|Metropolitan city||Cagliari (CA)|
|Coordinates||39 ° 13 ' N , 9 ° 7' E|
|height||4 m slm|
|Residents||153,231 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||1,793 inhabitants / km²|
|Factions||Pirri, Poetto, Giorgino|
|Patron saint||Saturninus from Cagliari|
Cagliari ( IPA : [ ˈkaʎʎari ] ; Latin Caralis ; Sardinian Casteddu ) is the largest city in Sardinia, capital of the autonomous Italian region of Sardinia and capital of the metropolitan city of Cagliari . The city itself has 153,231 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019), the agglomeration has around 470,000. The port city in the south of the island, on the banks of the Gulf of Cagliari , has a university and is the seat of the Archdiocese of Cagliari .
The old town of Cagliari is called the Castello and is located on a hilltop from which the entire Gulf of Cagliari can be seen.
Karalis or Kalares was a Phoenician colony that later belonged to the Carthaginian Empire and came under the rule of the Romans as a result of the First Punic War (lat. Caralis ). During the Second Punic War , the city was the seat of a praetor and the most important Roman naval base in Sardinia. Later the inhabitants received Roman citizenship . In the 4th century the city was the bishopric of Lucifer of Calaris . With the fall of the Western Roman Empire , Cagliari fell into the hands of the Vandals . Then it came to the Byzantine Empire .
In the course of the weariness of the Byzantine rule over the island in the 9th century, initially five Sardinian judiciaries (literally judges ) were formed. The judiciary of Cagliari soon annexed that of Agugliastra, dividing the island into those four judiciaries for centuries, which are also made clear by its coat of arms. In this phase of the independence of Sardinia, the city was abandoned by its citizens, as the Phoenician-Roman city, located directly on the sea, was attacked several times by Moorish pirates. They founded the new city called Santa Igia further west inland.
With the strengthening of the Italian maritime republics , Pisa and Genoa competed for sovereignty over Sardinia. Pisa brought Cagliari under his rule.
In the 14th century, the Pisan territory of Sardinia came into possession of the Crown of Aragon via Pisa and thus under Spanish administration through the Treaty of Tordesillas until the 17th century.
After the Kingdom of Sardinia had passed from the Spanish to the Austrian Habsburgs for a short time , it came to the House of Savoy in 1718 , which established the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont . It has belonged to Italy since 1861.
coat of arms
Description: The coat of arms is quartered with a red field at the top in front and at the bottom in the back with a silver cross and in the other fields in blue with a wave shield base on which a three-towered silver castle stands. A gold leafed pearl crown above the shield and two skin-colored male shield holders with a green head wreath and blue fish tails stand on the green ground on the sides . The right one blows into a snail shell.
The Cathedral of Cagliari, the Cathedral of Cagliari Santa Maria di Castello, is the episcopal church of the Archdiocese of Cagliari and was originally built by the Pisans from 1217 in the Romanesque-Pisan style. The church is a conglomerate of numerous conversions and extensions, because conversions such as the installation of the transept and changes to the facade were carried out as early as the 14th century. During the extensive baroque renovation from 1669, the Spaniards also built the baroque facade from 1702–1704, the remains of which are stored behind the cathedral museum. This was demolished in 1903 due to dilapidation and rebuilt in 1933 based on the forms of the Pisan Romanesque. The Pisan architrave of the main portal and the portals of the transept arms (north Pisan, south Gothic) have been preserved in the original . The front wall of a Roman sarcophagus is walled in above the lintel of the south transept portal .
The interior of the cathedral has been completely rebuilt in the baroque style. In addition to the ornate floor made of colored marble, the silver embossed and very finely chased tabernacle from 1610 from Palermo and the embossed silver antependium from 1655 from Madrid, the ceiling paintings, sacred sculptures and richly decorated tombs, the altarpiece "Retablo della Crocifissione" is also included a representation of the crucifixion and the enthroned Madonna from 1528/30 as well as the marble pulpit created between 1159 and 1162 by the sculptor Guglielmo. The latter originally stood in Pisa Cathedral and was brought to Cagliari in 1312 as a gift from the Pisans for the Cathedral. The pulpit, which was sawed into two parts during the baroque renovation and moved to the west wall, with scenes from the life of Jesus is considered one of the most outstanding works of Pisan art in Sardinia. Master Guillelmus is sometimes equated with Master Wilhelm von Innsbruck , who is also said to have built the Leaning Tower of Pisa . Four stone lions, which originally carried four of the seven pulpit pillars, now flank the stairs and the corners of the presbytery stand in the crossing.
The crypt is worth mentioning . The vault is decorated with 600 rosettes, no two are alike. It houses burial chambers with the remains of almost 300 Sardinian martyrs who were reburied in the crypt of the Basilica di San Saturno church in the 17th century .
The Basilica di Nostra Signora di Bonaria with its imposing baroque facade is a much-visited pilgrimage church and the Sardinian seat of the Mercedarians . From the sweeping staircase you have a wonderful view of the Golfo degli Angeli . The basilica was named Nostra Signora di Bonaria from a figure of the Madonna, which, according to legend, was washed up here on a stormy night in 1370. When the people opened the box with the figure, they were amazed to see that the candle in the Madonna's hands was still burning. This is how the Madonna became the patron saint of fishermen and seafarers and, ultimately, the island of Sardinia.
Anfiteatro Romano dates from the 2nd century BC. And is the largest Roman building on Sardinia with about 1150 m². It was built directly into the slope, the rows of seats are partially carved into the stone and supposedly offered space for up to 20,000 visitors, which roughly corresponded to the total population of Cagliari at that time. The term “amphitheater” indicates that the arena could be submerged by means of underground canals in order to perform the sea combat spectacles popular at the time, alongside animal and human fights, theater performances and the like.
The theater experienced its heyday during the Roman Empire; later, from the Middle Ages to the time of Spanish rule, it was no longer used and increasingly fell into disrepair. In 1866 it was cleaned and renovated, and additions such as corridors and rows of wooden seats were added so that the archaeological site can still be used as an event location today. In summer, concerts, festivals and musicals take place in front of this fantastic backdrop.
Torre dell'Elefante and Torre di San Pancrazio : the elephant tower and the pancrazio tower are part of the Pisan fortifications from the early 14th century, the work of the famous architect Giovanni Capula. Under the Spaniards, the towers functioned as prisons and the open spaces in front of them supposedly as execution sites. For this, the towers were also walled up on the fourth side and only returned to their original state in 1906. Finally, in 1999 another renovation took place. Since then, they have been used as observation towers.
The name “Elephant Tower” is derived from the small marble elephant above the gate. Why and since when this is there is not clear. A second elephant portrait can be found at the top of the entrance stairs: It is a rough stone relief depicting a somewhat misshapen elephant.
The Torre San Pancrazio takes its name from a small church near the tower.
Bastione di Saint Remy
The classicist-style square, popular with tourists and locals, was built in 1901 on the old bastion from the Piedmontese era as a viewing terrace and meeting point for the urban population.
- The churches of Santa Restituta, Sant'Efisio, Sant'Eulalia, San Saturno , San Giacomo
- The Church of San Michele in the Stampace district is an excellent example of Catalan Baroque
- The Castello San Michele
- The town hall of Cagliari and Palazzo di Città (the former town hall in neo-Gothic style), Palazzo Viceregio (viceroyal palace)
- The Botanical Garden ( Orto Botanico di Cagliari ): Opened for the first time in 1866, the Botanical Garden was destroyed during the Second World War and therefore completely rebuilt in the years that followed. The interestingly structured garden shows u. a. indigenous plants, medicinal plants, biblical plants, an extensive collection of cacti and rare plants from different continents. Furthermore, there are archaeological sites on the site, e.g. B. Cisterns and a Roman cave. The handicapped accessible park has some water features .
- Il Poetto, one of the longest beaches in the Mediterranean, is about five kilometers from the town center.
Arts and Culture
The State Art Gallery in Cagliari contains a collection of old paintings that were brought together from the 19th century. It belongs to the complex of the Cittadella dei Musei, a multi-purpose cultural facility that includes the Archaeological Museum and the Pinacoteca, the Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche e Storico-artistiche and the Scuola di Specializzazione di Studi Sardi of the University of Cagliari , the Regional Folklore Museum and the Museum of Siamese Art. The museum project in the seat of the former Arsenale militare (armory) was realized from 1979 onwards according to a design by the architects Piero Gazzola and Libero Cecchini.
Centro Culturale Man Ray
Center for modern and contemporary art, in which, in addition to exhibitions, seminars, study congresses and courses on the fine arts, photography and film and video are offered. Attached is the Man Ray Photo School , which trains photographers, video artists and cinematographers.
Cagliari plays a leading role in Sardinian cultural life. In the city's opera house, the Teatro Lirico di Cagliari , one of the most modern in the entire Mediterranean and the most important on the island, opera performances and concerts of international level are offered. The opera season begins every year with a premiere that is of great interest not only to the island but to all of Italy. The modern opera house was opened in September 1993 based on plans by the architects Bergamaschi, Ginoulhaic and Galmozzi. There is room for 1650 visitors in the stalls and in the two boxes.
Festivals and Traditions
The most famous festival in Cagliari is the feast of Saint Ephesius, Sant'Efisio , on May 1st.
The Cagliari Calcio football club was founded in 1920 and was Italian football champion in 1970 . He plays since the season 2016/2017 again in the top Italian league, the Serie A . The home games take place in the Stadio Sant'Elia .
As the capital of the island of Sardinia, Cagliari is the administrative seat of numerous offices, ministries and institutions. In addition, the island's capital is a trading center with a free trade port and has one of the largest fish markets in Italy. The diverse industrial production in the city also includes factories of numerous international corporations. Cagliari is the seat of the Italian IT company Tiscali . The numerous architectural monuments and the location by the sea also make tourism an important industry.
The port of Cagliari offers ferry connections to Palermo , Naples , Arbatax , Civitavecchia and Trapani . It has one of the largest container terminals in the Mediterranean.
Cagliari is the starting point of the largely autobahn-like SS131, which forks behind Oristano into a branch via Macomer to Sassari and one (SS131DCN) via Nuoro to Olbia , i.e. the backbone of the Sardinian road network. Another expressway leads to Iglesias. These two and other highways are connected by a generous bypass road that surrounds Cagliari and the neighboring town of Quartucciu on the land side.
The standard gauge network of the Italian State Railways (FS) connects Cagliari with Sassari and Porto Torres as well as Olbia and Golfo Aranci via the large north-south route via Oristano and Ozieri -Chilivani . The Servizio ferroviario metropolitano di Cagliari runs on this line . A narrow-gauge line of the Ferrovie della Sardegna (FdS) connects Cagliari with Mandas and Isili , where two routes to Arbatax and Sorgono , which are only seasonally operated as tourist attractions ( Trenino Verde ), connect.
Local public transport
The inner-city part of the narrow-gauge line to Isili was expanded to become the first section of the modern Metrocagliari light rail , which opened in 2008. The line to the university hospital was opened on February 14, 2015. Four lines are planned for the final stage.
The bus traffic in the city takes place on some lines with trolleybuses .
The international airport in the neighboring town of Elmas is called Aeroporto di Cagliari-Elmas "Mario Mameli" and offers regular connections to Cologne, Düsseldorf, Munich or Geneva.
Personalities born in Cagliari
- Juan Pilars († 1521), bishop
- Maria Christina of Savoy (1812–1836), Princess of Sardinia and Savoy
- Enrico Carboni Boy (1851–1925), lawyer and politician
- Luigi Efisio Marras (1888-1981), General
- Francesco Loi (1891-1977), Turner
- Amedeo Nazzari (1907–1979), actor
- Giorgio Ansoldi (1913–1999), filmmaker
- Demofilo Fidani (1914–1994), film director, screenwriter and painter
- Gianni Agus (1917–1994), actor
- Aiace Parolin (1920–2016), cameraman
- Silvano Ippoliti (1923–1994), cameraman
- Nanni Loy (1925–1995), film director, actor and screenwriter
- Luigi de Magistris (* 1926), Cardinal of the Curia
- Franco Solinas (1927–1982), screenwriter and writer
- Mimmo Palmara (1928–2016), actor and voice actor
- Pier Giuliano Tiddia (* 1929), old archbishop
- Pier Angeli (1932–1971), actress
- Marisa Pavan (born 1932), actress
- Remo Bodei (1938–2019), philosopher
- Marcello Melis (1939–1994), jazz musician
- Maria Fiè (born 1940), actress
- Fausto Cercignani (* 1941), literary scholar, poet, English and Germanist
- Gianfranco Cabiddu (* 1953), ethnomusicologist, sound engineer and film director
- Sandro Floris (* 1965), athlete
- Giulia Moi (* 1971), politician
- Caterina Murino (* 1977), actress and photo model
- Alberto Loddo (* 1979), racing cyclist
- Andrea Cossu (* 1980), football player
- Andrea Capone (* 1981), football player
- Gianluca Moi (* 1982), racing cyclist
- Marco Carta (* 1985), singer
- Andrea Cocco (* 1986), football player
- Francesco Pisano (* 1986), football player
- Nicolò Barella (born 1997), football player
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Cagliari
- Website of the city of Cagliari
- Official tourist website of the city of Cagliari (Italian, English)
- ↑ Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- ↑ Centro Culturale Man Ray , accessed October 13, 2018.
- ^ Metropolitana, oggi inaugurata la tratta San Gottardo-Policlinico. In: L'Unione Sarda, February 14, 2015. Retrieved April 2, 2015 (Italian).