage and foreign policy
Maximilian pursued a pronounced marriage policy. The plans to marry Charles II of Inner Austria to Elisabeth of England failed. In 1570 his daughter Elisabeth was married to the French King Charles IX in a double wedding . and Anna married to Philip II. Three of his sisters were married to Italian princes. Two of his sisters were successively wives of the Polish King Sigismund II August.
The revolt of the Netherlands against Spanish rule led to a new internal family dispute between the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs . Maximilian was concerned that the uprising could also affect the Reich and, above all, did not want to see the religious compromise of the Augsburg religious peace jeopardized. So he tried to mediate and asked Philip II to have a moderating effect on his son Don Carlos. Philipp rejected this request as interference. The political situation, however, remained unresolved. Maximilian was unable to intervene militarily in the Netherlands. However, he forbade the insurgents to recruit troops in the Reich. On the other hand, he rejected the admission of the Duke of Alba to the Landsberger Bund .
Maximilian was very interested in Italy. He was critical of the election of Pope Pius V. Against the will of the emperor, Pope raised Cosimo I of Medici to Grand Duke. Linked to this was the distancing from the fiefdom of imperial Italy at the coronation in 1570 . Thereupon there were disputes between the emperor and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany . It was only when the Milanese re-recognized their feudal dependence on the emperor that the conflict was resolved. Like his father, Maximilian had to watch the Spaniards grow in power at the expense of the imperial fiefs in Italy. This repeatedly led to tensions with Spain, without the emperor really being able to take action against it. These Italian conflicts were one reason why Maximilian did not participate in the Holy League against the Ottomans.
After the death of the Polish King Sigismund II August, Ernst , a son of Maximilian, applied for the Polish royal crown. He was supported by the Pope and Philip II. He was defeated by Heinrich von Anjou , who made far greater promises to the voters. After he left Poland to become King of France, Maximilian himself ran for successor. In 1575 both he and the prince of Transylvania Stefan Báthory were elected. The latter was able to maintain this position.
Succession and death
Maximilian began to arrange his successor at an early stage. He had reservations about his eldest son Rudolf , not least because he was brought up at the Spanish court. Ernst , his second son, although he also grew up in Spain, was the only person he could trust. Maximilian knew that it would be difficult for his Catholic son to assert himself in the empire. However, he succeeded in successfully exploiting internal Protestant differences. As early as 1571 he appointed him regent in Austria, in 1572 he became king of Hungary, and in 1575 also king of Bohemia. Ernst took over Inner Austria as guardian of the young Archduke Ferdinand (III.) , While in Upper Austria (Tyrol) Maximilian's brother Ferdinand II was still prince. In 1575, Rudolf was elected Roman-German King at the Reichstag in Regensburg . A year later, the Reichstag in Regensburg also saw the emperor's need for additional money in connection with the Turkish war. The Protestants took advantage of this situation to finally meet the old demand for exemption, i.e. H. to enforce free choice of religion by the clergy. The emperor still succeeded in repelling this advance, but he died in the further course of the Reichstag after neither his personal physician Crato von Krafftheim was able to cure the existing disease nor the Ulm doctor Agatha Streicher (a follower of the spiritualistic teachings of Kaspar Schwenckfeld ) could prevent death . He had refused the catholic sacraments .
He is buried in St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague Castle .
- Providebit Deus : God will protect.
Under Maximilian II, the Habsburgs began marrying each other, which tied the network of the Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs against the arch enemy France and the Ottoman Empire ever closer. Maximilian married his cousin Maria of Spain (1528–1603), daughter of Emperor Charles V , in 1548 :
- Anna (1549–1580), Queen of Spain ⚭ 1570 King Philip II of Spain, son of the Roman-German Emperor Charles V and his wife Isabella of Portugal
- Ferdinand (1551–1552)
- Rudolf II. (1552–1612), Roman-German Emperor (II.) (•• betrothed) Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, daughter of Philip II.
- Ernst (III.) (1553–1595), governor in the Netherlands
- Elisabeth (1554–1592), Queen of France ⚭ 1570 King Charles IX. of France, son of the French King Henry II and his wife Princess Catherine de Medici
- Maria (1555–1556)
- Matthias (1557–1619), Roman-German Emperor ⚭ 1611 Archduchess Anna of Austria-Tyrol , daughter of Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria-Tyrol and his wife Princess Anna Katharina Gonzaga of Mantua
- NN (* / † stillborn son October 20, 1557)
- Maximilian III (1558–1618), Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
- Albrecht VII (1559–1621), Viceroy of Portugal and governor of the Spanish Netherlands ⚭ 1599 Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, daughter of Philip II and his wife Princess Elisabeth of Valois
- Wenceslas (1561–1578), Grand Prior of the Order of St. John in Castile
- Friedrich (1562–1563)
- Maria (* / † 1564)
- Karl (1565–1566)
- Margarethe (1567–1633), nun in the Descalzas Reales in Madrid
- Eleanor (1568-1580)
|Pedigree of Emperor Maximilian II|
Władysław II Jagiełło (1362–1434),
Jean IV. De Foix-Grailly (1410–1485)
Casimir IV Jagiełło (1427–1492),
King Philip I (Castile) (1478–1506)
King Vladislav II (Bohemia and Hungary) (1456–1516)
Emperor Ferdinand I (1503–1564)
Maximilian II. (1527–1576), Holy Roman Emperor
- Grete Mecenseffy: Maximilian II in a new perspective . In: Yearbook of the Society for the History of Protestantism in Austria 92 (1976), pp. 42–53.
- Volker Press : Maximilian II. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 16, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-428-00197-4 , pp. 471-475 ( digitized version ).
- Friedrich Edelmayer (Ed.): Emperor Maximilian II. Culture and politics in the 16th century . Oldenbourg, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-486-55932-X .
- Andreas Edel: The Kaiser and Electoral Palatinate. A study on the basic elements of political action in Maximilian II (1564–1576) . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1997, ISBN 3-525-36051-7 .
- Paula Sutter Fichtner: Emperor Maximilian II. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, Conn. u. a. 2001, ISBN 0-300-08527-3 .
- Richard Reifenscheid: The Habsburgs in Life Pictures . Piper, Munich / Zurich 2007, ISBN 978-3-492-24753-5 .
- Literature by and about Maximilian II in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Maximilian II in the German Digital Library
- Entry on Emperor Maximilian II in the database of the state's memory of the history of Lower Austria ( Museum Niederösterreich )
- ↑ a b Brigitte Vacha (Ed.): The Habsburgs. A European family story . Vienna 1992, p. 158.
- ↑ a b c Volker Press: Maximilian II. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie 16 (1990), p. 471.
- ↑ Manfred Rudersdorf: Maximilian II. In: The emperors of the modern times. Munich 1990, p. 81.
- ↑ Manfred Rudersdorf: Maximilian II. In: The emperors of the modern times. Munich 1990, pp. 81-82.
- ↑ Brigitte Vacha (ed.): The Habsburgs. A European family story . Vienna 1992, pp. 158–159.
- ↑ Hans Heiss: The way of the "Elephant". History of a large inn since 1551 . Bolzano-Vienna 2002.
- ↑ a b Volker Press: Maximilian II. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie 16 (1990), p. 472.
- ↑ Volker Press: Maximilian II. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie 16 (1990), pp. 471–472.
- ↑ Brigitte Vacha (ed.): The Habsburgs. A European family story . Vienna 1992, pp. 170-171.
- ^ A b Manfred Rudersdorf: Maximilian II. In: The emperors of the modern times. Munich 1990, p. 82.
- ↑ Brigitte Vacha (ed.): The Habsburgs. A European family story . Vienna 1992, p. 159.
- ↑ Horst Rabe: Empire and religious split. Germany 1500–1600 . Munich 1989, pp. 319-320.
- ↑ Quoted from Brigitte Vacha (Ed.): Die Habsburger. A European family story . Vienna 1992, p. 159.
- ↑ Brigitte Vacha (ed.): The Habsburgs. A European family story . Vienna 1992, p. 160.
- ↑ Manfred Rudersdorf: Maximilian II. In: The emperors of the modern times. Munich 1990, p. 87.
- ^ A b Manfred Rudersdorf: Maximilian II. In: The emperors of the modern times. Munich 1990, p. 90.
- ↑ Brigitte Vacha (ed.): The Habsburgs. A European family story . Vienna 1992, p. 162.
- ↑ Manfred Rudersdorf: Maximilian II. In: The emperors of the modern times. Munich 1990, p. 88.
- ↑ Manfred Rudersdorf: Maximilian II. In: The emperors of the modern times. Munich 1990, p. 89.
- ^ A b c Maximilian Lanzinner: Maximilian II. Contribution to the residency commission
- ↑ Brigitte Vacha (ed.): The Habsburgs. A European family story . Vienna 1992, p. 166.
- ↑ Volker Press: Maximilian II. In: Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Volume 22, Berlin 1992, p. 296.
- ↑ Horst Rabe: Empire and religious split. Germany 1500–1600 . Munich 1989, p. 321.
- ↑ Volker Press: Maximilian II. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie 16 (1990), pp. 472-473.
- ↑ Horst Rabe: Empire and religious split. Germany 1500–1600 . Munich 1989, p. 320.
- ↑ Brigitte Vacha (ed.): The Habsburgs. A European family story . Vienna 1992, p. 168.
- ↑ Horst Rabe: Empire and religious split. Germany 1500–1600 . Munich 1989, pp. 320-321.
- ↑ a b c d e f Volker Press: Maximilian II. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie 16 (1990), p. 473.
- ↑ Volker Press: Maximilian II. In: Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Volume 22, Berlin 1992, p. 296.
- ↑ Horst Rabe: Empire and religious split. Germany 1500–1600 . Munich 1989, p. 326.
- ↑ Horst Rabe: Empire and religious split. Germany 1500–1600 . Munich 1989, p. 317.
- ↑ Manfred Rudersdorf: Maximilian II. In: The emperors of the modern times. Munich 1990, p. 95.
- ↑ Volker Press: Maximilian II. In: Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Volume 22, Berlin 1992, p. 297.
- ↑ Manfred Rudersdorf: Maximilian II. In: The emperors of the modern times. Munich 1990, p. 94.
- ↑ Horst Rabe: Empire and religious split. Germany 1500–1600 . Munich 1989, p. 315.
- ↑ Manfred Rudersdorf: Maximilian II. In: The emperors of the modern times. Munich 1990, p. 97.
- ↑ a b Horst Rabe: Empire and split in faith. Germany 1500–1600 . Munich 1989, p. 309.
- ↑ Brigitte Vacha (ed.): The Habsburgs. A European family story . Vienna 1992.
- ↑ Brigitte Vacha (ed.): The Habsburgs. A European family story . Vienna 1992, pp. 165-166.
- ↑ Horst Rabe: Empire and religious split. Germany 1500–1600 . Munich 1989, p. 310.
- ^ Norbert Conrads: Anna Würster, the first privileged medicin Silesia (1657). In: Konrad Goehl , Johannes Gottfried Mayer (Hrsg.): Editions and studies on Latin and German specialist prose of the Middle Ages. Ceremony for Gundolf Keil on his 65th birthday, Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2000 (= texts and knowledge , 3), p. 1–15, here: p. 9 f.
- ↑ Manfred Rudersdorf: Maximilian II. In: The emperors of the modern times . Munich 1990, p. 96.
(as reigning Archduke)
Regent (governor) of Lower Austria
|himself (as reigning archduke)
(governor 1571: Rudolf )
King of Bohemia , etc.
King of Hungary , Croatia and Slavonia , etc.
Archduke of Austria , etc.
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia and Hungary|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 31, 1527|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Vienna|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 12, 1576|
|Place of death||regensburg|