Sardinian language

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Sardinian (Sardu)

Spoken in

Italy ( Sardinia )
speaker 1-1.3 million
Official status
Recognized minority /
regional language in
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3


The Sardinian language (Sardinian: limba sarda [ˈlimba ˈzaɾda] / lingua sarda [ˈliŋɡwa ˈzaɾda]) or the Sardinian (Sardinian: sardu [ˈsaɾdu]) is a Romance language , which on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia from about 1–1.3 million Sardinian is spoken.

Compared to Italian and the other Romance languages, Sardinian has retained a relatively large number of phonetic and grammatical elements from Latin . Many Catalan and Spanish influences can also be found in Sardinian.

The Romance language Sardinian is not to be confused with the pre-Roman, non- Indo-European Paleo-Sardinian.

Written language

A common written language valid for all Sardinian varieties, the Limba sarda comuna (LSC), was introduced experimentally in 2006; the first text in LSC is the Statute of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia, ratified on March 7, 2007.


Spread of the dialects of Sardinian

The main dialects of Sardinian are:

  • Logudorès or Sardu Logudorèsu (North and Central Sardinia)
  • Nuorese or Sardu Nugorèsu (central-east Sardinia), often considered a sub- variety of the Logudorese dialect.
  • Campidanese or Sardu Campidanèsu (South Sardinia)


Particularly noticeable in Sardinian is the definite article : In contrast to the other Romance languages ​​with the exception of Mallorcan , this does not use the Latin demonstrative pronoun illegal, illa, illud (e.g. Italian il / lo, la, French le, la, Spanish el, la ) and the respective plural forms, but is derived from Latin ipse, ipsv (m), ipsa (m) etc.: In the singular, the Sardinian definite articles are su (masc. sing.), sa (fem. sing), in the plural sos (mask. pl.) and sas (fem. pl.) in Logudorese, in Campidanese is for both genera.

As in Spanish and Romanian , for example , the direct object is marked with a preposition (the so-called prepositional accusative ): deo bìdo a Maria (“I see Maria” (literally: I look to Maria )).

Like the Western Romance languages, Sardinian forms the plural on -s, for example sa domo > sas domos; su cane > sos canes .


a-conjugation (example word: furare "stehlen")

indicative Singular Plural
1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3.
active Present for o for as for at for amus for goodbye for ant
Past tense for aia for aias for aiat for aìamus for aiais for aiant
Future tense I. ap o a furare a s a furare a t a furare a mus a furare a is a furare a nt a furare
Perfect so e furadu se s furadu e st furadu se mus furados se is furados su nt furados
past continuous f io furadu f ias furadu f it furadu f ìmus furados f izis furados f int furados
Future tense II ap o a essere furadu a s a essere furadu a t a essere furadu a mus a essere furados a is a essere furados a nt a essere furados
conjunctive Singular Plural
1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3.
active Present for e for it for et for emus for ice cream for ent
Past tense for ere for eres for eret for eremus for event for erent
Perfect si a furadu si as furadu si et furadu se mus furados si ice furados si ant furados
past continuous fi at furadu fi s (tis) furadu fi t furadu mus furados fi zis furados fi nt furados
Conditionalis Singular Plural
1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3.
active Present d ia furare d ias furare d iat furare d iamus furare the ice furare d iant a furare
Perfect d ia essere furadu d ias essere furadu d iat essere furadu d iamus essere furados d ieis essere furados d iant essere furados
imperative Singular Plural
1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3.
active Present - for a for et for amus for ade for ent
Non-finite forms active passive
Present Perfect Future tense Present Perfect Future tense
Infinitive for are ess ere furadu - - - -
Participles for the end ess end furadu - - for adu -

Phonetics and Phonology

Characteristic is the extensive preservation of the vulgar Latin vowel system, v. a. in Logudorese and Nuorese (in Campidanese only in a stressed position, in an unstressed position a reduction to -a, -i, -u can be observed, similar to Sicilian )

In the Logudorese and Nuorese dialects, the Latin intervocal plosives (p, t, k) remain largely intact, especially the preservation of the Latin velar pronunciation of -C- (/ k /) is striking : e.g. B. Latin centu (m) (pronounced: / kentu /) '100'> logudorese kentu (cf. Italian cento , French cent ). This archaism can otherwise only be found in the extinct Dalmatian .

Special features of Sardinian are also the metaphony ( umlaut ), the epithesis ("secondary vowel": if a word or sentence ends in a consonant, the previous vowel is repeated: e.g. sas domos - pronounced: / sar or sal domoso /) as well as the existence of the retroflex consonant [(] (which only occurs in the Geminate) , which is usually represented graphically with -dd- , -ḍḍ- or -ddh- .

Front Central Back
Closed i u
Half closed e O
Half open ɛ ɔ
Open Ä
Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
nasal m n ɳ
Plosive p b t d ɖ k G
Affricates ʦ ʣ ʤ
Fricative β f v ð s z ɣ
Approximant j
Flap ⁠ɾ⁠
Vibrant ⁠R⁠
Lateral l

Sound shifts from Latin to Sardinian

Sound shift example
Latin Vulgar Latin
(2nd century)
Vulgar Latin
(4th century)
Vulgar Latin
(6th century)
Vulgar Latin
(7th century)
[w] → [v] → [b] vīnum
[p] → [b] → [β] caput
[kʷ] → [p] → [b] aqua
[t] → [d] → [ð] rota

Current situation

Because of the outcome of the War of the Spanish Succession , the former Spanish colony of Sardinia only belonged to Austria for a few years after the Peace of Utrecht and the Peace of Rastatt . However, the situation changed again when Spain sent a fleet to Cagliari (Casteddu) in 1717 to reoccupy the island. As a result, Sardinia fell under the rule of the House of Savoy , who received the island in exchange for Sicily .

Many intellectuals had written essays on the problem of the Sardinian language, such as the philologist Matteo Madau, who wanted to make Sardinian the national language of the island, and the professor and senator Giovanni Spano , who had chosen the Logudorese variant as the official and literary language, similar to the Florentine language Dialect recognized as the Italian language . However, the Piedmontese government decided in July 1760 to enforce Italian by law, as the Savoyards decided geopolitically to remove the island from Spanish influence and to adapt Sardinia culturally to Piedmont and the broader Italian culture.

Ethno-linguistic groups recognized by Italy in 1999 as “historical linguistic minorities”.

Despite the policy of assimilation , the hymn of the Piedmontese Kingdom of Sardinia was the Hymnu Sardu (or Cunservet Deus su Re ), the text of which is in Sardinian. When the First World War broke out, the Italian army had founded the Sassari Infantry Brigade on March 1, 1915 ; In contrast to the other Italian brigades, only the island's population was recruited for these. It is also the only Italian infantry brigade that has its own anthem in a regional language: It is called Dimonios after the name "Red Devil" (the Sardinian Dimonios stands for the German "devil"), which the Austro-Hungarian soldiers denote Sardinians had given to show their worth in war.

During fascism , all non-Italian minority languages ​​were banned. In practice, Sardinian dominated, but the restrictions went so far that most of the Sardinian surnames were changed to sound more "Italian"; for example, the family names Lussu and Mannu became Lusso and Manno . During this period, singing the national anthem Cunservet Deus su Re was the only way to use a minority language without problems because the anthem was part of the tradition of the royal family and therefore could not be banned. For fear of political messages, the church had imposed a strict blockade on muttos , which are a form of improvised pastoral poetry. Salvatore Poddighe, a political poet, committed suicide as a result.

Frequency of use of regional and minority languages ​​in Italy (ISTAT, 2015).

In 1999, Sardinian was recognized by Law 482-1999 along with other minority languages ​​such as Albanian , Catalan , German , Greek , Slovenian , Croatian , French , Franco-Provencal , Friulian , Ladin and Occitan , but it is very difficult to actually recognize it in everyday life To achieve life: In many Italian libraries and universities z. B. Books about Sardinian can still be found under Linguistica italiana (Italian linguistics), Dialetti italiani (Italian dialects) or Dialettologia italiana (Italian dialectology), despite its recognition as a separate language on a scientific and legal level . The assumption is still widespread that Sardinian is just an Italian dialect (sometimes even at the institutional level despite the now valid law), as was common for all non-Italian minority languages ​​for ideological reasons, although Sardinian is already used by scientists outside of Italy was long considered a separate language. Because of this classification, Sardinian has suffered from the prejudices associated with Italian dialects, and it carries a great stigma because of it.

Although there have been various campaigns to equate Sardinian with Italian, and although there is a great emotional value associated with the Sardinian identity with regard to the Sardinian identity, the current sociolinguistic situation in Sardinia shows an ever decreasing language competence of children and young people. This development has various causes, mainly political and socio-economic (e.g. for reasons of the depopulation of the interior and the increasing rural-urban migration , the Italian policy of assimilation towards the minority languages, the immigration of people from the Italian peninsula , the heated debate about the standardization of the language . etc.). However, this process is not progressing homogeneously across the island. Many Sardinians (especially those who were born and live in cities that are far more densely populated than the villages) did not pass their language on to their children, which is why the younger generation often has little knowledge of Sardinian. The UNESCO has Sardinian "as endangered " (definitely endangered) classified because "many children learn the language, but they no longer speak, when they are of school age."

There is a sharp decline in language skills from one generation to the next. According to some reports, only 13 percent of children speak fluently and usually Sardinian; most of them live in the villages of Goceano , Barbagia and Baronìa , the only current strongholds of the Sardinian language. The rest of the island has been largely Italianized . In addition, Italian continues to dominate public life, e.g. B. Sardinian is not allowed to be used in schools , although there are bilingual school laws.Some linguists, taking into account the situation of some villages in Logudoro , where there are practically no bilingual children left, believe that Sardinian is a language that is dying out. They suspect that in a dozen years, when the older generation that makes up the majority of Sardinia's population has died, Sardinian will no longer exist.

A bill by the Monti government provided for the already almost non-existent level of protection of the language by a legally established differentiation between the languages ​​protected by international agreements (i.e. German, Slovenian, French and Ladin) and all other languages ​​that are not foreign State concern to lower it even further. This project did not materialize because Italy has not yet ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages . However, part of the island's intellectual and political scene reacted to this. In addition, some students wanted to take their final exams in Sardinian in 2013 , which raised the question of the language in Sardinian schools on a social and political level.

While the future of the Sardinian language is therefore uncertain, the younger ones are proficient in an Italian dialect that the Sardinian speakers call italiànu porcheddìnu with contempt : this is the variant of Italian that arose from Italian and Sardinian in a language contact situation on the island .

Sociolinguistic status

Bilingual sign (Sardinian / Italian) in Pula

Sardinian is spoken exclusively on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia , which belongs to Italy, by around 1–1.3 million people, which corresponds to around 80% of the island's population. These are almost all bilingual Italian / Sardinian.

A regional law of 1997 and a law of the Italian Republic of 1999 recognized Sardinian as a minority language. Equality with Italian , as in the case of German in South Tyrol or French in Aosta Valley , has not yet been achieved.

There are other linguistic minorities in Sardinia: on the two islands in the southwest of Sardinia (especially Carloforte and Calasetta) a Ligurian dialect, the so-called tabarchìn, and in Alghero in the northwest (Catalan L'Alguer, Sardinian S'Alighera, Spanish Alguer ) a Catalan dialect spoken.


  • Vincenzo Porru: Nou Dizionariu Universali Sardu-Italianu. Cagliari 1832.
  • Giovanni Spano: Ortografia Sarda Nazionale. Real Stamperia, Cagliari 1840.
  • Giovanni Spano: Vocabolario Sardo-Italiano e Italiano-Sardo. Cagliari 1851-1852.
  • Max Leopold Wagner : Historical phonology of Sardinian. 1941.
  • Max Leopold Wagner: La lingua sarda. Storia, spirito e forma . Berna 1950.
  • Max Leopold Wagner: Dizionario etimologico sardo. Heidelberg 1960–1964.
  • Max Leopold Wagner: History of the Sardinian language. Edited by Giovanni Masala. Francke, Tübingen / Basel 2002.
  • BS Kamps and Antonio Lepori: Sardinian for Mollis & Müslis , Steinhauser, Wuppertal 1985.
  • Shigeaki Sugeta: Su bocabolariu sinotticu nugoresu - giapponesu - italianu: sas 1500 paragulas fundamentales de sa limba sarda. Edizioni Della Torre, 2000.
  • Salvatore Colomo: Vocabularieddu Sardu-Italianu / Italianu-Sardu .
  • Luigi Farina: Vocabolario Nuorese-Italiano e Bocabolariu Sardu Nugoresu-Italianu .
  • Michael Allan Jones: Sintassi della lingua sarda (Sardinian Syntax). Condaghes, Cagliari 2003.
  • Eduardo Blasco Ferrer: Linguistica sarda. Storia, metodi, problemi. Condaghes, Cagliari 2003.
  • Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Michel Contini: Sardinian: Internal Language History I. Grammar (Evoluzione della grammatica). In: Günter Holtus , Michael Metzeltin , Christian Schmitt (Eds.): Lexicon of Romance Linguistics . Volume IV .: Italian, Corsican, Sardinian. Tübingen 1988, pp. 836-853.
  • Eduardo Blasco Ferrer: Sardinian: External Language History (Storia del sardo). In: Günter Holtus, Michael Metzeltin, Christian Schmitt (Eds.): Lexicon of Romance Linguistics. Volume IV: Italian, Corsican, Sardinian. Tübingen 1988, pp. 884-897.
  • Roberto Bolognesi, Wilbert Heeringa: Sardegna tra tante lingue: il contatto linguistico in Sardegna dal Medioevo a oggi , Condaghes, Cagliari 2005.
  • Eduardo Blasco Ferrer: Storia della lingua sarda. Cagliari 2009.
  • Eduardo Blasco Ferrer: Paleosardo. Le radici linguistiche della Sardegna neolitica. Berlin / New York 2010.
  • Roberto Bolognesi: The phonology of Campidanian Sardinian. A unitary account of a self-organizing structure. Holland Academic Graphics, The Hague 2012.
  • Roberto Bolognesi: Le identità linguistiche dei sardi. Condaghes 2013.
  • Ines Loi Corvetto: Sardinian: Internal History of Language II. Lexicon (Evoluzione del lessico). In: Günter Holtus, Michael Metzeltin , Christian Schmitt (Eds.): Lexicon of Romance Linguistics. Volume IV .: Italian, Corsican, Sardinian. Tübingen 1988, pp. 854-867.
  • Giulio Paulis: I nomi di luogo in Sardegna. Sassari 1987.
  • Giuseppe Mercurio: S'allega baroniesa, fonetica, morfologia, sintassi. Milan, 1997.
  • Guido Mensching: Introduction to the Sardinian language. Bonn 1992 (3rd edition 2004).
  • Maurizio Virdis: Sardinian: Aree linguistiche. In: Günter Holtus, Michael Metzeltin, Christian Schmitt (Eds.): Lexicon of Romance Linguistics. Volume IV: Italian, Corsican, Sardinian. Tübingen 1988, pp. 897-913.
  • Alberto Areddu: Le origini albanesi della civiltà di Sardegna. Napoli 2007.
  • Amos Cardia: S'italianu in Sardìnnia. Iskra, 2006.
  • Amos Cardia: Apedala dimòniu. I sardi, Cagliari 2002.
  • Francesco Casula: La Lingua sarda e l'insegnamento a scuola. Alfa, Quartu Sant'Elena 2010.
  • Antonio Lepori: Stòria lestra de sa literadura sarda. De su Nascimentu a su segundu Otuxentus. CR, Quartu S. Elena 2005.
  • Antonio Lepori: Vocabolario moderno sardo-italiano: 8400 vocaboli. CUEC, Cagliari 1980.
  • Antonio Lepori: Zibaldone campidanese. Castello, Cagliari 1983.
  • Antonio Lepori: Fueddàriu campidanesu de sinònimus e contràrius. Castello, Cagliari 1987.
  • Antonio Lepori: Dizionario Italiano-Sardo Campidanese. Castello, Cagliari 1988.
  • Antonio Lepori: Gramàtiga sarda po is campidanesus. CR, Quartu S. Elena 2001.
  • Francesco Mameli: Il logudorese e il gallurese. Soter 1998.
  • Alberto G. Areddu: Le origini "albanesi" della civiltà in Sardegna. Napoli 2007.
  • Johannes Hubschmid: Sardinian Studies , Bern, 1953.
  • Max Leopold Wagner: Dizionario etimologico sardo. Heidelberg 1960–1964.
  • Giulio Paulis: I nomi di luogo della Sardegna. Sassari 1987.
  • Giulio Paulis: I nomi popolari delle piante in Sardegna. Sassari 1992.
  • Massimo Pittau : I nomi di paesi città regioni monti fiumi della Sardegna. Cagliari 1997.
  • Marcello Pili, novella lanuseine: poetry, storia, lingua, economia della Sardegna. La sfinge, Ariccia 2004.
  • Michelangelo Pira: Sardegna tra due lingue. Della Torre, Cagliari 1984.
  • Massimo Pittau: Grammatica del sardo-nuorese. Patron, Bologna 1972.
  • Massimo Pittau: Grammatica della lingua sarda. Delfino, Sassari 1991.
  • Massimo Pittau: Dizionario della lingua sarda: fraseologico ed etimologico. Gasperini, Cagliari 2000/2003.
  • Antonino Rubattu: Dizionario universale della lingua di Sardegna. Edes, Sassari 2003.
  • Antonino Rubattu: Sardo, italiano, sassarese, gallurese. Edes, Sassari 2003.
  • Mauro Maxia: Lingua Limba Linga. Indagine sull'uso dei codici linguistici in tre comuni della Sardegna settentrionale. Cagliari, Condaghes 2006.
  • Mauro Maxia: La situazione sociolinguistica della Sardegna settentrionale. In: Sa Diversidade de sas Limbas in Europe, Itàlia e Sardigna. Regione Autònoma de Sardigna, Bilartzi 2010.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Limba sarda comuna Sardinian cultural agency
  2. The accents serve here as pronunciation aids; in LSC, as in most other writing systems, they are only used in words that are stressed on the third from last syllable.
  3. Grammar of the limba sarda comuna (PDF; 427 kB)
  4. ^ Sardegna Cultura: Limba Sarda Comuna. Norme linguistiche di riferimento a carattere sperimentale per la lingua scritta dell'Amministrazione regional. April 27, 2006, p. 37 ( PDF file; 427 KB )
  5. Matteo Madau - Ichnussa
  6. [...] Ciononostante le due opere dello Spano sono di straordinaria importanza, in quanto aprirono in Sardegna la discussione sul “problema della lingua sarda”, quella che sarebbe dovuta essere la lingua unificata ed unificante, che si sarebbe dovuta imporre in tutta l'isola sulle particolarità dei singoli dialetti e suddialetti, la lingua della nazione sarda, con la quale la Sardegna intendeva inserirsi tra le altre nazioni europee, source che nell'Ottocento avevano già raggiunto o stavano politica per raggiunto o stavano per raggiungere la loro e attres la nazione italiana. E proprio sulla falsariga di quanto era stato teorizzato ed anche attuato a favore della nazione italiana, che nell'Ottocento stava per portare a termine il processo di unificazione linguistica, elevando il dialetto fiorentino e toscano al ruolo di “lingua nazionale”, chiamandolo illustrious ”, also in Sardegna l'auspicata“ lingua nazionale sarda ”fu denominata“ sardo illustrious ”. Massimo Pittau: Grammatica del sardo illustrious. Nuoro, pp. 11-12.
  7. ^ Roberto Bolognesi: The phonology of Campidanian Sardinian. A unitary account of a self-organizing structure. Holland Academic Graphics, The Hague.
  8. S'italianu in Sardìnnia, Amos Cardia, Iskra
  9. La "limba" proibita nella Sardegna del '700 (da "Ritorneremo", una storia tramandata oralmente) -
  10. ^ Norms in materia di tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche (Italian Parliament)
  11. “Il sardo è un dialetto”: campagna di boicottaggio contro l'editore Giunti
  12. La lingua sarda a rischio estinzione - Disterraus sardus. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 8, 2014 ; Retrieved June 29, 2014 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  13. Cosa, lis dolet? - Novas de s'Isportellu linguìsticu sovra-comunale de Planàrgia e Montiferru otzidentale
  14. ^ I giudici della Cassazione: “Il sardo non è una vera lingua, è solamente un dialetto”. aMpI: “gravissimo attacco alla lingua del popolo sardo” - Il Minuto Note Mediterranee
  15. ^ Conferenza di Francesco Casula sulla Lingua sarda: sfatare i più diffusi pregiudizi sulla lingua sarda
  16. La lingua sarda oggi: bilinguismo, problemi di identità culturale e realtà scolastica, Maurizio Virdis. Università di Cagliari, archived from the original on January 25, 2012 ; accessed on March 5, 2018 .
  17. Sa limba sarda - Giovanna Tonzanu
  18. The standardization of the Sardinian language. Or: How many standard languages ​​for Sardinian? And which? (Institute for Linguistics / Romance Studies)
  19. Le contese sulla Lsc. Lo standard è il futuro. Senza diktat - Alessandro Mongili ( Memento of the original from July 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  20. ^ D'une île l'autre: de la Corse en Sardaigne - Jean-Pierre Cavaillé
  21. Sardinian language use survey. Euromosaic, accessed June 29, 2014 .
  22. Tapani Salminen: UNESCO Red Book on Endagered Languages: Europe :. September 22, 1999, accessed June 13, 2008 .
  23. a b Sardinia: Holiday paradise or silent death of a people? - By Marco Oggianu (translation by Mateo Taibon)
  24. La Nuova Sardegna, 04/11/10, by salvare i segni dell'identità - di Paolo Coretti
  25. Ai docenti di sardo lezioni in italiano, Sardegna 24 - Cultura
  26. ^ Guido Mensching: The internet as a Rescue Tool of Endangered Languages: Sardinian. (PDF; 877 KB) Free University of Berlin, December 12, 2000, accessed on July 11, 2014 (English).
  27. La situazione sociolinguistica della Sardegna settentrionale, Mauro Maxia
  28. Sardaigne
  29. MIUR e limba sarda - ULS Alta Baronia
  30. Carta delle lingue: una ratifica presunta e una bufala probabile - Giuseppe Corongiu
  31. La mancata ratifica della Carta rivela le “scorrettezze” del Belpaese L'Europa e il sardo: cartellino giallo per l'Italia - Unione Sarda ( Memento of the original of March 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  32. L'Ue richiama l'Italia non ha ancora firmato la Carta di tutela - Messaggero Veneto
  33. ^ R. Bolognesi: Il nazionalismo italiano mostra ancora una volta il suo volto feroce contro le minoranze linguistiche. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013 ; accessed on March 5, 2018 .
  34. Lingua sarda: CISL, tutelare la specialità dell'isola
  35. Richiesta di estensione massima dei benefici previsti massimi dalla Carta Europea delle Lingue a sardo e friulano. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013 ; accessed on March 5, 2018 .
  36. ^ Università contro spending review "Viene discriminato il sardo" - Sassari Note
  37. Il consiglio regional si sveglia sulla tutela della lingua sarda
  38. "Salviamo sardo e algherese in Parlamento"
  39. Il sardo è un dialetto? - Rossomori
  40. Do you speak ... su Sardu? - Irene Bosu, Focus Sardegna
  41. Cagliari, promosso a pieni voti che il tredicenne ha date l'esame in sardo - Sardiniapost
  42. Eleonora d'Arborea in sardo? La prof. “Continentale” dice no - Sardinia post
  43. Sassari, students dell'Alberghiero si diploma parlando in sardo - ULS Alta Baronìa (La Nuova Sardegna)
  44. ^ Esame di maturità per la limba: Buddusò, la tesina di Elio Altana scritta in italiano ma discussa in logudorese - La Nuova Sardegna
  45. ^ Quartu, esame di terza media in campidanese: studenti premiati in Comune - CastedduOnline
  46. Studentessa Dialoga in sardo con il presidente dei docenti - Nuova Sardegna
  47. ^ Lingua e società in Sardegna - Mauro Maxia
  48. The common Sardinian language has yet to be developed Autonomous Region of Sardinia