Johanna (Castile)

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Joan of Castile

Joanna I of Castile , called Joanna the Mad (Spanish Juana I de Castilla or Juana la Loca ; * November 6, 1479 in Toledo ; †  April 12,  1555 in Tordesillas ), from the House of Trastámara, was Queen of Castile from 1504 and from 1516 Queen of the Kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon . She was excluded from government business because of a suspected or at least intermittent mental illness. From 1507 to 1516 her father Ferdinand II of Aragon took the reigntrue for them in Castile. From 1516 she was queen together with her son Karl .


Johanna came from the House of Trastámara , a dynasty that was formed by Henry II, King of Castile and León (1369-1379), an illegitimate son of King Alfonso XI. († 1350), and through this derives from the House of Burgundy-Ivrea . It ruled the kingdoms of Castile and León from 1126 and in Burgundy can be traced back to the first half of the 9th century.

Under the grandsons of Henry II, the House of Trastámara was divided into two lines: Henry III. († 1406) became the progenitor of the older line, the kings of Castile and León , the brother Ferdinand I († 1416) became the progenitor of the younger line, the kings of Aragón .

Both lines were united in Johanna, as she descended on the father's side from the younger line and on the mother's side from the older line of the House of Trastámara. Her mother, Queen Isabella I , "the Catholic" (* April 22, 1451, † November 26, 1504), ruled from 1474 until her death in 1504 suo iure as Queen of Castile , León , Galicia , Asturias , Toledo , Seville , Córdoba , Murcia , Jaén , Gibraltar , the Canary Islands and since 1492 also as Queen of Granada and "Queen of the Islands and the mainland of the ocean" (the newly discovered territories in America ). Her father, King Ferdinand II , "the Catholic" (* March 10, 1452, † January 23, 1516) ruled in his own right from 1479 to 1516 as King of Aragón and as King of Sicily , Naples , Navarra , Corsica , Sardinia and since 1492 also as King of Granada and "King of the Islands and the mainland of the ocean", whereby he was also iure uxoris king of the territories of the wife from 1474 through his marriage until her death.


Childhood and adolescence

Johanna as a young woman

Johanna was the third child and the second daughter of Isabella and Ferdinand II. She was Infanta of Aragon and Castile, but initially with no prospect of inheriting the crowns of her parents. She attracted attention early on because of her unusual seriousness and introverted behavior. Contemporaries describe her as very small and delicate, with large dark eyes, sensitive, sensual and as extraordinary beauty. She was in good physical health and condition, and was considered closed and silent. Together with her siblings, she was mainly educated and taught by clergymen. She was fluent in Latin, Italian and German. After her marriage to Philip the Fair , she still learned French. Music was her favorite subject, and even as a girl she played the vihuela and the clavichord very well . She knew the contemporary classics, corresponded with Erasmus von Rotterdam on philosophical subjects and was not only admired by him for her intelligence.

Her sisters became queens in England and Portugal : Catherine was married to the English Crown Prince Arthur Tudor and, after his death, to his brother King Henry VIII of England ; Isabella and, after her death, Maria , were successively wives of King Emanuel I of Portugal .

Marriage to Philip the Fair of Austria

Philip I, called the Fair, consort of Joanna of Castile

In the course of an alliance with the House of Habsburg , she was married to the only son of Emperor Maximilian I , Philip the Fair , Archduke of Austria (* 1478, † 1506), since 1494 Duke of Burgundy . Her brother, the heir to the throne John of Aragón and Castile, married his sister, Margaret of Austria , in 1497 . Through this Spanish-Austrian double wedding, France was framed by Habsburg possessions from the south, north and east, which was the basis for the centuries-old Habsburg-French conflict .

Her fiance met Johanna about a month after after an arduous voyage in Arnemuiden had gone ashore because he was with his father Maximilian I hunting in Tyrol was. When the two met on October 20, 1496, according to contemporary reports, they fell in love so much that Philip immediately had the wedding in the monastery of Lier performed by the chaplain Don Diego Ramiréz. Johanna loved her husband dearly and was very jealous. At times she endeavored to remove every woman from Philip's environment. Their marriage resulted in six children, all of whom were born healthy and reached adulthood; the two sons became Holy Roman Emperors, the four daughters queens.

Crown Princess

In 1497 her brother, the heir to the throne, John Infant of Aragón and Castile, died unexpectedly. His widow Margarete was pregnant at the time of his death, but suffered a stillbirth. The next in line of succession was Ferdinand and Isabella's eldest daughter Isabella , with the Portuguese King Manuel I was married. However, she died giving birth to her son Miguel , who was now the heir to the throne of both Portugal and Spain, but also died at the age of two.

With this, Johanna became heir to the throne herself in 1500. She therefore traveled with Archduke Philip from the Netherlands to Spain, where both were recognized as heir to the throne by the Cortes , the Castilian assembly of estates, on May 22, 1502 after taking the corresponding oaths in the Cathedral of Toledo , making Joan Princess of Asturias . While Johanna stayed in Spain at the request of her parents, Philip returned to Burgundy in 1503 to exercise the government there. Her mother prevented her from returning to Burgundy and had the Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela , Alonso II. Fonseca , arrest her in the Castillo de La Mota (in Medina del Campo ). It was only after a serious argument that Isabella finally let her daughter move in June 1504.

Queen of Castile

Johanna and her father Ferdinand, bronze statues in the court church in Innsbruck

Soon afterwards, on November 26th, 1504, her mother, Queen Isabella of Castile, died. Since she had appointed Johanna as her successor in her will, her father Ferdinand II declared her Queen of Castile, but continued to rule as regent . Johanna's husband, Archduke Philipp - now nominal co-king - described himself in a document dated January 18, 1505 as "Philippe par la grace de Dieu roy de Castille, de Leon, de Grenade, archiduc d'Autriche etc." (Philipp, von Gottes Grace King of Castile, León and Granada, Archduke of Austria etc.) He was not ready to give up power, which is why after lengthy negotiations on November 24th 1505 the agreement of Salamanca was reached, after which he and Joan as King of Castile was recognized. Ferdinand was granted the title of permanent regent (gobernador) in case Philip was not in Castile. In the kingdoms of the Crown of Castile, Ferdinand continued to rule as long as Johanna and Philip were not in Castile.

During a trip to Castile, where Philip wanted to rule, he got caught in a storm with his fleet of 40 ships with Johanna and a large entourage. After some ships sank in the English Channel , the royal couple sought refuge with the rest of the fleet in the port of Portland in England . She stayed in England for three months and was warmly received by King Henry VII. Johanna visited her youngest sister Katharina. The journey continued in April 1506. Instead of going ashore in the Cantabrian Laredo as planned , Philipp and Johanna drove to La Coruña in Galicia to gain time, because Philipp wanted to secure the support of as many parts of the Castilian estates as possible before meeting his father-in-law. He managed to secure the support of a large part of the Castilian nobility and thus to create the basis for the Treaty of Villafáfila concluded on June 27, 1506 , in which Ferdinand renounced the reign of the lands of the Crown of Castile and withdrew Castile withdrew.

With this agreement - not least thanks to the mediation of Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros , Archbishop of Toledo - a civil war could be avoided. King Ferdinand then signed a secret document in front of his closest advisers, according to which he would have consented to the treaty against his will; he regards it as void in his conscience.

Casa del Cordón, where King Philip I died in 1506

Philip had not yet achieved his goal of gaining full power. He intended to have Johanna von den Cortes declared as mentally ill and therefore incapable of governing. The high nobility, led by the Admiral of Castile Fadrique Enríquez de Velasco , a relative of the queen, denied Joan's inability to rule. After a direct conversation with her - without the companion through which she was otherwise isolated - the nobles found that they had by no means gained the impression that Johanna was crazy. The representatives of the cities made a similar statement. With that, Philip's plan had failed; the Cortes paid homage to Johanna on July 12, 1506 in the city of Valladolid as Queen and him as her husband and "real and legitimate master". Almost two months later, on September 25, 1506, King Philip I suddenly died at the age of 28 of a fever in Burgos .

Sole ruler of Castile

Now the question of reign arose again. Queen Isabella had decreed in her will that in the event that "Johanna does not want to or cannot fulfill her duties as queen", her father should exercise the regency. The leading aristocracy apparently assumed that this was the case and decided on the eve of Philip's death to set up a provisional Regency Council. In addition to the chairman, Archbishop Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros , he included: The Admiral of Castile, Fadrique Enríquez de Velasco , the Connétable of Castile, Bernardino Fernández de Velasco y Mendoza , Pedro Manrique de Lara y Sandoval, the Duque (Duke) of Nájera (* 1443; † 1515), Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y Luna, the Duke del Infantado , Andrés del Burgo, the ambassador of Emperor Maximilian I and Filiberto de Vere, the chief steward of the late King Philip I.

Johanna wanted to rule independently as Queen of Castile. She therefore began to revise her husband's decisions and endeavored to reactivate the royal council as it had existed under her parents. The chairman of the Regency Council, Archbishop Cisneros, who, in addition to health reasons, had serious reservations about Joanna because of her lack of religiosity in particular, and who referred to Queen Isabella's will, invited King Ferdinand II to Castile - without dealing with Joanna to come and take over the reign there. Johanna refused to accept her father as regent and forbade Archbishop Cisneros to enter her palace. Cisneros' attempt to legalize Ferdinand's reign over the Cortes failed because of Johanna's refusal to convene the Cortes. So she ruled alone for the time being, without a regent.

Loss of power and custody in Tordesillas

Her father King Ferdinand II devoted himself to the task of permanently connecting the Kingdom of Naples with the Kingdom of Aragon. He was not prepared to give up this project in favor of the reign of Castile. He carried out the incorporation of Naples (which would last into the 18th century); but he did not succeed in obtaining formal investiture from Pope Julius II (who ruled from 1503 to 1513) . After eight months in Naples , he returned to Valencia on July 25, 1507 and met his daughter Johanna in Tortolés on August 29. This turned out to be less confused than overwhelmed and wanted to transfer all government business to him. Ferdinand stayed in Tortolés for a month with his daughter - where Philip's still unburied body was - and from there settled the ongoing internal problems. There was no formal change, as all documents were still made out in Queen Johanna's name. In fact, however, King Ferdinand alone determined politics for the next eight years. In February 1509, Ferdinand II ordered Joan's arrest in the royal palace of Tordesillas (demolished in 1773) (in the province of Valladolid). Obviously, in order to consolidate his own reign in Castile, to finally rule out a possible reign of Emperor Maximilian I in Castile and at the same time to take the wind out of the sails of the noble party that supported Johanna.

English marriage project

At that time an unexpected offer came from England. King Henry VII Tudor of England (* 1457; † 1509), widowed since 1503, had received papal dispensation after the death of his eldest son Arthur Tudor , Prince of Wales, to marry his widow, Catherine of Aragon, herself or her to marry his younger son Heinrich. Since Johanna, Katharina's older sister and universal heiress of Spain, was now widowed and therefore available, he proposed a new dynastic union to King Ferdinand II: he himself wanted to take Johanna as his wife and make her Queen of England. King Ferdinand, who saw through the obvious purpose of this marriage - to secure the succession to the Spanish crown for the Tudors - responded with a diplomatic maneuver: He first clarified the succession by appointing his grandson Archduke Charles of Austria as his successor and prince of Asturias confirmed. At the same time he proposed another marriage alliance: his heir Karl should be married to Mary Tudor (1496–1533), a daughter of King Henry VII. This would give the future king of Spain a claim to the English crown. Henry VII could not pursue his project any further because he died on April 21, 1509. His successor Henry VIII, following his father's policy, married the widow of his older brother - Katharina von Aragón , Joan's youngest sister - on June 3, 1509 .

Reign of Ferdinand II.

King Ferdinand II had actually settled the question of regency by interning his daughter, but she lacked international and domestic legal recognition. In particular, it was unclear how Emperor Maximilian I would react to the new situation. This is where the diplomatic skill of the Primate of Spain, Archbishop Cisneros, came into play, who used the failures of the imperial campaign in Italy to conclude an agreement with which Maximilian I recognized Ferdinand's reign in Castile on December 12, 1509 in return for appropriate economic concessions. A year later, King Ferdinand also succeeded in convincing the Cortes, who formally recognized him as regent of Castile in 1510. Supported by Archbishop Cisneros, for whom the king procured the cardinal's hat, Ferdinand pursued an expansive policy, undertook expeditions to North Africa, which he conquered in 1512 Kingdom of Navarre , which he incorporated into the kingdoms of the Crown of Castile and died in 1516 as the most powerful European ruler of his time.

Queen of Castile and Aragon

After the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, according to the provisions of his will, his daughter Johanna followed nominally as ruler of the lands of the Crown of Aragon. However, due to the complex structure of the fueros, that is, the national laws of the sub-kingdoms combined in the Kingdom of Aragón, it was not recognized by everyone. In fact, the power of government in both kingdoms was in the hands of the respective regents: In Aragón from 1517 to 1520 in the hands of Alfonso of Aragon , Archbishop of Saragossa , who was an illegitimate son of King Ferdinand II of Aragon. In Castile it was in the hands of Cardinal Cisnerus until he handed over the reign to King Charles I.

Real minted in Mexico with the inscription KAROLVS ET IOANA ( obverse ) HISPANIARVM ET INDIA ( reverse ) - as well as PLUS in the coat of arms of Charles

The then 16-year-old Archduke Karl of Austria, since 1506 Duke of Burgundy, claimed - without any legal basis - all titles that his mother was entitled to. Both were therefore jointly referred to as rulers of Castile and Aragon. Johanna, although imprisoned in Tordesillas for over 40 years under her son King Karl, remained formally queen. Her name appears in the first place on all jointly signed documents, as she had never waived her rights and was neither declared incapable of governing by the Cortes nor was she ever deprived of her royal title. However, she could not exercise effective power.

Unable to govern in Tordesillas

Tomb for Philip I and Joan of Castile in the Capilla Real in Granada

According to contemporary reports, after the early death of her husband in 1506, Johanna suffered a serious mental disorder. Accordingly, she refused to hand over the coffin with Philip's body, which she opened regularly to make sure that Philip was only sleeping. However, there are also statements that she only opened the coffin once, as was expected of her, to check that it contained the correct corpse.

Eventually she was arrested under the care of the nuns of the Santa Clara Monastery in Tordesillas . Whether this happened because of their mental state or for reasons of power politics is the subject of research.


Johanna died in 1555 at the age of 75 as a result of being scalded . Her grave is in the Cathedral of Granada , in the Capilla Real , the royal chapel.

Johanna's "madness"

Noticeable behavior

Long before she was referred to as “loca” - that means “foolishly” rather than insane - Johanna had aroused astonishment and rejection in her own family and at court, especially with regard to her husband Philip. Instead of accepting the dynastic spouse determined by her parents for political reasons, she fell in love with Philip and demonstrated this love, regardless of the Spanish court ceremony. Instead of discreetly ignoring her husband's countless affairs, she openly showed her jealousy and amazed with her helpless attempts to keep women away from him.

Her behavior was met with complete incomprehension after the sudden death of her husband on September 25, 1506 in Burgos, as she showed excessive mourning and spent months with her coffin through Castile to bury Philip in the city of Granada, which her parents had conquered in 1492 . What is overlooked is the fact that she wanted to fulfill her husband's last wish and that the delay in the trip was due to the fact that her father deliberately blocked Philip's funeral in Granada.

The decade-long internment and the associated isolation and the sometimes inhumane treatment by the guards had serious negative effects on her psyche. There are only a few objective records of this, which contradictory reports, sometimes about extensive neglect and mental absence, but occasionally also about normal and undisturbed behavior.

Medical reasons

In the official portrayal of her contemporaries, her rule as queen was prevented because she was unable to rule due to a mental illness .

The German historian Gustav Adolf Bergenroth (1813–1869) took a completely different view. In the 1860s, after intensive research in the Archivo General de Simancas (the Spanish state archive in Simancas), he was the first to propose the thesis that Johanna was not insane at all, but the victim of power-political intrigues of her father and later her son Karl I, who only pretended to be insane in order to be able to rule instead of Johanna herself.

However, this thesis was soon contested by another German historian, Wilhelm Maurenbrecher , who also worked in the Simancas archive until 1863.

Since then, a number of medical professionals have sought to diagnose Joan's behavior as melancholy , severe depression , psychosis, or hereditary schizophrenia , the suspicion being that she had her mental illness from her maternal grandmother, Isabella of Portugal (1428-1496 ), the wife of King John II of Castile, who - like Johanna - was interned as a widow in the castle of Arévalo in Ávila and finally died there completely confused.

The nature and severity of the mental and probably also mental disturbance, to which Johanna owes the nickname “the madwoman”, have been examined many times. It is debatable whether this disorder was severe enough to justify its disempowerment and, in particular, its internment.

In the contemporary assessment, however, in addition to court irritations and medical conditions, religious and power-political interests may also have played a role.

Religious motifs

Instead of adhering to the Catholic Church in unconditional faith according to Spanish tradition , she showed a clear lack of faith, avoided confession and even attending mass. Such an attitude was completely unthinkable for the heiress of the "Catholic Kings" - who, in the service of the faith, had conquered the Kingdom of Granada from the Muslims in 1492 and expelled the Jews from Spain. This was kept top secret, but led to constant friction with her mother Isabella, who allegedly punished her with imprisonment at times and even intended to disinherit her because of it.

Naturally, this attitude raised serious concerns about the rule of a non-religious Queen Joanna in Cisneros, the confessor of the "Catholic Queen" Isabella, who later rose to become the primate of Spain, the powerful Grand Inquisitor , and finally the regent of the Kingdom of Castile was undoubtedly to their detriment.

Regarding the neglect of the faith, Johanna's son and heir, Archduke Karl of Austria, was relentless, as he ordered that his mother in Tordesillas should be forced to confess and attend mass - if necessary by force.

Political motives

It should not be forgotten that Johanna, as heir to the largest Christian kingdom at the time, had a double-edged top position, as she was the key to a tremendous increase in power for marriage candidates, while for those seeking the throne from her own family she was primarily a massive obstacle to their succession to the throne.

This applies to her power-conscious father, King Ferdinand II, who not only wanted to rule Castile himself, but was also determined to have a son after his second marriage to Germaine de Foix (* 1488, † 1536) from the Grailly family and to beget heirs and to let him rule over Spain instead of losing it to the house of Austria . This hope was actually fulfilled on May 3, 1509 with the birth of the Infante Juan, but was dashed on the same day with his death. After that, King Ferdinand wanted to keep the previous level of power, at least during his lifetime.

The question of taking power was later also decisive for her son, the ambitious Archduke Karl of Austria, who probably felt little desire to wait decades for his inheritance. For him, therefore, the real or alleged "madness" of his mother was the chance to quickly take control of Castile. The basis of his decision to keep his mother in Tordesillas for decades was a decision of the Cortes of Castile. These had given him - as King Charles I of Castile - the oath of homage in the spring of 1516 only on the condition that "if Juana should regain reason, he would renounce the rule over Castile and everything would be subject to her sole command".

Since this case was not allowed to occur, the fate of his mother Johanna was sealed: As the rightful queen, she had to spend a total of 46 years in lonely, ultimately hopeless imprisonment.


From her birth in 1479, Johanna carried the title of Infanta of Aragon and Castile. By her marriage in 1496 she received the title of her husband without being involved in the rule. She continued this title even after his death. With the death of her siblings Johann and Isabella and their nephew Miguel, she moved to first place in the line of succession in Castile and Aragon. As heir to the throne in Aragon, she therefore carried the title of Princess of Girona . As heir to the throne in Castile, she held the title of Princess of Asturias.

After Queen Isabella's death in 1504, Johanna inherited her mother's titles, which she had inherited from her brother Heinrich or acquired during her reign. These titles are mentioned in the Castilian government documents, which were issued in Joan's name from 1504.

After the death of her father Ferdinand in 1516, Johanna took over his title. These were in part inherited titles from areas for which rule was claimed without the prospect of exercising the rule. After the death of her father, all government documents in the kingdoms of the Crown of Castile were issued in her and on behalf of her son Charles. The common titles were used in the plural. (Not king (rey) and queen (reyna), but kings (reyes)) A document from 1521 lists the following titles:
… kings of Castile, of León , of Aragon, both Sicilies , of Jerusalem , of Navarre , from Granada , Toledo , Valencia , Galicia , Mallorca , Seville , Sardinia, Cordoba , Corsica, Murcia , Jaen , the Algarve, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, and the New World , the islands and the mainland in the ocean, Counts of Barcelona , Lords of Bizkaia and Molina, Dukes of Athens and Neopatria , Counts of Roussillon and Cerdanya , Marquis of Oristano and Gocíano, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Burgundy and Brabant , Counts of Flanders and Tyrol etc.

coat of arms


Johanna's three oldest children: Eleonore, Karl and Isabella (from left)

⚭ October 20, 1496 Philip the Beautiful Archduke of Austria from the House of Habsburg / Felipe de Austria. The children therefore bore the title Archduke or Archduchess of Austria from birth and, from 1505, the title Infanta of Castile.

  1. Eleonore / Leonor (1498–1558), Queen of Portugal and Queen of France by marriage
    1. ⚭ 1519 Manuel I (1469–1521), King of Portugal from the House of Avis
    2. ⚭ 1530 Francis I (1494–1547), King of France from the House of Valois
  2. Charles V / Carlos I (1500–1558), as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (V), as King of Spain (I) - was the founder of the Spanish line of the "House of Austria", the "Casa de Austria" "
    Isabella of Portugal (1503–1539) from the house of Avis
  3. Isabella (Elisabeth) / Isabel (1501–1526)
    Christian II (1481–1559), King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, from the House of Oldenburg
  4. Ferdinand / Ferdinando I. (1503–1564), Archduke of Austria etc., Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, King of Bohemia and Hungary - founder of the Austrian line of the House of Austria, the "Casa de Austria"
    Anna (1503–1547) from the house of the Jagiellonians , daughter of Vladislav II , King of Bohemia and Hungary
  5. Maria (1505–1558)
    Ludwig II. (1506–1526), ​​King of Bohemia and Hungary, from the house of the Jagiellonians
  6. Katharina / Catalina (1507–1578)
    Johann III. (1502–1557), King of Portugal from the House of Avis


Ferdinand I of Aragon (1380-1416)
John II of Aragón (1397–1479)
Eleanor Urraca of Castile (1374–1435)
Ferdinand II of Aragon (1452-1516)
Fadrique Enríquez († 1473)
Juana Enríquez (1425–1468)
Maria Fernández de Córdoba
Joan of Castile (1479–1555)
Henry III. of Castile (1379–1406)
John II of Castile (1405-1454)
Catherine of Lancaster (1373-1418)
Isabella I of Castile (1451–1504)
John of Portugal (1400–1442)
Isabella of Portugal (1428–1496)
Isabella of Braganza (1402–1465)

After-effects in literature, music, film and art

The life story of Johanna der Wahnsinnigen was processed literarily in the novel Johanna the Wahnsinnige by Catherine Hermary-Vieille , published in German in 1994 , and in the 2005 novel by the Nicaraguan writer Gioconda Belli The Manuscript of Seduction . Also Jakob Wassermann's story Donna Joan of Castile (1906) dealt with the substance.

Musically, Gian Carlo Menotti deals with the subject in his opera La Loca (in the early performances: Juana la loca ) from 1979.

In 1980 the artist Wolf Vostell created a cycle of paintings entitled Johanna die Wahnsinnige .

In 2001 Vicente Aranda directed Juana la Loca , the film adaptation of her life story; Pilar López de Ayala received the Goya Prize 2002 for best leading actress for her portrayal of Johannas .

In 2007 the play Johanna, die Wahnsinnige by Heiko Dietz was premiered at the Munich " theater ... und so fort ".

See also


  • Bethany Aram; Susana Jákfalvi-Leiva, Santiago Cantera Montenegro: La reina Juana: Gobierno, piedad y dinastía. Marcial Pons Historia, 2001, ISBN 978-84-95379-31-3 , pp. 158-160.
  • Johan Brouwer: Johanna the mad one. Splendor and misery of a Spanish queen. Hugendubel, Kreuzlingen et al. 2004, ISBN 3-424-01258-0 .
  • Manuel Fernández Álvarez : Johanna the mad. 1479-1555. Queen and prisoners (= Beck'sche Reihe. Vol. 1731). Translated from Spanish by Matthias Strobel. Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-54769-0 .
  • Manuel Fernández Álvarez: Juana I. In: Real Academia de la Historia (ed.): Diccionario Biográfico Español. Vol. 28 Madrid 2011, ISBN 978-84-96849-84-6 , pp. 320-323.
  • Luis Suárez Fernández: Los reyes catolicos. El camino hacia Europe. Rialp, 1990, ISBN 84-321-2589-X (preview) .
  • María A. Gómez; Santiago Juan Navarro, Phyllis Zatlin: Juana of Castile: History and myth of the mad queen. Associated University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8387-5704-8 , pp. 9-13.
  • Nancy Rubin Stuart: Isabella of Castile: The First Renaissance Queen. iUniverse, 2004, ISBN 978-0-595-32076-9 , p. 404.

Web links

Commons : Joan of Castile  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Original text

  1. Don Carlos, por la graçia de Dios, rey de romanos e enperador senper agusto, doña Juana, su madre, y el mismo don Carlos, por la misma graçia, reyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las Dos Seçilias, de Jherusalen, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valençia, de Galicia, de Mallorca, de Sevilla, de Çerdeña, de Cordova, de Córcega, de Murçia, de Jahen, de los Algarves, de Algezira, de Gibraltar, de las Yslas de Canaria, e de las Yndias, Yslas e Tierra Fyrme del Mar Oçeano, condes de Barcelona, ​​señores de Biscaya e de Molina, duques de Atenas e de Neopatria, condes de Ruyçellon e de Çerdania, marqueses de Oristan e de Goçiano, archiduques de Austria, duques de Borgoña e de Bravante, condes de Flandes e de Tyrol, etc.

Individual evidence

  1. European Family Tables , New Series, Volume II .: The states outside of Germany. JA Stargardt, Marburg 1984, plates 66, 65 and 59.
  2. European Family Tables , Volume II .: The states outside Germany. JA Stargardt, Marburg 1984, plate 66.
  3. Manuel Fernández Álvarez: Johanna the Mad 1479–1555. Queen and prisoner. 2005, p. 40 and p. 78.
  4. Juan de Mariana: Historia general de España , pp. 54–56.
  5. Boada Gozalez, Francisco Javier: " Ars Aurificis: Laus Deo, sumptus hominibus". En Miguel Ángel Zalama Rodríguez. Juana I en Tordesillas: Su mundo, su entorno. Ayuntamiento de Tordesillas, Valladolid 2010. ISBN 978-84-932810-9-0 page number is missing.
  6. ^ Joseph Rübsam: Johann Baptista von Taxis . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1889, pp. 188 ff.
  7. ^ Luis Suárez Fernández: El Camino hacia Europa (=  Forjadores de história ). Ediciones Rialp, SA, Madrid 1990, ISBN 84-321-2589-X , p. 347 (Spanish).
  8. Juan de Mariana: Historia general de España , vol. 14, Madrid 1820, p. 54 online at Google.books .
  10. ^ Luis Suárez Fernández: Los reyes catolicos. El camino hacia Europe . Rialp, 1990, ISBN 84-321-2589-X . P. 348 ( online ).
  11. ^ Luis Suárez Fernández: Los reyes catolicos. El camino hacia Europe . Rialp, 1990, ISBN 84-321-2589-X . P. 349 ( online ).
  12. ^ Karl Joseph von Hefele: El cardenal Jiménez de Cisneros y la Iglesia española a fines del siglo XV y principios del XVI . Imprenta del Diario de Barcelona, ​​Barcelona 1869, p. 444 (Spanish, [1] [accessed July 4, 2020]).
  13. Bethany Aram et al .: La reina Juana: gobierno, piedad y dinastía. Santiago 2001. pp. 158ff.
  14. ^ Karl Joseph von Hefele: El Cardenal Jiménez de Cisneros y la iglesia española a fines del siglo XV y principios del XVI, para illustrar la historia de la Inquisición. Imprenta del Diario de Barcelona, ​​Barcelona 1869, p. 150.
  15. Juan Manuel Carretero Zamora: Cortes, monarquía, ciudades. Las Cortes de Castilla a comienzos de la época moderna (1467–1515) . Siglo Veintiuno de España Editores. Madrid 1988, page number missing.
  16. ^ Luis Suárez Fernández: Los reyes catolicos. El camino hacia Europe . Rialp, 1990, ISBN 84-321-2589-X . P. 351 ( online ).
  17. a b Miguel Ángel Zalama: Vida cotidiana y arte en el palacio de la reine Juana I en Tordesillas , Estudios y Documentos, 58, Universidad de Valladolid ; 2000; [2]
  18. Aram etc. op. Cit. Pp. 179-181
  19. Aram etc. op. Cit. P. 159
  20. Walther L. Bernecker ; Horst Pietschmann : History of Spain / From early modern times to the present . 4th edition. W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-17-018766-X , p. 85 f .
  21. Aram etc. op. Cit. P. 161
  22. GOMEZ, María A .; JUAN NAVARRO, Santiago; ZATLIN, Phyllis (2008). Juana of Castile: history and myth of the mad queen pp. 9-13; . Associated University Press. ISBN 978-0-8387-5704-8 .
  23. RUBIN STUART, Nancy (2004). Isabella of Castile: The First Renaissance Queen p. 404; iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-32076-9 .
  24. ^ Cartwright, William Cornwallis (1870). Gustave Bergenroth: a memorial sketchp. Pages 171, 172 [3] .
  25. ^ Cartwright, William Cornwallis (1870). Op. cit. Pages 173-174.
  26. Vostell. Omaggio A Giovanna La Pazza . Il Centro Napoli, Naples 1980
predecessor Office successor
Michael of Avis and Trastámara Princess of Asturias
Charles of Austria and Trastámara
( later Charles I )
Isabella I. and Ferdinand V. Queen of Castile and León
1504–1506 with her husband Philip I
1506–1516 reign of Ferdinand V
1516–1555 with her son Charles I
Charles I.
Ferdinand II Queen of Aragón
with her son Charles I.
Charles I.