Eugene III. was the first Cistercian Pope . Its exact origin is uncertain, contemporary sources only give “natione Pisanus”. Later scholars and historians have constructed the descent from a family Paganelli di Montemagno . However, there is no actual evidence for this.
Eugene III. is rightly called a pupil of Bernhard von Clairvaux , although his influence is judged differently. Before Bernard's entry into Clairvaux Bernardo Paganelli had long been a monk, 1115 Paganelli entered the Camaldulenserkloster a St. Zenon, 1128 he became prior. 1135-1137 he was a canon in Pisa , occurred in 1138 in Clairvaux, but was already in 1145 Dept. of Tre Fontane Cistercian Abbey at the gates of Rome.
Paganelli was not a bishop and certainly not a cardinal , but was nevertheless elected Pope on February 15, 1145. A few days later he had to flee Rome for the first time because the Roman Senate was hostile to papal rule. As a result, he was also unable to counter the agitations of his opponent Arnold von Brescia , who demanded that the church renounce power. Since Eugene had to flee from Rome several times, he only spent a small part of his pontificate there .
As a reaction to the fall of Edessa , which was captured on December 25, 1144 by Emir Zengi of Mosul and Aleppo , Eugene III called. on December 1, 1145 with the bull " Quantum praedecessores " to the Second Crusade . This came about, however, when Bernhard von Clairvaux as crusade preacher in 1146 King Ludwig VII of France and also the Roman-German King Konrad III. for this company. The Second Crusade ultimately failed miserably.
Eugene III. also allowed the Saxon nobles a crusade against the pagan turns . On April 27, 1147, at the Council of Paris , he granted the Knights of the Templars the right to wear a red cross on the left shoulder of their white cloak, so that their habit differed from that of the Cistercians.
A few months before his death, Eugene III. on March 23, 1153 with King Friedrich Barbarossa the Treaty of Constance , which should secure him the support of the king against the rebellious Romans. In July of the same year, Eugene died before Barbarossa could move to Rome with his army.
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz : Eugen III .. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 1, Bautz, Hamm 1975. 2nd, unchanged edition Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-013-1 , Sp. 1552 f.
- Michael Horn: Studies on the History of Pope Eugen III. (1145-1153) ; European University Theses III, 508; Frankfurt, Bern, New York, Paris: Peter Lang Verlag, 1992; ISBN 3-631-44194-0 .
- Harald Zimmermann : Eugenio III, beato. In: Massimo Bray (ed.): Enciclopedia dei Papi. Volume 2: Niccolò I, santo, Sisto IV. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 2000, pp. 279-285 ( treccani.it ).
- James Loughlin: Pope Blessed Eugene III . In: Catholic Encyclopedia , Robert Appleton Company, New York 1913.
- Pius Maurer: Eugene III. in the Biographia Cisterciensis
- Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt, Andrew Jotischky (Ed.): Pope Eugenius III (1145-1153). The First Cistercian Pope . Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2018; ISBN 978-9-462-98596-4 ( review ).
- Literature by and about Eugene III. in the catalog of the German National Library
- Publications on Eugene III. in the opac of the Regesta Imperii
- Publications on Eugenio III in the Opac of the Regesta Imperii
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Bernhard Paganelli di Montemagno; Bernardo Paganelli di Montemagno; Bernard Paganelli; Eugenius III .; Bernardus|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Pope (1145-1153)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||11th century or 12th century|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Pisa|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 8, 1153|
|Place of death||Tivoli , Italy|