Crown of Aragon

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Heraldic shield of the Crown of Aragon

Under the term Crown of Aragon ( Spanish Corona de Aragón , Aragonese Corona d'Aragón , Catalan Corona d'Aragó ) domains of different constitution are summarized, which were ruled by the kings of Aragon between 1137 and 1516 or 1714 in personal union. These included the kingdoms of Aragon , Mallorca , Valencia , Sicily , Sardinia , Corsica and Naples , the duchies of Athens and Neopatria , the margraviate of Provence , the counties of Barcelona , Roussillon and Cerdanya and the dominion of Montpellier .

The rulers of the Crown of Aragon and Spain counted and count a large number of domains in their titles. These enumerations corresponded or correspond only partially to the real power relations.

From 1516 to 1707 the individual domains of the Crown of Aragon were parts of the domain of the Crown of Spain. The states as such and a large part of their legal traditions (Usatges) and special rights ( Fueros ) were retained.

Development of the dominions of the Crown of Aragon

The lands of the Aragonese Crown (light blue areas: only briefly or indirectly under Aragonese rule)
Dominion at the time of Ramon Berenguer IV.
Crown of Aragon in the 13th century
Crown of Aragon in the 15th century

King Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre died childless in 1134. In his will he left his kingdoms to the Knights Templar , the Knights of St. John and the Knights of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem . The Aragonese aristocracy did not recognize the will because it disregarded the customary law of the country and asked Ramiro , the younger brother of the late king, to take over the rule. This brother was a Benedictine monk and had just been elected Bishop of Barbastro-Roda (although not yet consecrated). In order to avoid the threat of armed conflict over the crown, Ramiro decided to take over the rule and, contrary to his religious vows, to marry Agnes of Aquitaine ( Spanish Inés de Poitou ). The 30-year-old bride had been a widow for eight years and already had three sons.

The daughter Petronella was born on August 11, 1136 . In 1137 Ramiro signed a marriage contract for his daughter with Raimund Berengar IV , the Count of Barcelona. The bride was one year old, the groom 24 years old. The treaty stipulated that Raimund Berengar should take over the reign of the Kingdom of Aragon for Queen Petronella. The regent was Prince of Aragon and Count of Barcelona . The Aragonese aristocracy agreed with this solution. King Ramiro returned to his religious life, but kept the title "King of Aragon". He died in 1157. His wife Agnes of Aquitaine retired to the Fontevraud monastery in France, where she died in 1159. The kingdom of Queen Petronella consisted of the counties of Aragon , Sobrarbe and Ribagorza when Raimund Berengar took over the reign (1137) . It had an area of ​​28,607 km². The territory of the Count of Barcelona consisted of the counties of Barcelona, Girona , Osona , Besalú and Cerdanya . These counties combined had an area of ​​16,362 km². The rulers had no common borders, but were separated from each other by the counties Urgell and Pallars or the empire of the Almoravids . Different languages ​​were spoken in the ruled areas. Different laws prevailed. There were no common institutions.

In August 1151 the wedding between the then 15-year-old Petronella and the 38-year-old Raimund Berengar IV took place. In 1157 the son Alfons was born.

After Raimund Berengar's death in 1162, a regency council, which included Queen Petronella, took over the reign of Alfons, who was then five years old. When Alfonso II took over the government in 1174, the Kingdom of Aragon and the territory of the Counts of Barcelona were ruled under the term "Crown of Aragon".

In the course of time, the territory of the Crown of Aragon changed on the one hand through the annexation of regions to existing rulers, on the other hand through the acquisition of new states. But there were also losses through the division of estates and diplomatic or military failures.

On December 14, 1319, in Taragona, James II determined that the kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia and the county of Barcelona should remain together under the same ruler forever. This "indivisibility" was guaranteed again by Alfonso IV after his coronation.

Kingdom of Aragon

Kingdom of Aragon

German Kingdom of Aragon , Spanish Reino de Aragón , Aragonese Reino d'Aragón , Catalan Regne d'Aragó , Basque Aragoiko Erresuma

The Kingdom of Aragon developed from a county of the Spanish Mark . Alfonso I of Aragon, who was also King of Pamplona , extended the territory of the kingdom to the south into the territory of the Almoravids . The capture of Saragossa was of particular importance . In 1137 the kingdom consisted of the counties of Aragon , Sobrarbe and Ribagorza . Raimund Berengar was able to expand the territory of the kingdom to the south to include Lower Aragon. It was occasionally not clear whether the newly conquered territories of the Kingdom of Aragon or the Principality of Catalonia or separately were independent. The boundaries that the kingdom had with the territories of the Counts of Barcelona (i.e. Catalonia) were redefined in the various wills of Jacob I for each birth or death of a son. They remained largely constant after his death in 1276. The assignment to the Kingdom of Aragon or the Principality of Catalonia was important in relation to the question of which legal system was valid or in which Cortes the local estates were represented. Whereby the legal systems were not necessarily congruent with the territories, e.g. B. the county of Ribagorza had its own legal system, which did not coincide with the legal system of Catalonia or Aragon.

County of Aragon

German  County of Aragon , Spanish Condado de Aragón , Catalan Comtat d'Aragó , Aragonese Condato d'Aragón , Basque Aragoiko konderria

The county of Aragon developed from the county of Jaca, which was part of the Spanish Mark. The area belonged to the Kingdom of Navarre for a long time. After a division of the estate, Ramiro I established the independent kingdom of Aragon in 1035.

Ribagorza county

Spanish Condado de Ribagorza , Aragonese Condato de Ribagorza , Catalan Comtat de Ribagorça , Basque Ribagortzako konderria

Ribagorza has been an integral part of the Kingdom of Aragon since the reign of King Ramiro I of Aragon. The title Count of Ribagorza was not kept separately. It was only when James II of Aragon shared his inheritance that the younger son Peter received the title of Count of Ribagorza in 1322. The county remained under the rule of the kings of Aragon. After the death of Peter's grandson, Alfonso de Aragón y Eiximenis , the title fell to the later King John II of Aragon in 1425 . Johann bestowed the title of Count von Ribagorza on his son Ferdinand . After his coronation as King of Sicily, he gave up the title, so that the title could be given to Ferdinand's half-brother Alfons of Aragon and Escobar . He bequeathed the county to his illegitimate son Johann II von Ribagorza.

Principality of Catalonia

Principality of Catalonia

German  Principality of Catalonia , Spanish Principado de Cataluña , Catalan Principat de Catalunya , Aragonese Prencipato de Catalunya , French Principauté de Catalogne

The term "Cataluña" or Latin "Cathalonia" appeared in the will of King Alfonso II of Aragon as a term that denoted the outskirts of the territory of the Counts of Barcelona. It was only later that the significance expanded to the area designated today. The rulership of the Count of Barcelona in 1137 consisted of the counties of Barcelona , Girona , Osona , Besalú and Cerdanya .

The Counts of Barcelona retained the title of "Count of Barcelona" despite considerable expansion of their territory. At times, other titles were used in official pronouncements that referred to Catalan dominions. The title Prince of Catalonia was not used by the kings of Aragon or the Counts of Barcelona. In contrast, the Cortes of Catalonia used the term “Principat” (principality) for the area from which their members came. This area was also referred to as the Principality of Catalonia on maps early on .

Counties of Barcelona, ​​Osona and Girona

German  County Barcelona , Spanish Condado de Barcelona , Catalan Comtat de Barcelona , Aragonese Condato de Barcelona

The county of Barcelona was one of the counties that the Franks established in the Spanish mark . Wilfried I ruled over various counties in the Spanish Mark at the end of the 9th century. He was the last ruler appointed by the Frankish kings. His heirs divided the various counties differently over time. The counties of Barcelona, ​​Osona and Girona stayed together and formed the core of Catalonia.

Besalú county

Spanish Condado de Besalú , Catalan Comtat de Besalú

The county of Besalú was part of the Spanish Mark . At the end of the 9th century it belonged to the dominions of Count Wilfried I. It was ruled from a sideline of the House of Barcelona from 897. After Count Bernard III. died childless in 1111, inherited by his father-in-law, Raimund Berengar III. of Barcelona the county. She subsequently remained united with the county of Barcelona.

Margraviate of Tortosa

Spanish Marquesado de Tortosa , Catalan Marquesat Tortosa ,

Tortosa became an independent Taifa kingdom after the collapse of the Caliphate of Cordoba . At the beginning of the 12th century the area belonged to the Almoravid Empire . Pope Eugene III. had called for a Second Crusade in March 1146 . He also called for the fight against the Moors on the Iberian Peninsula . He equated this fight with the fight for the Holy Land . As part of this crusade, Raimund Berengar IV conquered the margraviate of Tortosa with the help of Genoese crusaders in 1148 .

Tortosa was initially neither part of the Kingdom of Aragon nor the county of Barcelona, ​​but an independent margraviate. Raimund Berengar IV accepted the title of Marqués de Tortosa.

Margraviate of Lleida

Spanish Marquesado Lérida , Catalan Marquesat Lleida

The area around Lleida was an independent Taifa kingdom for a long time, at times under the same government as Saragossa . The kings of Aragon, the counts of Urgell and the counts of Barcelona tried to conquer the area as early as the 11th century. In doing so, they took individual cities into their possession. Pope Paschal II dissuaded Peter I from the plan to take part in the 1101 crusade to Jerusalem. It is more important that he fight the Moors in Spain and conquer Lleida. Peter I died in 1104 after he had to unsuccessfully break off the siege of Zaragoza in 1102. Lleida was conquered by Raimund Berengar IV in 1149 in a crusade. Similar to Tortosa, the area around Lleida was not included in other domains, but ruled as a separate, independent margraviate in personal union by Raimund Berengar IV , who, among other titles, also led that of Marquès de Lleida . The purpose of the titulation, which was separated according to the different rulers, was to show that neither Tortosa nor Lleida were to be viewed as extensions of the Kingdom of Aragon or the County of Barcelona, ​​but that they were classified as separate units such as Barcelona and Aragon.

In November 1255, James I determined that the same law should apply in the margraviate of Lleida as in Zaragoza.

After the border adjustments in Jacob's will, the margraviate of Lleida belonged to the Principality of Catalonia. The Principality of Catalonia reached about the size of today's Autonomous Community of Catalonia .

County Urgell

Spanish Condado de Urgel , Catalan Comtat d'Urgell , Aragonese Condato d'Urchel

The original territory of County Urgell was part of the Spanish Mark in the 9th century . From the 9th century, the Counts of Urgell ruled as independent rulers. They expanded the county by conquering tracts of land that previously belonged to the Almoravid domain .

Count Ermengol VIII von Urgell appointed his daughter Aurembiaix as heir in his will . According to the opinion of the time in Catalonia, the 13-year-old girl could not inherit the county. Therefore, Ponce de Cabrera , who was married to an aunt of Aurembiaix, tried to become Count of Urgell. To fend off this claim, Aurembiaix's mother, Elvira de Subirats, called upon King Peter II of Aragon for help. He referred to Urgell as part of his domain, which he passed on to Aurembiaix as a fief. In July 1229 Aurembiaix married the Portuguese Infante Peter of Portugal . When Aurembiaix died in September 1231, her widower exchanged his claims to the county of Urgell for a rule over Mallorca. Since then, James I held the titles of King of Aragon and Mallorca, Count of Barcelona and Urgell, Lord of Montpellier.

In the Treaty of Tárrega, James I appointed Ponce de Cabrera as the new Count of Urgell in 1236. The rule was inherited in the family until 1314. In 1314, Teresa d'Entença , the heiress of the county of Urgell, married Alfons IV later King of Aragon . After Teresa's death, Alfonso ruled the county as a separate territory to his other dominions in personal union . When Alfonso died, his second son, James I of Urgell (Jaime I de Urgell) inherited the county. In 1413, James II of Urgell refused to recognize Caspe's arbitration award , which declared Ferdinand I to be ruler of the kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon. An armed uprising he led failed. Jacob was captured and his property confiscated in favor of the Crown of Aragon. The county of Urgell became part of the Principality of Catalonia.

County of Empúries

Spanish Condado de Ampurias , Catalan Comtat d'Empúries , French Comté d'Empúries

The county of Empúries was part of the Spanish Mark in the 8th century . In the 10th century the county was temporarily united with the county of Roussillon . From the 11th to the beginning of the 14th century, Empúries was an independent county with a total area of ​​about 1199 km². This became part of the Crown of Aragon in 1325 through the exchange of territory. Under the sovereignty of the kings of Aragon, the county was temporarily ruled by various branches of the dynasty of the Crown of Aragon. Some parts of the county were separated when the Duchy of Girona was created. The county of Empúries was part of the Principality of Catalonia.

Counties of Pallars Jussá and Pallars Sobirà

Spanish Pallars Jussá , Catalan Pallars Jussà , Aragonese Pallars Chusán , Basque Pallars Jussà Spanish Pallars Sobirá , Catalan Pallars Sobirà , Aragonese Pallars Sobirán , Basque Pallars Sobirà

Since the end of the 9th century there was an independent county of Pallars. At the beginning of the 11th century the county was divided into the county Pallars Jussà and the county Pallars Sobirà.

The Counts of Pallars Jussà were vassals of the kings of Aragon in the 12th century. The last heiress of the county gave the rule to Alfonso II in 1190 . The county became part of the Principality of Catalonia.

Since 1083 at the latest, the Counts of Pallars Sobirà were vassals of the kings of Aragon.

County of Roussillon

German  County Roussillon , Spanish Condado de Rosellón , Catalan Comtat del Rosselló , French Comté de Roussillon , Occitan Comtat de Rosselhon

Roussillon was one of the counties of the Spanish Mark in the 9th century . From this a county developed that was ruled by the descendants of the Bello of Carcassonne . Girard II , the last Count of Roussillon from the family of Belló of Carcassonne, died childless in 1172. He bequeathed the county to King Alfonso II of Aragon. Immediately after Girard II's death, Alfonso went to Perpignan to receive the oath of allegiance from the population. Alfons gave the county as a fief to his brother Sancho in 1209 . He passed it on to his son Nuño Sanchez . When he died in 1242, the fiefdom reverted to the Crown of Aragon.

After the death of the Infante Fernando, James I of Aragon changed his will in 1258 so that the Infante Jacob should receive the kingdom of Mallorca together with the rule over Montpellier and the counties of Roussillon, Cotlliure, Conflent, Vallespir and Cerdanya. The provisions of the will came into effect on the death of Jacob I on July 27, 1276.

Peter IV determined that the Kingdom of Mallorca with the adjacent islands and the countries of Roussillon and Cerdanya "in no way and never, at any time" ( por ninguna manera, ni jamás por ningún tiempo ) from the Kingdom of Aragon and Valencia as well the county of Barcelona are likely to be separated.

In 1463, during the reign of Louis XI, France conquered the county of Roussillon. In the Treaty of Barcelona of September 19, 1493, Ferdinand II was able to arrange the return to the Crown of Aragon.

In the Pyrenees Peace , which was concluded on November 7, 1659 between Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain, Spain ceded Roussillon with the capital Perpignan and the parts of the county of Cerdanya north of the Pyrenees to France.

From 1242 on, the county of Roussillon was directly under the control of the Crown of Aragon. It was temporarily under the government of the kings of Mallorca. The county of Roussillon belonged temporarily and from 1659 permanently to France.

Cerdanya county

Spanish Condado Cerdaña , Catalan Comtat Cerdanya , Aragonese Cerdanya , French Comté Cerdagne , Occitan Comtat de Cerdanha

In 1117 Raimund Berengar III., The father of Raimund Berengar IV., Inherited the county of Cerdanya, which also included the county of Berga and the county of Conflent . When Raimund Berengar IV died in 1162, the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya went to a sideline of the house of Barcelona . After this sideline became extinct, the rule of James I fell back to the Crown of Aragon in 1241.

By his will, James I divided the territories of the Crown of Aragon among his sons. The countries of the Crown of Mallorca - the Kingdom of Mallorca, the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya and the rule of Montpellier - went to the younger son Jacob in 1276 . In the following time, the lands of the Crown of Mallorca were ruled by the sideline of the House of Barcelona founded by James II of Mallorca (1243-1311).

On June 29, 1343, Peter IV marched into the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya. The counties of Roussillon, Conflent and Cerdanya were again directly under the Crown of Aragon. In 1462 the Treaty of Bayona between Louis XI. closed by France and John II of Aragon. In this treaty, John II pledged the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya in exchange for the delivery of arms, money and military action to the King of France.

Louis XI. of France, John II of Aragon invaded the county of Roussillon in 1463. In the Treaty of Barcelona of January 19, 1463 between Ferdinand II and Louis XI. agreed to return the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya to the Crown of Aragon. In the Pyrenees Treaty in 1659, the handover of the parts of the county of Cerdanya to the north of the Pyrenees was finally agreed.

Duchy / Principality of Girona

Spanish Ducado / Principado Gerona , Catalan Ducat / Principat Girona

The Duchy of Girona was created in 1351 by King Peter IV of Aragon. To this end, he combined the counties of Girona , Besalú , Empúries and Osona , which were part of the core of the rule of the Counts of Barcelona , into one dominion.

In the future, the duchy should be under the rule of the respective heir to the throne and, upon his death or the takeover of the Crown of Aragon by the title holder, revert to the crown to be reassigned. At the investiture , the Duchy was the later Alfonso V I. by his father Ferdinand upgraded to the principality.

Kingdom of Valencia

Kingdom of Valencia

German  Kingdom of Valencia , Spanish Reino de Valencia , Catalan Regne de València , Aragonese Reino de Valencia

When the Caliphate of Cordoba collapsed, the Taifa kingdoms of Alpuente, Valencia, Játiva and Denia were formed in the area around Valencia at the beginning of the 11th century . In 1095 Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar ( El Cid ) conquered the city of Valencia. After his death in 1099, his wife Jimena Díaz was able to hold the city for another three years until it was recaptured by the Almoravids . Alfonso I tried again to conquer Valencia in 1129. But his army was defeated in the battle of Cullera. With the conquest of Tortosa (1148) and Lleida (1149), the territory ruled by the kings of Aragon continued to expand towards Valencia. In 1229 Abū Zayd recognized the sovereignty of James I over Valencia. At the Cortes of Aragon and Catalonia in Monzón, convened by James I in October 1236, it was decided, among other things, to lead a crusade against the Muslim kingdom of Valencia. After the last Moorish king of Valencia, Zayyan ibn Mardanish, was defeated by James I in the battle of Puig, Valencia surrendered in 1238. James I had promised all those who participated in the crusade, both knights and infantrymen , to take them after the To compensate for conquering Valencia with buildings and lands when they settle in Valencia. In this way, 800 new settlers were recruited into the kingdom. In addition, large numbers of Christian settlers who did not take part in the fighting came into the country. The number of new settlers represented about 10% of the total population of Valencia of about 200,000 inhabitants. In April or May of the year 1239, Jacob called the bishops and nobles of the area together to issue the Furs de València in a first version and thus that Establishing the Kingdom of Valencia. The Fueros de Valencia ( Catalan Furs de València ) were a collection of regulations that concerned both civil and criminal law. Of particular importance, however, were the public and constitutional provisions, which deviated from those of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the first meeting of the Cortes of Valencia in 1261 a new version was presented.

The Kingdom of Valencia was an integral part of the Crown of Aragon from the middle of the 13th century.

Kingdom of Mallorca

Kingdom of Mallorca

German  Kingdom of Mallorca , Spanish Reino de Mallorca , Catalan Regne de Mallorca , Aragonese Reino de Mallorca , Italian Regno di Maiorca , French Royaume de Majorque

The Balearic Islands had been conquered by troops from the Emirates of Cordoba at the beginning of the 10th century . At the beginning of the 12th century, the Pisas fleet attacked Mallorca on various occasions in order to create trading bases here. An attack by the Genoese was directed against Menorca in 1146.

In December 1228, James I of Aragon called the Cortes of Catalonia in Barcelona and shortly afterwards the Cortes of Aragon in Lleida in order to promote an attack on Mallorca and to get the necessary funds approved. The Cortes of Aragon reluctantly agreed; they would have preferred a campaign against Valencia.

In September 1229 a fleet made up of ships from various cities in the Crown of Aragon reached the Balearic Islands. On December 31, 1229, Jacob's troops were able to take the city of Palma . In March 1230, the last resistance in the country was broken. James I granted the participants of the conquest various rights, including tax exemption on the island. The island of Menorca also submitted to Jacob's rule in the middle of 1231. The inclusion of Menorca in the Crown of Aragon did not take place practically at this time. An agreement was signed with the Moorish inhabitants stating that neither Christians nor Jews were allowed to live on the island. An actual inclusion of this island only took place after the occupation in 1287.

In September 1231, James I gave the Balearic Islands as a fief to Peter of Portugal , with the condition that the islands of Ibiza and Formentera be conquered within the next two years. The lending took place in exchange for the lordship rights to the county of Urgell, which Peter had inherited from his wife Aurembiaix . Peter of Portugal conquered Ibiza and Formentera until 1235, but exchanged his rights in the Balearic Islands for possessions in the Kingdom of Valencia.

When King James I of Aragon died in 1276, his younger son Jacob inherited the Kingdom of Mallorca and the counties of Rousillon and Cerdanya, which are now partly in France, as well as the rulership of Montpellier and some smaller domains. In a treaty of 1279 it was stipulated that the Kingdom of Mallorca with its possessions, except Montpellier, was dependent on the Crown of Aragon, that the King of Mallorca was allowed to mint and circulate his own coins in the Balearic Islands, but not on the mainland. He was also obliged to attend the meetings of the Cortes of Catalonia as a feudal man .

Peter IV wanted to end the government of Mallorca in 1341 through the sidelines of the House of Barcelona. He let Jacob III. indicted various violations of his rights before the Cortes of Barcelona. In May 1343 he besieged Palma de Mallorca. On June 1, 1343, after a high mass in the cathedral of Palma de Mallorca, he announced his new title series: King of Aragon, of Valencia, of Mallorca, the Cerdanya and Corsica, Count of Barcelona. From June 4th, the population was sworn in on him. The representatives of the other islands were asked to come to Palma to be sworn in there.

Peter IV ordered that the Kingdom of Mallorca with the islands belonging to it, as well as the countries of Rousillon and Cerdanya, should never be separated from the Kingdom of Aragon, the Kingdom of Valencia and the County of Barcelona.

The Kingdom of Mallorca was part of the Crown of Aragon from 1231 until the state union was dissolved. From 1276 to 1343 the Kingdom of Mallorca was ruled from a sideline of the House of Barcelona. Whether this happened under the sovereignty of the Crown of Aragon was controversial.

Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily in 1154

Kingdom of Sicily

German  Kingdom of Sicily , Spanish Reino de Sicilia , Catalan Regne de Sicília , Aragonese Reino de Secilia , Italian Regno di Sicilia , French Royaume de Sicile

Since the establishment of the Kingdom of Sicily by Roger II in 1130, the Kingdom of Sicily consisted of the island of Sicily and the Principality of Taranto , the Duchy of Apulia and the County of Calabria on the Italian peninsula. It remained an independent kingdom even after the conquest by Emperor Henry IV. It did not become part of the Holy Roman Empire , but was considered a separate property of the emperor.

Relations between Sicily and the Crown of Aragon began in 1262 with the marriage of Constanze of Sicily and the then Crown Prince, later King Peter III. of Aragon. Konstanze was the daughter of Manfred , the son of Emperor Friedrich II. Manfred was crowned King of Sicily in August 1258. Because Manfred did not want to recognize the Pope as his liege lord , he was banned in 1259 and his kingdom with the interdict . On August 28, 1265, Pope Clement IV enfeoffed Charles of Anjou , the brother of the King of France, Louis IX. , with the Kingdom of Sicily. In the battle of Benevento on February 26, 1266, the army of Charles was able to defeat the army of Manfred. Manfred himself was killed in the battle. Charles was able to conquer the rest of Sicily without much resistance.

On March 30, 1282, a popular uprising began in Palermo , which became known as the Sicilian Vespers . In this uprising, which was directed against French rule, around 2000 French men, women and children were killed in their houses and barracks in Palermo on the first day. The city of Messina joined the insurgents on April 28th. Karl ordered troops from Apulia to Reggio and asked his nephew Philip III. , the King of France, for help.

Representatives of the city of Palermo asked King Peter III. from Aragon to take over the government of the Kingdom of Sicily as husband of Constance of Sicily . On August 30, 1282, Peter III landed. in Trapani . He went to Palermo, was crowned king there and assumed the title of King of Sicily . The island was conquered quickly, as Peter's troops were supported by the population. On October 2, 1282, Peter III. Messina.

On January 13, 1283 Peter III. excommunicated by Pope Martin IV on the grounds that he had illegally occupied a fiefdom of the Holy See . In March 1283 the Pope withdrew King Peter III. of Aragon also dominated the lands of the Crown of Aragon and gave it to Karl von Valois , the then 13-year-old fourth son of the French King Philip III. In addition, Pope Martin IV called for a holy war against the Crown of Aragon. This war is now known as the Aragonese Crusade .

This crusade was primarily carried out by French troops under the command of Philip III. guided. James II of Mallorca was Count of Roussillon and Cerdanya, i.e. counties that the French troops had to cross on their way to Aragon / Catalonia. He allowed the crusade troops to march through and took part in the fight against his brother with his own troops. In June 1285 the border was crossed and on September 5th the Franco-Mallorcan troops marched into Girona. During the siege of Girona, the first cases of a rapidly spreading epidemic occurred in the French camp ( dysentery is suspected), which Philip III. captured. After it became known that the French fleet had suffered a defeat in the battle against the fleet of the Crown of Aragon under Ruggiero di Lauria , the crusaders withdrew from Catalonia. Philip III died in Perpignan on October 5, 1285 . His death meant the failure of the crusade. Peter III died on November 10, 1285. In July 1286, a peace treaty was concluded between the Kingdom of France and the Crown of Aragon, which officially ended the crusade. However, this did not solve the problems in Sicily / Naples.

At the death of Peter III. the rule over the lands of the Crown of Aragon went to Alfonso III. over. His brother Jacob II crowned himself King of Sicily, Duke of Apulia and Prince of Capua. As Alfons III. died in February 1291, James II demanded rule over the previous lands of the Crown of Aragon, but also over Sicily. He put his younger brother Friedrich on Sicily as his deputy.

In the Treaty of Anagni , the relationships between the Holy See ( Boniface VIII ), the Kingdom of France ( Philip IV ), the Crown of Aragon ( James II ) and the Kingdom of Sicily ( Charles II of Anjou ) should be clarified. A meeting took place in the papal residence in Anagni . In the contract that the parties signed in June 1295, the contracting parties agreed a. A. on it:

  • The Kingdom of Sicily reverts to the Holy See and can now be given out as a fief.
  • Jacob II helps Charles II to retake Sicily.
  • James II receives the kingdoms of Corsica and Sardinia from the Pope as a fief.
  • The excommunication of James II is lifted.
  • Jacob II of Aragon marries Blanca of Anjou, the daughter of Charles.

The reaction in Sicily was that the brother of James II, who actually ruled as his deputy in Sicily, crowned himself King of Sicily as Frederick II in Palermo in 1296 . This takeover was not recognized by the parties to the contract of Anagni. The attempts to expel Frederick II from Sicily were unsuccessful. In the Treaty of Caltabellotta , the old Kingdom of Sicily was divided into the mainland part ruled by Charles II of Anjou (now known as the Kingdom of Naples) and the island under the rule of Frederick II (also called Trinakria). As a result, the branch of the House of Barcelona founded by Friedrich ruled over the island of Sicily.

Heiress of King Friedrich III. of Sicily was his 15-year-old daughter Maria of Sicily in 1377 . The affairs of state were taken over by a group of members of the Sicilian nobility. In 1392, Martin , the brother of King John I of Aragon, had Maria brought to Barcelona to marry her to Martin , who was 14 years his junior (called the Younger). This officially became a co-regent. Martin (called the Elder), the father of Martin the Younger, moved to Sicily in 1392 with his daughter-in-law and his son in order to practically take over the government there as a deputy ( vicarius ). He did not give up his position when he returned to Aragon in 1396 to succeed his brother as King of Aragon. The Kingdom of Sicily was practically reunited with the Crown of Aragon from 1396. Maria died in 1401. Martin continued to rule as King of Sicily under the strong influence of his father. He married Blanka of Navarre in 1402 . The marriage remained childless. After the death of King Martin I of Sicily in 1409, his father Martin I of Aragon as Martin II of Sicily officially took over the rule again in personal union with the Crown of Aragon.

Shortly before the Aragonese heir to the throne Ferdinand married the Castilian heir to the throne Isabella , his father John II appointed him King of Sicily. Ferdinand was crowned King of Sicily on June 19, 1468 in the Cathedral of Saragossa. This formally separated the Kingdom of Sicily from the Crown of Aragon. However, since Ferdinand's appointment as "lugarteniente" (deputy of the king) was confirmed at the same time, there was practically no real separation between 1468 and the death of King John II.

The Kingdom of Sicily remained linked to the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Spain until the Peace of Utrecht in 1713.

Coat of arms of King Ferdinand I of Naples
Italy in 1494

Kingdom of Naples

German  Kingdom of Naples , Spanish Reino de Nápoles , Catalan Regne de Nàpols , Aragonese Reino de Nápols , Basque Napoliko Erresuma , Italian Regno di Napoli , French Royaume de Naples

Traditionally, the Kingdom of Sicily consisted of the island of Sicily, the otherworldly Kingdom of Sicily ("Regno di Sicilia ulteriore") and the part lying on the peninsula, the kingdom of Sicily on this side ("Regno di Sicilia citeriore"). After the disputes between the House of Anjou and the Crown of Aragon in the 13th century, the parts were under different rule at the beginning of the 14th century. The contract of Caltabellotta took this into account. The treaty divided the old Kingdom of Sicily into island and mainland parts. The island, the kingdom of Trinakria went to Frederick II of Sicily, the mainland part, the Mezzogiorno to Charles II. The treaty legalized the actual ownership. At the time, the Kingdom of Naples included the regions of Abruzzo , Molise , Campania , Apulia , Basilicata and Calabria .

While the side line of the House of Barcelona / Aragon, founded by Frederick II of Sicily, ruled the island until 1381, the part on the mainland, the Kingdom of Naples, was first ruled by rulers from the House of Anjou, then from the House of Anjou-Durazzo and then up to At least formally ruled in 1442 by King René of the House of Anjou-Valois. René left his kingdom to King Alfonso V of Aragon in 1442 , who as ruler of the Crown of Aragon was also ruler of the island kingdom of Sicily. In fact, Mary of Castile , wife of King Alfonso V, ran the affairs of state of the Crown of Aragon during his absence. The kingdoms of Sicily and Naples were ruled from 1442 to 1458 by King Alfonso V of Aragon, Italian Alfonso I di Sicilia e di Napoli, partly in Realunion (common institutions).

Since Alfonso V had no legitimate children, his brother John II succeeded him as ruler of the lands of the Crown of Aragon. The necessity of a legitimate birth basically existed only for the assumption of inherited domains of the testator. The kings of Aragon could freely dispose of territories that they had conquered or acquired under Aragonese law. The Kingdom of Naples, the mainland part of the former Kingdom of Sicily, had gained Alfonso V. In contrast to the island part, he was able to bequeath it to his son Ferdinand . Ferdinand was recognized as having been born in wedlock in 1440 by Pope Eugene IV . His appointment as Duke of Calabria , usually the heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Naples, was confirmed by the Pope in 1443. From 1458 onwards, Naples was ruled by the Neapolitan branch line of the House of Barcelona / Aragon. Various attacks by France in 1494 and 1501 led to the official takeover of power by Louis XII. from France. With the capture of Naples on May 14, 1503 by the troops of Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba y Aguilar on behalf of Ferdinand II and the coronation of Ferdinand as King of Naples in November 1506, the kingdom was ruled in personal union with the Crown of Aragon. Ferdinand was no longer King of Castile at this point.

Kingdom of Sardinia

Kingdom of Sardinia

German  Kingdom of Sardinia , Spanish Reino de Cerdeña , Catalan Regne de Sardenya , Aragonese Reino de Cerdenya , Italian Regno di Sardegna , French Royaume de Sardaigne

In exchange for the rights to rule over Sicily, Pope Boniface VIII enfeoffed Jacob II of Aragon in the Treaty of Anagni in 1296 with rule over the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of Corsica . In April 1303, James II requested a rescript from the Pope urging the Genoese not to oppose the rule of the Crown of Aragon in Sardinia. At the meeting of the Catalan Cortes in Girona in 1321, the Crown Prince Alfonso, later Alfonso IV, was commissioned to conquer the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. King Sancho of Mallorca committed himself to take part in the campaign as a feudal man of the kings of Aragon with 20 galleys. Jacob then held Cortes for Aragon and Valencia in order to obtain the consent and the necessary means from them too.

In the middle of 1323 a fleet of the Crown of Aragon, which had gathered in the port of Mahón , set out for Sardinia. After fighting during the year, the troops of the Crown of Aragon were able to take the fortress of Cagliari as the last place of resistance in July 1324 . An agreement was concluded between Pisa and the Crown of Aragon, which gave traders from Pisa on the island of Sardinia and the other countries of the Crown of Aragon the same rights as traders from the countries of the Crown of Aragon enjoyed in Pisa.

Although various uprisings repeatedly questioned the rule of the Crown of Aragon in Sardinia, Sardinia remained the dominion of the Crown of Aragon or the Crown of from the conclusion of the conquest in 1324 until the Treaties of London, which were concluded on August 2, 1718 Spain.

Kingdom of Corsica

Kingdom of Corsica

( German  Kingdom of Corsica , Spanish Reino de Córcega , Catalan Regne de Còrsega , Aragonese Reino de Corcega , Italian Regno di Corsica , French Royaume de Corse )

Since James II , the kings of the Crown of Aragon have held the title of King of Corsica. The title, however, means absolutely nothing. In the Treaty of Anagni, which was concluded in June 1296, Pope Boniface VIII enfeoffed James II with rule over Corsica. The island was then firmly in the hands of the Pisans and the Genoese. Various attempts to conquer the Crown of Aragon failed. Alfonso V managed to really rule Corsica for a few months in 1420.

Corsica was practically never part of the territory of the Crown of Aragon.

Provence county

Provence county

German  County Provence , Spanish Provenza , Catalan Comtat Provença , Aragonese Provenza , Italian Provenza , French Comté Provence

The Provence consisted of the 10th century as the county since the beginning. In 965 the rulership was divided into the margraviate of Provence and the county of Provence. The last Countess from the House of Provence Dulcia von Gévaudan married Count Raimund Berengar III. from Barcelona. From February 1113 Raimund Berengar III. Count of Provence. From 1125 he carried the title of Marqués de Provenza . With the rule over Provence, the rule over the county Gévaudan , the vice-county Carladès and some smaller territories was connected. At the death of Count Raimund Berengar III. in 1131, his second son Berengar Raimund I inherited rule over Provence, Gévaudan and Carladès. The rule continued on the sidelines of the House of Barcelona.

After the death of Raimund Berengar III. of Provence in 1166, with King Alfonso II of Aragon, the main line of the House of Barcelona took over the government in the county of Provence. After the death of King Alfonso II, his second son Alfonso inherited the county of Provence. The rule was inherited on the sidelines of the House of Barcelona. With the marriage of the heiress Beatrix of Provence to Charles I of Anjou , Provence passed to a sideline of the House of Anjou.

The Provence was therefore only under the rule of Alfonso II from 1166 to 1196 under the rule of the Crown of Aragon.

Reign of Montpellier

Reign of Montpellier

The dynasty of the Guillermo had ruled the Montpellier since 985. In 1204 the heiress of Montpellier Maria married King Peter II of Aragon. This subsequently led to the title of Lord of Montpellier ("Señor de Montpellier"). When the inheritance was divided after the death of James I , the rule over Montpellier went together with the rule over the kingdom of Mallorca and the counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya to James II of Mallorca. In 1349 Jacob III sold from Mallorca the rule of Montpellier to King Philip IV of France.

The dominion of Montpellier was part of the Crown of Aragon from 1204 to 1276.

Duchy of Athens
Duchy of Neopatria

Duchies of Athens and Neopatria

German  Duchy of Athens , Spanish Ducado de Atenas , Catalan Ducat d'Atenes , Aragonese Ducato d'Atenas , French Duché d'Athènes , Greek Δουκάτο των Αθηνών

( German  duchy Neopatria , Spanish Ducado de Neopatria , Catalan Ducat de Neopàtria , Aragonese Ducato de Neopatria , French Duché de Néopatrie , Greek Δουκάτο Νέων Πατρών )

When the Byzantine Empire collapsed in 1205 after the conquest of Constantinople by the Crusader army, Otto de la Roche set up a Crusader state as Lord of Athens. The rulership structure in the Duchy of Athens changed frequently in the following period. After the Battle of Kephissos in March 1311, the Catalan Company took power in the duchy. In 1312 the mercenary army handed the duchy over to Frederick II of Sicily. He named his son Manfred Duke of Athens. He sent Berenguer Estañol de Ampurias to Athens as a representative (Vicario General) for the then 5-year-old Manfred. After his death, Alfonso Fadrique de Aragón , an illegitimate son of Frederick, took over government power in the Duchy of Athens on behalf of the titular dukes Manfred (1312-1317) and Wilhelm II (1317-1338). Alfonso was able to expand the sphere of influence of the Sicilian princes. In 1319, the Duchy of Neopatria was created from various conquered areas, which was regarded as a separate territory of the Dukes of Athens. The deputy function in the Greek duchies went from Alfonso Fadrique de Aragón to his sons Pedro Fadrique and Jaime Fadrique and from this to the grandson Luis Fadrique.

The sister of Friedrich III. of Sicily, Eleanor of Sicily married Peter IV of Aragon in 1349 . At the death of Frederick III. in 1377 Peter IV raised claims to the duchies. First, Maria took over the daughter of Friedrich III. officially the rule in the duchies of Athens and Neopatrias. In May 1380 the representatives of the ruling class of Athens offered Peter IV rule over Athens. In September 1380, Pedro IV thanked the previous representative Luis Fadrique and gave him various castles that he had conquered and ordered that he should hand over the government to the new representative, the Viscount Rocaberti. In 1385, Nerio I. Acciaiuoli attacked Athens with a mercenary army. The fighting dragged on for several years. In 1388 John I gave up the Duchy of Athens. In 1390 the Duchy of Neopatrias was finally given up. The titles Duke of Athens and Neopatria remained part of the title of the Crown of Aragon.

The duchies of Athens and Neopatia were ruled by the Sicilian sidelines of the House of Barcelona from 1312. It was only between 1380 and 1385 that they were part of the Crown of Aragon. Neither the kings of Aragon nor any other person from the Iberian Peninsula ever exercised any real power in these areas.

Kingdom of Navarre

Kingdom of Navarre

German  Kingdom of Navarra , Spanish Reino de Navarra , Basque Nafarroako Erresuma , Catalan Regne de Navarra , Aragonese Reino de Navarra , French Royaume de Navarre

Until the middle of the 12th century, the term King of Pamplona was common for the ruler of the area later known as the Kingdom of Navarre .

Alfonso I (el Batallador) was king of Navarre and Aragon. At his death, the rule in Navarre passed to García IV. The rule in Aragon to Ramiro II . The kingdoms were subsequently ruled separately.

In 1420, John, Duke of Peñafiel, who later became King John II of Aragon, married Blanka of Navarre , the widow of Martin I of Sicily. When Blanka succeeded her father as Queen of Navarre in 1425 , John became King of Navarra de Iure uxoris . Although he should have handed over his rule to their son Charles von Viana with the death of his first wife in 1441 , he refused to do so. Even when he took control of the kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon after the death of his brother Alfonso V of Aragon, he remained King of Navarre. Indeed, between 1458 and 1479 there was a personal union between the Kingdom of Navarre and the Crown of Aragon. After the death of King John II, rule in the Kingdom of Navarre passed to Eleanor of Navarre . Eleonore died just three weeks later. Her successors were her grandson Franz Phoebus in 1479–1483 and her granddaughter Catherine of Navarre from 1483–1512 . In 1512 Ferdinand II began to conquer Navarre. He based his claims to the government of the kingdom on the one hand on the claims of his father John II and on the claims of his second wife Germaine de Foix . After conquering the part of Navarre south of the Pyrenees in 1512, Ferdinand also held the title of King of Navarre. Since the conquest of Navarre was achieved primarily by Castilian troops, Ferdinand annexed Navarre to the kingdoms of the Crown of Castile. In the War of the Spanish Succession , Navarre was on the side of King Philip V, who therefore confirmed Navarre's special rights .

The Kingdom of Navarre was never considered a permanent part of the Crown of Aragón and was not ruled by the rulers of the Crown of Aragon, except for the temporarily illegal rule by John II.

Coat of arms of King Philip VI. with emphasis on the Crown of Aragon

Dominions of the Crown of Aragon in the current title of the Kings of Spain

According to Article 56, Paragraph 2 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, the head of state may use the titles traditionally due to the crown in addition to the title Rey de España (King of Spain).

In their “título grande o largo”, their detailed title, the kings of Spain have listed all titles since the beginning of the 19th century whose territories their predecessors ruled or to which they believed they were entitled. The detailed title of King Charles IV as it is reproduced in the royal collection of laws published in 1805 serves as a model. This title also includes the titles of the Crown of Aragon:

Charles by the grace of God King of Castile, of León, of Aragon, Both Sicily, of Jerusalem , of Navarre, of Granada, of Toledo, of Valencia , of Galicia, of Mallorca , of Menorca , of Seville, of Sardinia , of Cordoba, from Corsica , Murcia, Jaén, the Algarve, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, East and West Indies, islands and mainland in the Atlantic Ocean; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Burgundy, Brabant and Milan; Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tyrol and Barcelona ; Lord of Biscay and Molina.

Organs of the Crown of Aragon

people

In the countries of the Crown of Aragon there was no unified nation. The population saw themselves as Aragonians, Catalans, Sicilians, etc. This emerged from the history of countries with different traditions and legal systems. The different languages ​​in particular were a dividing element; moreover, the language boundaries did not always coincide with the political boundaries. Individuals who came from one realm of the Crown of Aragon were considered foreigners in all other realms of the Crown of Aragon. The traditional rights of the individual empires also included the fact that positions in administration, in courts or in the higher clergy were to be filled exclusively with people who came from this very empire. Mudejares and Jews had their own jurisdiction and local administrations until the beginning of modern times. The Mudéjares, who at times made up about two-thirds of the population of Valencia, spoke Arabic, a language that they mostly continued to use as Moriscos . The use of Arabic was banned in 1567.

king

The person of the ruler and his family were the only links between the individual states and peoples of the Crown of Aragon. In order to strengthen this connection, it was customary for family members to be installed as representatives of the king and for domains to be given as fiefs to branch lines of the ruling house.

The position of the ruler, his rights and duties towards the estates, as well as the jurisdiction and administration exercised by the ruler, differed considerably in the realms of the Crown of Aragon.

Rules of Succession

Inheritance
In Castile , the succession to the throne was recorded in the Las Siete Partidas collection of laws . King Alfonso X of Castile started this collection in the 13th century. Such a clear definition did not exist in the countries of the Crown of Aragon. The basis here were the wills of the queens and kings, customary law and decisions of the Cortes. Common law distinguished countries that were inherited (heredados) and countries that were newly acquired (ganados). Countries that were inherited had to pass over to the main inheritance together. Land acquired could be freely assigned by the testator.
Basically, the will of the certifying ruler was decisive. The traditional legal concepts in Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia, however, allowed the provisions of a will not to be carried out if they violated customary law.
Of legal age
To take over the actual power of rule in the countries of the Crown of Aragon, the age of majority was generally required. Heirs to the throne who were not of legal age already held the title of King or Count of Barcelona, ​​but were represented by a Regency Council until they came of age. (e.g. Alfons II, Jacob I.)
Legitimate birth
The prerequisites for the succession to the throne in the countries of the Crown of Aragon was descent from the royal family. The legitimacy of parentage was also a prerequisite. For many important offices such as B. That of the viceroy, however, the legitimate birth played no role.
Female line of succession
In the ruled territories of the Crown of Aragon on the Iberian Peninsula, women were relegated to their brothers and sons of their brothers. They only got a move when there were neither brothers nor sons of brothers. In this case women were entitled to inheritance but were not allowed to govern themselves. The power of government passed to the husband. If the woman did not marry, the country's nobles should designate a male from the royal family as king. In Sicily, Naples and Sardinia, however, a ruling queen was quite possible.

The exclusion of women from the official takeover of government did not mean, however, that women could not perform all functions of the ruler as representatives (lugarteniente) for a long time. The government always took place in the name of the king.

Takeover of government

The regulations when the new ruler took over the government differed in the realms of the Crown of Aragon and had to be carried out individually, mostly within these realms. While the kings were occasionally crowned in Aragon and Sicily, the takeover of government in Catalonia (county of Barcelona) and Valencia only began with a swearing-in ceremony.

Coronation in the Kingdom of Aragon

The first king of Aragon to have a solemn coronation known was Peter II. The coronation by Pope Innocent III. took place in the year 1204, about six years after the king's accession, in the monastery of San Pancrazio prope Transriberim in Rome.

Peter III was the first king of Aragon to be crowned in the Cathedral of Saragossa . The Archbishop of Tarragona performed the ceremony in November 1276, corresponding to the pontifical .

The relationship between the Kingdom of Aragon and the Holy See was at the beginning of the reign of King Alfonso III. very curious. The late King Peter III. had been excommunicated. Pope Martin IV had the lands of the Crown of Aragon as a papal fiefdom on Charles I of Valois, the younger son of the French king Philip III. transfer. Nevertheless, Alfons III. crowned on Easter Sunday of the year 1286 in the cathedral of Saragossa according to the pontifical of the Roman rite . The Episcopal See of Zaragoza was vacant between 1280 and 1289 . The Archbishop of Tarragona, who should actually have carried out the coronation, was absent because he could not attend because of the excommunication. The coronation was therefore carried out by Jaime Sarroca, the bishop of Huesca , an uncle of the king. Since the coronation of King Alfons III. the mutual oath is an integral part of the ritual in the Kingdom of Aragon.

The coronation of the son of James II King Alfonso IV did not take place for the first time after the pontifical in 1328 . The activity of the Archbishops of Saragossa, Toledo and Tarragona present and of the Bishops of Valencia, Lleida and Huesca was limited to the anointing of the new king and the blessing of the royal insignia. To make it clear that he did not receive the crown as a vassal from a representative of the Holy See , Alfonso IV crowned himself . Kings Peter IV in 1336, Martin I in 1399 and Ferdinand I in 1412 also crowned themselves. In 1353 Peter IV had a "Ceremonial de consagración y coronación de los reyes de Aragón" ( Ceremonial of the Blessing and coronation of the kings of Aragon).

The coronation of King Ferdinand I was the last church celebration of a coronation of a king of Aragon. The following kings limited themselves to beginning their reigns by swearing an oath in front of the Justicia de Aragón in the Cathedral of Saragossa, in which they promised to observe the fueros .

Coronation in the Kingdom of Sicily

Since the establishment of the Kingdom of Sicily by Roger II in 1130, the Kingdom of Sicily consisted of the island of Sicily and, on the Italian peninsula, the Principality of Taranto , the Duchy of Apulia and the County of Calabria . Even after the conquest by Emperor Henry IV , it remained as an independent kingdom and did not become part of the Holy Roman Empire . It was considered a separate property of the emperor. Traditionally, the kings of Sicily were crowned in the Palermo .

The advisers to the kings of Aragon did not agree on the question of whether a king who had already been anointed and crowned once in a ceremony (e.g. of Sicily) would be crowned a second time in a ceremony (e.g. of Aragon) could be crowned. Therefore, double coronations were avoided. King Martin I asked Pope Benedict XIII. to solve the problem.

The coronation of King Peter III was an exception . He was crowned King of Aragon in 1276 by the Archbishop of Tarragona in the Cathedral of Saragossa. The Holy See regarded the Kingdom of Sicily as a fief given to Charles of Anjou . The Pope had crowned him King of Sicily in the Lateran in 1266 . After an uprising in Sicily ( Sicilian Vespers ), which was directed against Charles of Anjou, Peter landed in Sicily on August 30, 1282 and was crowned King of Sicily on September 4 in the Cathedral of Palermo . With the coronation Peter wanted to show that in Sicily he did not see himself as a vassal of the Pope, but as an independent king accepted by the people of Sicily.

On the occasion of the forthcoming marriage to the Castilian princess of Asturias , Isabella , the father of the bridegroom John II transferred the kingdom of Sicily to his son Ferdinand , so that Ferdinand had a higher title than Isabella. The then 16-year-old Prince of Girona was crowned King of Sicily on June 19, 1468 in the Cathedral of Saragossa. Ferdinand was never crowned King of Aragon or King of Castile.

Swearing in in the Kingdom of Aragon

Even if the monarchs of Aragon received the crown according to the law of descent, they did not get it (according to the Cortes) from their predecessor, but from the kingdom itself. It was the kingdom that gave the king his power according to traditional law. This origin of power was recognized by the royal oath. The ceremony made the contract-like relationships (pactismo) between the king and the kingdom visible.

According to tradition, the King of Aragon took his oath at the beginning of his reign in the Cathedral of Saragossa in the presence of one deputy from the four chambers of the Cortes and three deputies from the city. During the oath, the king knelt in front of the Justicia de Aragón . The king promised himself to adhere to the traditional rights and customs of the country and to ensure that they are observed in the country. The basis of these rights was the Privilegio General de Aragón which the Cortes in 1283 Peter III. had wrested. In the Privilegio General, similar to the Magna Carta , the rights of the subjects, especially the nobility, were laid down. Only after the oath was sworn could the king take legally binding official acts. The lack of an oath led z. B. on the fact that Joanna of Castile was Queen of Aragon, but she could not perform official acts either by herself or on her behalf. When Philip IV appointed a viceroy for Catalonia shortly after taking office, the "Diputación del General del Principado de Cataluña" refused to recognize this appointment, as the king was not allowed to perform any official acts before the swearing-in.

Swearing in in the Principality of Catalonia

After the swearing-in in Saragossa, the mutual oath of the Count of Barcelona and the Cortes of Catalonia took place in Barcelona. This ceremony was usually held in the presence of all members of the Catalan Cortes in the Palacio Real Mayor de Barcelona. Then the king and the Cortes attended a mass in the cathedral.

Swearing in in the Kingdom of Valencia

In Valencia, James I was the first king to swear an oath before the Cortes by promising to respect the rights and customs of the country (April 7, 1261). In Valencia, the swearing-in of the kings was to take place in the cathedral of Valencia before the assembled Cortes within one month of the king's accession. For this reason the Cortes had to be convened in Valencia.

The rule of the Crown of Aragon over areas that were far from Zaragoza, Barcelona and Valencia and the use of the heirs to the throne as representatives of the king in these countries meant that from the end of the 14th century it was more and more common that the Heir to the throne had a long journey to take his oath in each of the crown's tribal kingdoms. This delay in the taking of the oath was often tacitly accepted by the Cortes or the Diputaciones Generales after 1516 and government acts of the king who had not yet been sworn in were recognized as legal.

Special cases of swearing in
Charles I.
When King Ferdinand II died on January 23, 1516 , this led to minor problems in Castile, since Ferdinand was no longer King of Castile since the death of Isabella I , but rather regent, acting on behalf of his daughter Johanna . So in Castile in 1516 it was not about a succession to the throne, but a succession in the reign . The Cortes of Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia had sworn allegiance to Johanna (and Philip I ) as heir to the throne in 1502 . Johanna was still alive, but because of her mental illness she was unable to take the oath in the lands of the Crown of Aragon and receive the oath of allegiance from her subjects. In addition, Charles , who was Duke of Burgundy at the time , had himself proclaimed King of Castile and Aragon in Brussels. This was seen by the Cortes of the territories of the Crown of Aragon as an attempt at a coup.
For the Cortes, the question arose whether Charles should act as regent in the name of his mother, or be sworn in as king. When Charles took the oath on July 29, 1518 in Saragossa and on April 16, 1519 in Barcelona, ​​“government together with his mother” was chosen as the compromise formula. The convening of the Cortes of Valencia planned for 1519 was postponed because of the plague that broke out there. On June 28, 1519, Karl was elected Roman-German Emperor by the German electors . He therefore went to Germany. He found no more time to promise compliance with the Furs de València in Valencia and to receive the oath of loyalty from his subjects. This was only made up for on May 16, 1528.
Philip V.
Philip of Anjou was the grandson of the French King Louis XIV. After the death of his great-uncle Charles II, he claimed the succession in the realms of the Crown of Aragon. After Philip was proclaimed King of the Kingdoms of the Crown of Castile on May 8, 1701 in Madrid, he traveled to Aragon. On September 17, 1701 he swore in the Cathedral of Saragossa before the Justicia de Aragón and a representative of the Cortes to observe the Fueros of Aragon. He also promised to convene the Cortes shortly. He then traveled to Barcelona where he was sworn in on October 4th. This ceremony took place in the presence of all members of the Catalan Cortes in the Salón del Tinell of the Palacio Real Mayor de Barcelona. On October 12, 1701, King Philip opened the deliberations of the Catalan Cortes. It was the first meeting since 1632. Philip was not sworn in in Valencia. In the course of the War of the Spanish Succession , Aragon and Catalonia later supported Archduke Karl , the Habsburgs' heir to the throne, despite the oath taken on Philip .
Charles III
Archduke Karl was the second son of Emperor Leopold I. He was named King Karl III in Vienna by his father. proclaimed King of Spain. His claims were supported in the War of the Spanish Succession by the countries of the Grand Alliance . After the surrender of Barcelona on October 7, 1705, Charles's supporters ruled the east coast of the Spanish peninsula. On October 10, 1706, Charles III. In the cathedral of Valencia he took an oath in which he promised to respect the special rights of Valencia. The representatives of the Cortes then pledged their allegiance to the king.

queen

Some queens of Aragon were crowned in a solemn ceremony, usually a few days after the king's coronation. There was a separate liturgy for the coronation of the queen . Several queens played an important role as representatives of their husbands.

During the second stay of her husband Alfonso V in Italy from 1432 until his death in 1458, Maria of Castile was initially deputy in all the territories of the Crown of Aragon on the Iberian Peninsula. In Catalonia, Maria ruled as deputy from 1432 to 1458. She convened the Cortes and chaired them there, she concluded treaties with foreign powers, and she took care of the legal system.

When they came to power, the kings of Aragon were mostly of legal age. A regency council was appointed for Alfons II, who was not of legal age . According to the will of his father Alfons II, Peter II was to remain under the tutelage of his mother, Queen Sancha of Castile, until he was 20 years old. Although the year of birth of Peter II is not exactly known, it is assumed that the guardianship did not last longer than a year. His mother Maria of Montpellier did not belong to the Regency Council that was installed for James I. Only Maria Anna of Austria was regent of Spain from 1665 to 1675 when her son Charles II was a minor.

Not even a quarter of the queens came from Aragon or Catalonia. Nevertheless, due to their marriage, they were considered to be natives and were almost without exception accepted as representatives of the king. They performed the deputy function mostly for all countries of the Crown of Aragon seldom only in a part of these countries.

When the King opened the Cortes, the Queen usually attended the ceremony. In some cases queens presided over the sessions of individual chambers of the Cortes when the king was in the same place presiding over the session of another chamber.

Heir to the throne

Crown Prince

James I had to expect in 1228 that Pope Gregory IX. his marriage to Eleanor of Castile for void would explain. In order to create clear conditions for the succession to the throne of his son Alfonso of Aragón , he made the members of the Cortes swear an oath to the newly born crown prince as his successor.

It became a fixed custom that the heirs to the throne in the individual areas of the Crown of Aragon were sworn in by the respective Cortes before they reached the age of majority and that the Cortes swore the oath of allegiance to them. The oath of both sides was renewed when they came of age. An act, the importance of which increased the more the heirs to the throne were included in the rule and independently took on tasks in government, administration and the judiciary. They often acted not only as representatives of the absent king, but also when he was present.

In order to finance their expenses, the crown princes were initially granted the income of various rulers. The creation of the Duchy of Girona ensured that the Crown Princes maintained their own court.

Infants

The sons of kings who did not come first in the line of succession from birth were often given control of individual counties as vassals of their father or brother. Often they were appointed general deputies of the king or deputies in individual sub-kingdoms.

Royal administration

A separation of powers according to today's standards did not yet exist at the time of the Crown of Aragon. Administration therefore includes organs of the legislative , executive and judicial branches . At the level of the provincial administrations, not only the names of the offices differed in the individual kingdoms of the crown, but also the areas of responsibility e.g. T. considerably.

Because of the different traditions and legal systems of the individual kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon, there were no central institutions. In each of the kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon there were separate administrative institutions that were set up and controlled either by the ruler, the Cortes or local representative bodies. The Fueros of the individual kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon stipulated that the positions in the administration and in the judiciary could only be filled by people who came from this kingdom. This was justified by the fact that foreigners hardly knew about the law applicable here, the traditional principles of law and the customs of the country. In the kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon, as in Castile, the legal bases of the Inquisition's activities were uniform and independent of local law.

Lugarteniente

Lugarteniente general is a name used by the Crown of Aragon in the 14th and 15th centuries. Since the countries of the Crown of Aragon had separate administrative systems, the Lugartenientes Generales (General Deputies) were appointed individually for the different countries, even if they were the same person. The deputies had to take an oath in front of the respective Cortes in which they undertook to comply with the laws, privileges and freedoms that were valid in the respective countries. In Aragon, the oath was taken in the Cathedral of Saragossa in front of the Justicia de Aragón in the presence of at least four members of the Cortes and three members of the city council.

The Lugartenientes were often members of the royal family. They exercised power in place of the king, could convene the Cortes, pass laws and had the power of judiciary in civil and criminal matters. The Lugartenientes only performed their duties in the absence of the king. The absence of kings from their empires on the Spanish peninsula was generally viewed as "temporary" until the reign of Ferdinand II . Although some kings such as B. Alfonso V spent most of their reign outside the ancestral lands of the Crown of Aragon. (During his 42-year reign, Alfonso V stayed in Italy for 28 years, mostly in Naples.) 1479 when the lands of the Crown of Aragon passed to Ferdinand II, who had been Ferdinand V since 1474 together with his Mrs. Isabella ruled the kingdom of Castile, it was clear that the king would rule from Castile permanently. Ferdinand II appointed various persons belonging to the royal family to be viceroys. If the viceroys were not members of the royal family, the problem in Aragon was that the Cortes of Aragon saw the office of viceroy as a public office that could not be occupied by foreigners. This question led to considerable political disputes between the kings Ferdinand II and Philip II of Spain (Philip I of Aragon) with the representatives of the Cortes of Aragon.

Viceroy

The term viceroy ( Catalan Virrei , Spanish Virrey ) was initially only used for the kingdoms of Sicily and Sardinia . It was not until the end of the 15th century that he also designated the king's deputies in Aragon , Catalonia and Valencia . The viceroys were only ever appointed for a single country in the Crown of Aragon. Members of the royal family were also initially entrusted with the office of viceroy. The viceroys did not act like the Lugartenientes on the basis of their own decisions, but according to the king's instructions. The connection point between the king and the individual kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon and also their viceroys was the Aragon Council ( Spanish Cosejo de Aragón , Catalan Consell d'Aragó ), or the Consejo de Italia ( Catalan Consell d'Itàlia ). The viceroys were not called for life.

As a result of the administrative reforms of Philip V, the Decretos de Nueva Planta in 1716 replaced the office of Viceroy with that of Capitán General and that of the President of the Supreme Court.

Consejo Real

The Consejo Real Catalan Consell Reial de la Corona d'Aragó was a personal advisory body of the king since the 13th century in which the holders of the most important court offices were gathered: the Canciller (comparable to the Chancellor ), the Mayordomo (comparable to the Court Marshal ), the Camarero (comparable to the Chamberlain ), the Maestre racional (comparable to the Chancellor of the Exchequer ) and the highest military commanders.

Under Peter IV the Consejo Real became a permanent body, which met regularly under the chairmanship of the Canciller. The Consejo Real had no fixed competences - it advised the king on questions of royal marriage policy and the final dispatch of ambassadors, on the processing of the texts of decrees and laws and the planning of military facilities. A large part of the Consejo Real's tasks went to the Consejo de in 1494 Aragon over.

Page of a collection of laws (Usajes de Barcelona) from 1336

Cancillería

The Cancillería real aragonesa Catalan Cancelleria Reial (Royal Aragonese Chancellery) was founded in the 13th century. Their task was to create, document and archive official documents for the individual domains of the Crown of Aragon. The Canciller ( Chancellor ) was also the chairman of the Consejo Real. He was a member of the high clergy, mostly a bishop who often found it difficult to leave his diocese to accompany the king in his ambulatory court duties. The actual management was therefore in the hands of the Vicecanciller (Vice Chancellor). The vicecanciller was a layman and a trained lawyer. From 1357 the Cancillería real temporarily had three vice-chancellors, one of whom was responsible for the affairs of the Kingdom of Aragon, one for the Principality of Catalonia, the kingdoms of Mallorca, Sardinia and Corsica and one for the Kingdom of Valencia.

The certificates were initially issued in Latin, Aragonese and Catalan. Over time, more and more documents were written in Catalan only. During the reign of Kings Peter II and Alfons III. in the 13th century the Cancillería also employed Arab and Jewish scribes. Another task of the Cancillería real aragonesa was to make copies of the legal collections of the individual countries of the Crown of Aragon and to bring them up to date after the meetings of the Cortes.

When the Consejo de Aragón was created, the Vice Chancellor took over the chairmanship and leading position in the judiciary.

Consejo Supremo de la Corona de Aragón

In the course of their reigns, the Catholic Kings reorganized the administrations of their countries that had been taken over from their predecessors. For individual thematic areas of their politics they created central council bodies that prepared decisions and communicated with the executive bodies in the individual countries and the kings. In 1494 Ferdinand created the Sacro Consejo Supremo de la Corona de Aragón, or Consejo de Aragón for short (Aragon Council). The Consejo had its permanent seat in Madrid.

The composition changed several times. Basically, however, the chairman, the Vicecanciller (Vice Chancellor) was a trained lawyer who came from one of the countries of the Crown of Aragon. The protonotario or secretario (secretary) prepared the meetings and recorded the resolutions. Of the six regentes (councilors) two each came from Aragon, Valencia and Catalonia or Mallorca. Other members of the Consejo de Aragón were the Abogado fiscal (public prosecutor) and the Tesorero general (treasurer).

As part of the centralization of state administration by the Decretos de Nueva Planta under Philip V, the Consejo Supremo de la Corona de Aragón was dissolved.

Audiencias

The Audiencias reales ( Catalan Reial audiència ) (Royal Courts) were the highest courts within the countries of the Crown of Aragon. They acted in the name of the king. In principle, the king or his deputy was entitled to chair, even if they seldom exercised it. The Audiencias were located in the Cancillería during the 14th century. From the end of the 15th century they existed independently of other institutions. The Audiencias of Aragon and Catalonia were established by a decision of the respective Cortes in 1492. The Audiencia of Valencia was created by royal decree in 1507. In Mallorca and Sardinia there were no audiences until the reign of King Philip II of Spain (Philip I of Aragon).

With the establishment of the Audiencias, a collegial body of lawyers existed in every empire to support the viceroy in his work. The audiencias were not only courts, but were also viewed as royal councils of the respective empire, which should advise the viceroys not only on legal, but also on political questions. From 1564 the Audiencias reales consisted of one chamber each for civil matters and one for criminal matters, each of which had five judges.

inquisition

In the domain of the Crown of Aragon on the Iberian Peninsula, papal inquisition tribunals were established between 1249 and 1478. The inquisition tribunals were appointed by the Pope for individual dioceses. These inquisitions in the lands of the Crown of Aragon were not part of the royal administration until 1483.

Tomás de Torquemada was inquisitor general of Castile and chairman of the Consejo de la Suprema y General Inquisición, the Spanish Inquisition . With his appointment as Inquisitor General of Aragon, Castile and Valencia and the transfer of powers to the Consejo de la Suprema y General Inquisición, for the first time in history an institution was created whose activities are not limited to the various countries of the Crown of Aragon , but also extended over Castile. The Cortes of Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia felt their rights were impaired by the abolition of the locally competent papal inquisition tribunals and the introduction of an inquisition controlled from Castile and supervised by the king. The Cortes had no way of influencing the selection of the inquisitors. The most important functional positions were also filled with foreigners. The argument against foreigners on functions in the administration and the courts was that they did not know the fueros and usatges and could therefore not make them the basis of their actions. The Fueros and Usatges played no role in the Inquisition. Another objection to the work of the Inquisition was that in the lands of the Crown of Aragon, torture was not allowed in judicial proceedings because of the Privilegio General de Aragón .

The Cortes in the realms of the Crown of Aragon

Meetings of members of the nobility, some of which had been convened by the king, but who also gathered on their own initiative, had taken place on various occasions in Aragon. In 1134, one of these meetings called for the brother of the late King Alfons I to take over the rulership of Aragon , the Benedictine monk Ramiro . This request of the nobility assembly was the basis for the unification of the first domains of the Crown of Aragon in a personal union. Which medieval assemblies can really be called Cortes is controversial. O'Callghan assumes that a meeting was called Cortes when representatives of the clergy, the nobility and the urban bourgeoisie of an entire country attended by the ruler.

There was never an institution of Cortes of the Crown of Aragon . In the kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon there were separate Cortes in the Kingdom of Aragon , the Principality of Catalonia, and the Kingdom of Valencia . They were usually called up as Cortes Particulares in cities within the respective sovereign territory. But even if the Cortes of Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia were convened as Cortes Generales (United Cortes of the Crown of Aragon), apart from the opening and closing meetings, the working sessions did not take place together, but only at the same time in the same place or in a closer one Around a place. This meant that since the individual chambers (brassos) of the Cortes also met separately, the Cortes held working sessions at ten conference venues at the same time. When the Cortes Generales was convened in one place, the meetings for two of the three Cortes took place abroad. Monzón in Aragon, not far from the border with Catalonia , was considered a neutral place that was accepted by everyone involved for holding the Cortes Generales .

Cortes of the Kingdom of Aragon

( Aragonese Cortz d'Aragón ) The assembly that Alfonso II convened in Saragossa in 1164 is considered the first meeting of Cortes in Aragon.

In contrast to all other Cortes on the Iberian Peninsula, the Cortes of Aragon had four professional associations (called brazos = arms). These were the chamber of the clergy, the chamber of the high nobility, the chamber of the lower nobility and the chamber of the city council.

The king or his deputy chaired the meeting. In addition, the Justicia de Aragón and members of the royal administration were present at the meetings . Foreigners were members if they had an appropriate rule in Aragon. Although queens occasionally presided over the Cortes as representatives of the king, women, even if they were masters of a corresponding rule, could not participate as members. From 1387 they could have their interests represented by representatives.

The importance of the Cortes depended very much on the situation in which the king found himself. If the position of the king was weakened by wars, military conflicts with the nobility or by absenteeism, the Cortes used the situation to establish or expand their right to have a say but also in general the rights of the population towards the ruler. At the end of the 12th century, the office of Justicia de Aragón was established . An office whose holder was initially able to settle disputes between individual members or different groups of the nobility due to his personal prestige. The custom developed that the Justicia de Aragón was elected by the Cortes and appointed by the king. At the inauguration of the kings, the Justicia stood for the kingdom to which the king undertook to observe the rights by taking an oath. The subsequent oath of allegiance to the king contained the restriction that it would only apply if the king kept his oath. The office of Justicia elected by the Cortes existed only in Aragon.

In 1238 King Peter III confessed . the Cortes and the nobility through the Privilegio General de Aragón a multitude of freedom and participation rights. When Peter IV needed money to finance a war against Castile in 1364, he agreed that a commission of the Cortes, the Diputación del General del Reino de Aragón , would manage a newly created export and import tax of the Impuesto de las Generalidades for Aragon should be controlled. Over time, this commission developed into an effective institution that looked after the interests of the Cortes outside of meeting hours.

The Cortes of Aragon, the Diputación del General de Aragón and the Office of Justicia de Aragón were abolished by Philip V's Decretos de Nueva Planta . Six cities of Aragon were represented in the Cortes de los Reinos de España in the 18th century.

Cortes of the Principality of Catalonia

( Catalan Corts Catalanes )

The Corts Catalanes can be traced back to the early 13th century. In the course of history, their significance went far beyond that of a parliament which, due to its tax sovereignty, refused or approved funds to the ruler. The peculiarity of the relationship between the rulers of the Crown of Aragon and the various Cortes is that the rule of the kings of Aragon and Valencia and the Counts of Barcelona was not an absolute monarchy, but the Cortes claimed extensive rights of co-determination. In Aragon and Catalonia, the Cortes shared the legislative power with the ruler and thus formed a counterbalance to the power of the king. One speaks here of "pactismo" a pact system in the Aragonese-Catalan form of rule. “Pactismo” is understood as the negotiated agreement between the ruler and the social classes represented in the Cortes, namely the nobility, the clergy and the city patriciate.

The ruler's income from his own domains in Catalonia was low. In 1392 only 13 percent of the land and 22 percent of the population were directly under the government of the Count of Barcelona. The rest was under the rule and jurisdiction of aristocrats who were obliged to pay a feud. In order to finance military campaigns or the construction of defenses, the Catalan rulers had to get additional funds from the Cortes. The Villafranca resolution, accepted by John II in 1461, severely restricted the monarch's power by subjecting the royal administration to greater control by the Diputació del General.

By one of the Decretos de Nueva Planta , Philip V abolished the Corts de Catalunya as an institution. Some cities of Catalonia were later represented in the Cortes of Castile.

Cortes of the Kingdom of Valencia

( Valencian Corts Valencianes )

While before the conquest of Valencia as part of the Reconquista, newly acquired territories were listed as independent domains in the title, their general administration was annexed to that of the Kingdom of Aragon or that of the County of Barcelona (Catalonia) depending on the origin of the new settlers. This also applied to participation in the Cortes. It was different after the conquest of Valencia. Jacob founded his own independent kingdom of Valencia. With own administration and own cortes.

A right that James I granted the Cortes of Valencia as early as 1261 was the duty of his successors to come to Valencia in the first month of their reign to swear that they would respect the laws and rights of the kingdom.

A Diputación del General del Reino de Valencia was founded in the Kingdom of Valencia to monitor the income from the impuesto de las Generalidades export and import tax . However, their political importance remained far behind that of the Principality of Catalonia.

In the Kingdom of Valencia, the Cortes disappeared after 1645 without being officially abolished because they were no longer called up by the king.

Account book of the Diputación General del Reino de Aragón

Diputaciones Generales

At the end of the 13th to the middle of the 14th century, the Cortes in Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia set up Diputaciones Generales , institutions whose task it was to regulate the collection and use of an export and import tax from the Impuesto de las Generalidades . This tax had to be paid by all stands. The Diputaciones, mostly called Generalidad , developed differently in the individual rulers to become independent authorities accountable to the Cortes. Since the Generalidades were not only active in the areas that were directly under the king, but also in the areas of the nobles, their powers went beyond those of the royal financial administration.

The number of members of the Generalidades varied in the various kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon. As the tasks of the generalidades increased in the course of time, the number of their members and the administrative staff also increased. The members belonged to all three (in Aragon all four) houses of the Cortes. A member of the Curia chaired the meeting. From the 15th century at the latest, the Generalidades were also active between the sessions of the Cortes. The result was a permanent representation of the Cortes that not only took care of taxes, but also monitored the execution of the Cortes' decisions. The importance of the Generalidades later lay in the fact that they were active during the times of the interregnum , i.e. in times when no Cortes were called together.

Aragon

Diputación del General del Reino de Aragón (short: Generalidad von Aragonien) ( Aragonese Deputación Cheneral d'Aragón )

The institution, which was actually founded for the tax administration, soon took on responsibility for closely related matters in Aragon, such as economic development, health policy, maintaining peace in the city and defending the kingdom. At the beginning four, later eight Diputados were elected by the assembly of the Cortes, who belonged to the different classes. From 1423 the Diputación consisted of sixteen members. In 1436 a building for the now existing administration and the archive was built in Zaragoza.

Building of the "Generalitat de Catalunya"

Catalonia

Diputación del General del Principado de Cataluña (Generalidad of Catalonia for short) ( Catalan Diputació del General del Principat de Catalunya )

In Catalonia, in particular, the Generalidad developed into one of the first governments in the world with parliamentary responsibility, whose twelve delegates and twelve auditors were first responsible for collecting and administering the taxes approved by the Cortes, and later brought all of Catalonia's politics under their control. From 1400 the Generalidad resided in its own building. The basis of governance was an agreement (pactum unionis) between the king and the equals of the empire. Ferdinand II tried to reduce the importance of the Generalidad by abolishing the election of members in the Constitució de l'Observança in 1481 with the consent of the Cortes . They have now been determined by drawing lots.

In the course of the 17th century the Cortes were convened less and less. Therefore, the Generalidad took a leading role in defending against the king's and the Inquisition's claims to power. The Generalidad took care of the police apparatus and the judiciary and negotiated through ambassadors to settle disputes with the royal court.

The Generalidad played a decisive role in an uprising against the king, who was residing in Castile, in the 17th century. A peasant uprising developed into a war that is known today because of its social origins as the Guerra dels Segadors (Reaper's War). The real reason for the anti-Castilian uprising was the king's request to the inhabitants of Catalonia to make troops available for a war against France. When the Generalidad even refused to feed and accommodate the Castilian troops returning from France, the Viceroy had the property of the Generalidad confiscated. On June 7, 1640, Corpus Christi day , a large number of farm workers came to Barcelona. There they not only vented their displeasure with their noble landlords, but also called for a general uprising. In the course of this riot the viceroy was murdered. The Generalidad redirected the direction of the actually social uprising and declared independence from King Philip IV of Spain . They subordinated Catalonia to the French King Louis XIII.

However, it soon emerged that the French king wanted to respect Catalan freedoms even less than Philip IV. In 1651 the Catalans capitulated to the Spanish king. The status of the Cortes and the Generalidad as well as the special rights of Catalonia were nominally restored, albeit with restrictions. However, the activity of the Catalan institutions was undermined by the fact that the king did not convene the Cortes. In 1659, in the Peace of the Pyrenees, Roussillon and parts of the county of Cerdanya were ceded to France.

In mid-January 1716, one of the Decretos de Nueva Planta caused Catalonia to lose all special rights that the previous rulers had promised to uphold through an oath to the Cortes. The Cortes, the Generalidad and the Council of the City of Barcelona were abolished as institutions.

Generalitat Valenciana Building

Valencia

Diputación del General del Reino de Valencia (Generalidad of Valencia for short) ( Valencian Diputació del General del Regne de València )

The Generalidad was established in Valencia in 1363. But it was not a permanent institution until 1414. During the period of the first Cortes convened by King Martin, which lasted from 1401 to 1407, a 32-person commission (comisión de los treinta y dos) was set up to perform various tasks between the meetings of the Cortes. This commission consisted of eight members from each of the three estates and a further eight members appointed by the king. During the Cortes, which lasted over six years with interruptions, she dealt with tasks that were carried out by the Generalidades in other countries of the Crown of Aragon.

In 1414, the Generalidad was also decided as a permanent institution in Valencia, but it concentrated much more than in other countries of the Aragonese Crown on its task of monitoring the entry and use of the Impuesto de la Generalidad . In 1421, construction began on a building that would become the headquarters of the Generalidad.

Remarks

  1. The numbering of the ruler's names is based on that of the Kingdom of Aragon until 1516. Pedro de Barcelona y d'Entença (1319-1387) was as Peter IV. King of Aragon, as Peter III. Count of Barcelona, ​​as Peter II King of Valencia and as Peter I King of Mallorca.
  2. Own translation of: "Don Carlos por la gracia de Dios, Rey de Castilla, de León, de Aragón, de las Dos Sicilias, de Jerusalem, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Mallorca, de Menorca, de Sevilla, de Cerdeña, de Córdoba, de Córcega, de Murcia, de Jaén, de los Algarbes, de Algeciras, de Gibraltar, de las Islas de Canaria, de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, islas y Tierra firme del Mar Océano; Archiduque de Austria; Duque de Borgoña, de Brabante y Milán; Conde de Apsburg, de Flandes, Tyrol y Barcelona; Señor de Viscaya y de Molina. "
  3. Most of the names are given in the Spanish language below. A translation of the names of the institutions into German is hardly possible. B. ( Justicia de Aragón ) or leads to unwanted term associations with state offices known in the German-speaking area.
  4. There were also parliamentary institutions in the Italian rulers of the Crown of Aragon. These facilities are not discussed in the following. For this z. B. Guido d'Agostino: Parlamenti di Napoli e de Sicilia nel medio evo nella età moderna. Model a confronto . In: Rafael Ordóñez (ed.): Aragón, historia y cortes de un reino . Cortes de Aragón et al. A., Zaragoza 1991, ISBN 84-86807-64-6 , pp. 145-147 (Italian).

literature

German

  • Walter L. Bernecker, Torsten Esser, Peter A. Kraus: A Little History of Catalonia . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-518-45879-2 , p. 346 .
  • Carlos Collado Seidel: Brief history of Catalonia . CH Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-54787-4 , p. 107 .
  • Joseph Perez: Ferdinand and Isabella . Callwey, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-7667-0923-2 , pp. 394 (from the French by Antoinette Gittinger).

Spanish

  • Jesús Lalinde Abadía: La Gobernación general en la Corona de Aragón. Institución Fernando el Catolico, Zaragoza 1963, p. 465.
  • Antonio Ubieto Arteta: La formación territorial (=  Historia de Aragón ). Anubar, Zaragoza 1981, ISBN 84-7013-181-8 , pp. 388 .
  • Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Literatura medieval (=  Historia de Aragón ). Anubar, Zaragoza 1981, ISBN 84-7013-186-9 , pp. 399 .
  • Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Divisiones administrativas (=  Historia de Aragón ). Anubar, Zaragoza 1983, ISBN 84-7013-196-6 , pp. 392 .
  • Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Los pueblos y los despoblados (=  Historia de Aragón ). Anubar, Zaragoza 1984, ISBN 84-7013-208-3 , pp. 608 .
  • Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Creación y desarrollo de la corona de Aragón (=  Historia de Aragón ). Anubar, Zaragoza 1987, ISBN 84-7013-227-X , pp. 395 .
  • Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Orígenes de Aragón (=  Historia de Aragón ). Anubar, Zaragoza 1989, ISBN 84-7013-237-7 , pp. 456 .
  • Rafael Ordóñez (coordinator): Aragón, historia y cortes de un reino . Cortes de Aragón et al. A., Zaragoza 1991, ISBN 84-86807-64-6 , pp. 151 (Spanish, Catalan, Italian).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Antonio Ubieto Arteta: La creación de la Corona de Aragón . Anúbar, Valencia 1977, ISBN 84-7013-096-X , pp. 3 (Spanish). quoted from Per Juan Ferrando Badía: La Corona de Aragón ¿Fue una confederación catalano-aragonesa? Associacio Cardona Vives, 1987, accessed March 23, 2015 (Spanish).
  2. Juan Ferrando Badía: Dictamen sobre el título “Príncipe de Gerona”. (PDF) Consell Valencià de Cultura, February 12, 1990, p. 15 , accessed on January 13, 2015 (Spanish).
  3. ^ Carlos Collado Seidel: Brief history of Catalonia . CH Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-54787-4 , p. 31 .
  4. Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Creación y desarrollo de la corona de Aragón (= Historia de Aragón) . Anubar, Zaragoza 1987, ISBN 84-7013-227-X , p. 130
  5. Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Creación y desarrollo de la corona de Aragón (= Historia de Aragón) . Anubar, Zaragoza 1987, ISBN 84-7013-227-X , p. 139
  6. Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Creación y desarrollo de la corona de Aragón (= Historia de Aragón) . Anubar, Zaragoza 1987, ISBN 84-7013-227-X , p. 138
  7. Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Creación y desarrollo de la corona de Aragón (= Historia de Aragón) . Anubar, Zaragoza 1987, ISBN 84-7013-227-X , p. 156
  8. Manuel Iglesias Costa: Historia del condado de Ribagorza . Ed .: Instituto de Estudios Altoaragoneses. Diputación de Huesca, Huesca 2001, ISBN 84-8127-121-7 , pp. 215 (Spanish).
  9. Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Creación y desarrollo de la corona de Aragón (= Historia de Aragón) . Anubar, Zaragoza 1987, ISBN 84-7013-227-X , p. 202
  10. Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Creación y desarrollo de la corona de Aragón (= Historia de Aragón) . Anubar, Zaragoza 1987, ISBN 84-7013-227-X , p. 256
  11. José María Francisco Olmos: El príncipe heredero en las coronas de Castilla y Aragón durante la Baja Edad Media . Ed .: Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Geografía e Historia, Departamento de Historia Medieval. Madrid 2002, ISBN 978-84-8466-045-3 , pp. 322 (Spanish, eprints.ucm.es [accessed May 7, 2015]).
  12. María Rosa Muñoz Pomer: Valencia y las Cortes en los umbrales del siglo XV. Ed .: Corts Valencianes. Valencia, ISBN 978-84-694-1828-4 , pp. 69 (Spanish, cortsvalencianes.es [accessed May 7, 2015]). cortsvalencianes.es ( Memento of the original from October 5, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.cortsvalencianes.es
  13. Jesús Lalinde Abadía: Los derechos individuales en the "Privilegio General de Aragón" . In: Alfonso García-Gallo y de Diego (ed.): Anuario de historia del derecho español (=  Publicaciónes del Instituto Nacional de Estudios Juridicos ). tape 1 . Ministerio de Justicia y Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid 1980, p. 57 (Spanish).
  14. Manuel Iglesias Costa: Historia del condado de Ribagorza . Ed .: Instituto de Estudios Altoaragoneses. Diputación de Huesca, Huesca 2001, ISBN 84-8127-121-7 , pp. 215 (Spanish).
  15. Antonio Ubieto Arteta: Creación y desarrollo de la corona de Aragón (= Historia de Aragón) . Anubar, Zaragoza 1987, ISBN 84-7013-227-X , p. 210
  16. ^ Fidel Fita Colomé: El principado de Cataluña. (PDF) Razón de este nombre. In: Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia, tomo 40 (1902). Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, 1902, p. 261 , accessed on January 31, 2015 (Spanish).
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