Georg Tannstetter

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Georg Tannstetter , humanist name Collimitius (* mid-April 1482 in Rain ; † March 27, 1535 in Innsbruck ), was a German-Austrian humanist , astronomer , astrologer and physician . He was a professor of applied mathematics at the University of Vienna , where Peter Apian and Joachim Vadian were among his students. His account of the history of the Viennese astronomers and mathematicians ( Viri Mathematici, 1514) is an early approach to natural science history. His approach to empirical astrology ( Libellus consolatorius , 1523) was still unusual at the time. Together with a pupil he designed a map of Hungary ( Tabula Hungarie , 1528), which is part of the world's document heritage . He was the royal personal physician in the service of several Habsburg regents . In 1531 he was ennobled.

Bookplate Tannstetters, made by Hans Brosamer in 1532: top left the starry sky, below his coat of arms with a six-pointed star.


Birth and name

Georg Tannstetter was born in Rain am Lech . Graf-Stuhlhofer gives as the time of birth “mid-April 1482”, determined on the basis of information on Tannstetter's tombstone, on Tannstetter's pictures, in letters to Joachim Vadian and in his medical-astrological lecture (printed as Artificium ... ).

His father Gabriel was the keeper of the Niederschönenfeld Monastery (from 1480 to 1500). The son Georg called himself Collimitius in Latin (since Rain also means border path ) . In his works there are references to his hometown, for example in the author's name Georgen Tannstetter von Rain am Lech , or as Georgius Tanstetter Collimitius . Sometimes he added “Lycoripensis” to his name, made up of Lycus (Lech) and ripa (bank), referring to the banks of the Lech .

Studies and first teaching activity in Vienna

Tannstetter studied from 1497 in Ingolstadt at the artist faculty the so-called liberal arts ("artes liberales"), u. a. Mathematics and astronomy, and received his master's degree in 1501 . There he was a student of Johannes Stabius and Andreas Stiborius , whom he followed to the University of Vienna , probably at the end of 1502. There he gave lectures at the artist faculty, the files of which name the planetary theory ( Theoricae planetarum ) as a topic and him in the years 1503 to Mention 1512 repeatedly, e.g. B. as an examiner. Around 1513 he gave a mathematical lecture, in the winter semester 1514/15 an introductory lecture in astronomy and astrology. There is also evidence of a special astronomical lecture on the second book of natural history by Pliny (in the period up to 1518).

Tannstetter had some prominent students. Peter Apian came to Vienna to study to become a student of Tannstetter. In 1528 Apian dedicated his edition of Georg von Peuerbach's planet theory to him . Joachim Vadian later emphasized that he owed his scientific knowledge to his teacher Tannstetter.

From 1508 Tannstetter began studying medicine and obtained his doctorate in 1513. med. According to the faculty records, on May 11, 1513, Tannstetter received the insignia doctoralia (German: the sign of the award of the doctorate). Some historians wrongly dated Tannstetter's doctorate to earlier years, e. B. Joseph Aschbach on 1509.

Rector at the University of Vienna

Tannstetter was dean at the artist faculty in the summer semester of 1512. In the following winter semester 1512/1513 he was rector of the university. The semester, which lasted from October 1512 to April 1513, is documented in a consistorial book, a type of source only rarely preserved from those decades. The consistory consisted of the rector, the representatives ( procurators ) of the four academic “ nations ” and the deans of the four faculties; It met almost weekly for one session, which took place on different days of the week, with the exception of Sundays. It dealt with legal and financial questions of the university and its relations to the outside world, towards the city and the church.

Tannstetter's rectorate is also mentioned in the so-called dark man letters ; a humanist had written these - ironically meant - letters. In a letter he has a scholastic report that he came to Rector Tannstetter (Collimitius) on January 17, 1513:

“So I migrated to Austria, unfortunately for me. Because Collimitius - I came to him on the day of St. Antonius - was rector there, and my enemy; he called me a traitor and wanted to throw me in the dungeon ... "

Here Tannstetter appears as a downright fanatical supporter of the humanistic direction.

At that time he was still unmarried, because until 1534 only an unmarried person could become the rector of the University of Vienna (this celibacy rule was a clerical peculiarity of the university).

Soon after the end of Tannstetter's rectorate, violent conflicts broke out between students and citizens of the city of Vienna; they lasted from the end of May 1513 until 1514.

Teacher and dean at the medical faculty

Tannstetter completed his medical studies while he was still in office. He then worked as a teacher at the medical faculty and was dean there four times: in the summer semesters 1514 and 1520 and in the winter semesters 1524/1525 and 1528/1529. The work of the medical doctors at the faculty also included examining - at Tannstetter it was documented in 1515 and 1517, when his friend Vadian was examined and received his doctorate and received the insignia doctoralia from Tannstetter . But Tannstetter did not have a professorship at the medical faculty.

Of Tannstetter's teaching at the medical faculty, only his medical astrological lecture is documented, probably given in the summer semester of 1526 (published as a book in 1531 under the title Artificium ...).

The files of the artist faculty often mention Tannstetter from 1502 to 1513, those of the medical faculty from 1512 until the end of his life. Apart from his professorship, which he obtained around 1510, which probably belonged to the Poetenkolleg, Tannstetter shifted the focus of his work from the artist faculty to the medical faculty since his medical doctorate. The dark man's letters also address this shift in focus; The University of Vienna appears in it in the winter semester 1516/1517, during the rectorate of Vadian, as a humanistic stronghold:

"There are more Reuchlinists here than at any other university: namely Joachim Vadian, the rector, and Georg Collimitius Tannstetter, now a doctor, formerly a mathematician ( pronunc Medicus, olim Mathematicus ), and Johannes Cuspinian ..."


In a letter from a friend of Tannstetter's to Vadian in April 1514, it says that Tannstetter got married - that is, in early 1514 or in 1513, at least soon after his rectorate. His wife was called Martha Merusin and was a daughter of Jacob Merus. From this marriage a son was born who was called Christian, lived from 1516 to 1567 and became a member of the Vienna City Council. They also had two daughters, Elisabeth and Martha.

In 1516 Tannstetter bought a house that later became part of the Franciscan monastery complex . It lay between the artist faculty housed in the Herzogskolleg , the Poetenkolleg (in St. Anna) and the medical faculty housed in the House of Doctors.

Applied mathematics in the imperial service

According to Tannstetter's tombstone, from around 1510 he was “servant” and “councilor” of Emperor Maximilian I. These services probably concerned different areas.

Around 1510 Tannstetter was appointed professor (Latin: Ordinarius ) for (applied) mathematics and astronomy by Maximilian I. There are references to Tannstetter's activity as a professor in these subjects from the period from 1511 to 1523. During this time he published several books, including a. Editions as study aids. His professorship probably belonged to the humanistic poet college initiated by Konrad Celtis . This was part of the University of Vienna, but without being classified in the traditional structures.

In the following years Tannstetter was called in by the respective Archduke of Austria for various tasks in the fields of astronomy, astrology and cartography. The obligation to take on such tasks could have been linked to the professorship mentioned. Working for the Archduke was definitely an honor.

Pope Leo X dealt with the necessary calendar reform and asked Emperor Maximilian I for support. In 1514 he commissioned Andreas Stiborius and Tannstetter to work out a proposal. They delivered a report which they had printed, presumably the following year ( De Romani Calendarii correctione Consilium ). But first Pope Gregory XIII. carried out the desired correction of the calendar in 1582 .

There was also a collaboration between Tannstetter and his teacher Johannes Stabius. Stabius designed a map of Austria on behalf of Maximilian I, and Tannstetter improved and expanded this map, which has not survived.

After Maximilian I's death in 1519, Tannstetter came into contact with his successor, Emperor Charles V , who granted him privileges to protect future publications: in 1522 a printing privilege for a map of Hungary to be designed and in 1523 a general printing privilege for Tannstetter's books for the next 10 years .

Karl's brother Ferdinand took control of the Austrian lands. Tannstetter tried to appease the troubled population, based on an astrologically based fear that there would be major floods in 1524, with a book: This was published in Latin in 1523 for scholars ( libellus consolatorius , German: calming writing), but at the same time for the general population German. Already at the beginning of the long title Tannstetter expresses that he wanted to serve the regent interested in calming down the population: To enjoy and please the (...) Mr. Ferdinando ...

The threat from the Turks required a good map for Hungary. Tannstetter created one together with his Hungarian student Lazarus Secretarius . This Tabula Hungarie was printed in Ingolstadt in 1528 .

Personal physician to several Habsburgs

The 1513 Dr. med. Tannstetter with a doctorate was consulted by Emperor Maximilian I as a personal physician. This is documented at least for the time immediately before Maximilian's death, when Tannstetter was called to Wels in 1518. Some historians have stated that Tannstetter had been Maximilian's personal physician since 1510. Although Tannstetter has been used for individual services since around 1510, the text on the tombstone does not directly link Tannstetter's activity as a personal physician with this point in time:

"... the weylennt Kayser Maximilians and volgens Ferdinanden Römischen also Hungarians and Behamischen Künigs 25 years loyal servant, counselor and the same Künig Ferdinand's beloved children Leybarz."

Here the personal physician activity is only related to the children of King Ferdinand (whose first child was born in 1526), ​​in any case it is not said that Tannstetter had been personal physician for 25 years, i.e. since 1510. It is unlikely from the outset that the Kaiser would have appointed a medical student (who was still Tannstetter at the time) for this task.

In 1521 a severe plague epidemic also reached Vienna, so that the university had to be closed. Tannstetter published a plague prevention pamphlet ( regiment for the run of the Pestilentz ) and fled to Carinthia. At the end of the year he was exempted from his lecture by Anna on behalf of her husband Ferdinand until March, because he needed him.

In 1527 and 1529 Tannstetter was called to Queen Maria of Hungary , Ferdinand's sister, because of physical complaints. And at the end of 1528 Ferdinand made him the offer to become his family's personal physician; From Christmas onwards he will no longer have to give lectures. Tannstetter accepted this offer and moved with his family to Innsbruck in 1530. Thus, Tannstetter's activity as the imperial personal physician extended over several generations, from Maximilian I to his great-grandson Maximilian II , Ferdinand's eldest son.

Ennobled 1531

For his services under Maximilian and Ferdinand, Tannstetter was raised to the hereditary knighthood of the Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburg hereditary lands. The document, dated November 21, 1531, was issued in the name of King Ferdinand; this ennobled "the first learned, our dear astronomus Georgen Tannstetter Doctor, unnser and our küniglichen Kynnder Phisicus". The certificate then also mentions that Tannstetter was a physician ( Physicus ) of Maximilians, and indicates that Tannstetter is famous for his art of astronomy. Otherwise, Tannstetter's services for "us and the holy kingdom and our hereditary lands" are generally remembered. He was also granted the Privilegium Denominandi (the right to take on a new surname if he buys or builds a castle or a country house). The ennoblement was therefore not yet associated with a specific name affix (as is sometimes claimed in the specialist literature). A noble-sounding addition is actually added to the surname Tannstetters on the tombstone, namely from Thonau (in the German text) or von Thonnau (in Latin).

Death 1535

A decade before his death, Tannstetter suffered from several physical ailments. In 1526 he described this in a letter to Vadian.

The Latin text on the tombstone and a German text on a lost wooden plaque with roughly the same statements indicate the date of death as March 26, 1535. The files of the Medical Faculty in Vienna name the same day of death and also contain the hour of death: Accordingly, he died shortly before the ninth hour of the night ( paululum ante nonam nocte ), i.e. shortly before 3 a.m. According to today's data that begins at midnight, this leads to March 27th as the day of death.

The place of death was probably Innsbruck; in any case, Tannstetter was buried there in the cemetery next to the hospital church. The erroneous indication " Wiener Neustadt " probably originated in the formulation of a later historian, "except Innsbruck on the New Town churchyard" - was meant: except half of Innsbruck, which was even smaller then.

The approximate year of birth 1482 ("died ... in 53 jars of his age") can be taken from the tombstone. In the historical specialist literature there is also an erroneous statement of his lifetime with 1480–1530 , sometimes marked as an approximate statement. The starting point was the Austrian National Encyclopedia . Their information was taken from Poggendorff , but as an apparently exact information. Several natural science historians then adopted his information.

Painting by Bernhard Strigel, around 1515, probably depicting Tannstetter.

Tannstetter portraits

Graf-Stuhlhofer put together a total of seven portraits of Tannstetter. Tannstetter's appearance is therefore well documented compared to contemporaries. A coat of arms with a six-pointed star appears on almost all portraits; see above the bookplate by Hans Brosamer ; another bookplate goes back to Hans Springinklee .

There are two paintings by Bernhard Strigel that presumably depict Tannstetter and his wife. The identification of the person shown without naming with Tannstetter was first made in 1965 by Fritz Dworschak. This identification was affirmed by Reinhold Baumstark, but doubted by Stephan Kemperdick. The painting is kept in the collections of the Princes of Liechtenstein in Vaduz; a 1979 exhibition used this painting as the cover picture.

Georg-Tannstätter-Straße in his native Rain reminds of him, as does a chest portrait relief made in 1988 on the house where he was born.

Naturalist and author

Tannstetter was a versatile scholar who published works in various fields. As a book printer, he mainly hired Johannes Singriener from Vienna . An alleged, incomplete complete edition of Tannstetter's works never existed.

Tannstetter and his teachers Stabius and Stiborius reckon the specialist literature to be part of the so-called “second Viennese mathematical school”, whereby “mathematics” is meant in a broad sense, including scientific areas of application of mathematics. Johannes von Gmunden , Georg von Peuerbach and Regiomontanus belong to the first Viennese school of mathematics, which is more important from an astronomical point of view .

Humanistic work

Tannstetter is considered a representative of Renaissance humanism . This can be seen in the so-called dark man letters, but also in his friendships, for example with Vadian. The theologian Johannes Eck , who later became Luther's opponent , dedicated two lectures in 1516 to “his friends” in Vienna, including Tannstetter. Tannstetter's professorship in mathematics probably belonged to the humanistic poet college initiated by Konrad Celtis . In addition, Celtis had founded a Danube Society in Vienna , an association of scholars and probably also students who met on some evenings. Perhaps the continuation of this Sodalitas was the circle that later met in Tannstetter's house and was called Sodalitas Collimitiana . It is often mentioned in letters to Vadian around 1520.

The journalistic work of Tannstetter corresponds - in part - to the classical picture of humanism, for example in that he based his astrology primarily on Claudius Ptolemy and sometimes expressed reservations about the Arab astrologers. But in medical terms is for him next to Galen and Hippocrates and Avicenna an authority. Of the 12 texts edited by Tannstetter - all scientific and mathematical - only one was by an ancient author (the Neo-Platonist Proclus ), the other 11 were by late medieval Western authors, especially by Georg Peuerbach.

Tannstetter was also friends with Cardinal Matthäus Lang , Archbishop of Salzburg, to whom he dedicated several books printed between 1515 and 1519. They probably met each other at Maximilian's court.

The section of Central Europe covered by the Tabula Hungarie


Together with his pupil Lazarus Secretarius from Hungary, Tannstetter produced a map of Hungary , which was printed in Ingolstadt in 1528 , called Tabula Hungarie . The importance of the map lies in the great accuracy of the location of the localities, in the water information and other name entries as well as in the innovative introduction of a scale. The card was in the World Documentary Heritage of UNESCO added.

A map of Austria ( Austriae descriptio ) was designed by Stabius on behalf of Emperor Maximilian I and enlarged and improved by Tannstetter ( Stabius pinxerat, et Collimitius auxerat et perfecerat ); Johannes Cuspinian reports about this in the preface and afterword of his work Austria and announced the printing of this card for the planned second part of his work. This never happened, Cuspinian died in 1529, and perhaps this map of Austria was never printed. In any case, it has not survived.


Tannstetter introduced a new subject into academic teaching, namely physical geography . As a basis for such a lesson, he reprinted the work De natura locorum (German: About the nature of places) by Albertus Magnus , provided with his own explanations (1514). Albertus wants to show how the characteristics of a place depend on its geographic location .

Another edition concerned the presentation of Witelo's perspective optics ; Tannstetter provided the template and Peter Apian took care of the preparation for printing (1535).

Sometimes Tannstetter is erroneously attributed a co- editing of the Libellus Linconiensis (Nuremberg 1503), in which Robert Grosseteste dealt with the reflection . But this edition goes back to Andreas Stiborius alone.


See also: Vienna astronomical school

On behalf of Emperor Maximilian I , Tannstetter and his teacher Andreas Stiborius wrote a report on the planned calendar reform in 1514 . In order to maintain the correct length of the year in the long term, they suggested skipping a leap day every 134 years. The manuscript of the proposal that was probably printed soon after ( De Romani Calendarii correctione Consilium ; German: proposal for the correction of the Roman calendar) is still preserved; the title page of this manuscript was written by Tannstetter himself, the remainder probably by Andreas Perlach, who studied with Tannstetter.

Tannstetter's first - and only one related to an ancient author - edition was the Sphaera (German: Himmelskugel) by the Neo-Platonist Proclus Diadochus 1511. Tannstetter's best-known edition is the astronomical tables by Georg Peuerbach and Regiomontanus ( Tabulae Eclypsium ... , German: Dark tables ... , 1514). He also published the Sphaera by Johannes de Sacrobosco in 1518 together with the Theoricae planetarum (German: Planetary Theory) by Georg Peuerbach.


In the field of mathematics in the narrower sense, Tannstetter only published as an editor. In 1515 he published a textbook for university teaching with treatises "covering the entire field of higher mathematics at that time". This "union of the five most important writings of medieval mathematics" began, as it were as a book title, right with the table of contents, in that the five scriptures contained are listed ( Contenta in hoc libello , in German: This little book contains the following), namely:

The arithmetic of Johannes de Muris , the theory of proportions by Thomas Bradwardine , the theory of form latitudes ( De latitudinibus formarum ) by Nikolaus von Oresme , calculating with whole numbers ( algorithm ) by Peuerbach and calculating with sexagesimal fractions ( algorithm ) by Johannes von Gmunden.

Viennese mathematicians and astronomers until 1514

Beginning of the Viri Mathematici (upper half of the first page)

Tannstetter presented the life and work of around 30 astronomers and mathematicians who (were) active in Vienna - mostly at the university. The title of his rather short presentation, Viri Mathematici , indicates that he leaned on the tradition of works “about famous men” (“ De viris illustribus ”). His chronologically arranged bio and bibliographic catalog ranged from Heinrich von Langenstein , who had started teaching in Vienna in 1384, to the printing year 1514, in which this historical review appeared in the context of tables edited by Tannstetter ( Tabulae eclypsium ... ). During these 130 years, outstanding astronomers such as Georg von Peuerbach and Regiomontanus worked at the University of Vienna . Such a representation of a section of the history of natural science was seldom practiced at that time.


In most - perhaps all - years between 1504 and 1526, Tannstetter wrote a calendar (often called Judicium or Practica ) for the next year. They were published partly in German and partly in Latin. Such calendars were common among the population; after the end of the year in question, however, they were hardly taken into account, so that today they are only available in individual libraries. In the early 16th century there were around five to ten calendars a year in the German-speaking area; according to this, Tannstetter will have been a well-respected author among the population thanks to his annual calendar - especially in Vienna and the neighboring regions.

In 1523 he published a "calming pamphlet" ( libellus consolatorius ). Since an unusually large number of conjunctions were to be expected in the constellation of Pisces for February 1524 , some astrologers feared that there would be great floods. Tannstetter argued against this fear and a. empirically - by looking back at moments in earlier centuries with similar planetary constellations (and without simultaneous floods).

There are no astrological editions among Tannstetter's editions; therefore he saw no need in this area.


In the context of Tannstetter's publication activity, medicine was just a minor subject. In 1521 he published a small booklet with medical advice with regard to the current plague epidemic: Regiment for the course of the pestilentz . Tannstetter also takes psychological factors into account: the resistance to infection is promoted by joy and impaired by sadness or anger. In addition, some handwritten Tannstetter pharmaceutical prescriptions have been preserved.

His lecture on the application of astrology to medicine, given around 1526, had a major aftereffect. A lecture transcript was published by Otto Brunfels in 1531 ( Artificium… ). It was the first comprehensive book to be published in Germany that specifically deals with Iatromathematics - the application of astrology to medicine.

Works (selection)

  • Iudicium Viennense anni 1512 . Cologne 1512. ( digitized version )
  • Iudicium astronomicum per anno Ch. 1513 . Nuremberg 1513. ( digitized version)
  • as editor: Tabulae eclypsium magistri Georgii Peurbachii . Tabula primi mobilis Ioannis de Monteregio . Joannes Winterburger, Vienna 1514 (therein the section Viri Mathematici , from p. Aa3 v to aa6 v ).
  • with Andreas Stiborius: De Romani Calendarii correctione Consilium . Joannes Singrenius, Vienna no year (probably 1515).
  • Usus Almanach seu Ephemeridum . Metzker, Vienna 1518. ( digitized version )
  • Regiment for the run of the Pestilentz by Georgẽ Tañstetter von Rain der siben freyen art vnnd Ertzney doctor briefly describe . Singriener, Vienna 1521. ( digitized version )
  • In gratiam serenissimi ac potentissimi (…) domini Ferdinandi (…) Georgii Tannstetter Collimitii Lycoripensis Medici et Mathematici libellus consolatorius, quo, opinionem iam dudum animis hominum ex quorundam Astrologastrorum divinatione infidentem, de futuro diluvio et multaturis aliIII . Joannes Singrenius, Vienna 1523 (20 sheets). ( Digitized version )
    • at the same time in German: “To be enjoyed and liked by ... Mr. Ferdinando (...) Georg Tannstetter from Rayn (...) had the current buechlen done. The people who are hard-fumed, so from some who pretend to be astronomers, to avert prediction, from a future synfluence, and other horrible events on the XXIIII Jar. ”Johannes Singriener, Vienna 1523 (22 sheets). ( Digitized version )
  • Artificium de applicatione Astrologiae ad Medicinam, deque convenientia earundem. Georgius Ulricherus, Strasbourg 1531. - Newly published with German translation and commentary. by Rosemarie Eichinger (= medical history; 1). LIT Verlag, Berlin u. a. 2006. ( digitized edition 1531 )


Standard work:

Lexicon article:

Shorter representations:

  • Joseph Aschbach: History of the University of Vienna , Vol. 2: The University of Vienna and its humanists in the age of Emperor Maximilian I Vienna 1877, pp. 271-277 (incorrect).
  • Christa Binder : The Second Vienna Mathematical School . In: Karl Röttel (Ed.): Ad Fontes Arithmeticae at Algebrae. Festschrift for the 70th birthday of Wolfgang Kaunzner . Polygon-Verlag, Buxheim - Eichstätt 1998, pp. 60-66.
  • Christa Binder: Georg Tannstetter (Collimitius) (1482–1535) . In: Rainer Gebhardt (Hrsg.): Arithmetic books and mathematical texts of the early modern period (= writings of the Adam-Ries-Bund; 11). Annaberg-Buchholz 1999, pp. 29-35.
  • Helmuth Grössing : Humanistic natural science. On the history of the Viennese mathematical schools of the 15th and 16th centuries . Baden-Baden 1983, pp. 181–185 and comments on p. 291f.
  • Helmut W. Lang: Georg Tannstetter Collimitius (1482–1535). Astronomer, mathematician, physician and calendar maker . In: Österreichisches Jahrbuch für Exlibris und Nutzgraphik 66, 2009/10, pp. 17–26 (about Tannstetter's exlibris and calendar ).
  • Franz Stuhlhofer : Georg Tannstetter (Collimitius), astronomer, astrologer and personal physician to Maximilian I. and Ferdinand I. In: Yearbook of the Association for the History of the City of Vienna 37, 1981, pp. 7–49.
  • Franz Stuhlhofer: Georg Tannstetter (Collimitius). 1482-1535. Astronomer and mathematician . In: Lebensbilder from Bavarian Swabia 13, Weißenborn 1986, pp. 18–33.

Web links

Commons : Georg Tannstetter  - Collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. Tannstetter was born in the previous building of what is now the so-called "Altherr-Haus", which has been part of the town hall since 1975.
  2. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 34f.
  3. Derived from Limes ; collimitium denotes the border between two places .
  4. z. B. in his astrological calendar for the year 1524 ( Practica , Vienna 1523).
  5. a b Graf-Stuhlhofer: Tannstetter , 2013, Sp. 1037.
  6. Tannstetter mentions in the foreword of his edition of mathematical texts ( Contenta in hoc libello. Arithmetica ... , in German: Contained in this little book: Arithmetik ...) in 1515 that his student Sebastian Bunderl - who attended this lecture two years earlier Tannstetter had heard - inspired him to create this edition.
  7. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 144. Vadian wrote this lecture as a student; perhaps Tannstetter gave this lecture more often, at least his pupil Andreas Perlach published the transcript in 1518 as Usus almanach (German: The use of an almanac ).
  8. Tannstetter's notes, which Vadian wrote as a student, were published in 1531 by Jakob Ziegler as an appendix to his commentary on the second book of the natural history of Pliny. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 109–112.
  9. ^ Diedrich Wattenberg : Peter Apianus and his Astronomicum Caesareum. Leipzig 1967, p. 7.
  10. ^ Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanism , 1996, p. 22.
  11. Joachimus Vadianus: De poetica et carminis ratione , ed. by Peter Schäffer. Vol. 1, Munich 1973, p. 294 (German translation, Vol. 2, 1976, p. 336).
  12. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanism , 1996, p. 74.
  13. Karl Schrauf (ed.): Acta facultatis medicae Universitatis Vindobonensis. 1399–1588 , Vol. 3, Vienna 1904, pp. 84 and 88.
  14. Joseph Aschbach: History of the University of Vienna , Vol. 2, 1877, p. 272, note 3.
  15. On Tannstetter's rectorate see Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 71–73.
  16. ^ Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 72f. The place mentioned in the dark man's letters in Vol. 2, Letter No. 9.
  17. The change of regulation by King Ferdinand I of March 9, 1534 in Rudolf Kink: History of the Imperial University of Vienna , Vol. 2: Book of Statutes of the University . Vienna 1854, p. 341 (Document No. 56).
  18. Thomas Maisel: "Bellum Latinum". A student rebellion in Vienna in the early 16th century. In: Kurt Mühlberger , Thomas Maisel (ed.): Aspects of educational and university history. 16th to 19th century. Vienna 1993, pp. 191-231.
  19. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 77.
  20. Tannstetter does not appear in Artur Goldmann's list of professors at the Medical Faculty, which began in the early 16th century: The University of 1529–1740 (correct would be: 1519–1740 ). In: Alterthumsverein zu Wien (ed.): History of the City of Vienna , Vol. 6, edited by Anton Mayer. Vienna 1918, pp. 1–205, there pp. 142–151 (also as a special print under the title Die Wiener Universität 1519–1740 . Vienna 1917.)
  21. ^ Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 76.
  22. Dunkelmännerbriefe, Vol. 2, Letter No. 30. Quoted from Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 94.
  23. ^ Franz Stuhlhofer: Georg Tannstetter (Collimitius), astronomer, astrologer and personal physician to Maximilian I. and Ferdinand I. In: Yearbook of the Association for the History of the City of Vienna 37, 1981, pp. 7–49, here 27, note 87– 90.
  24. ^ Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanism , 1996, p. 36.
  25. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 78.
  26. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 44-62.
  27. ^ Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 153.
  28. ^ Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 79.
  29. ^ Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanism , 1996, p. 75.
  30. About Aschbach: History of the Vienna University , Vol. 2, 1877, p. 272. Others took over from him.
  31. quoted from Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 75.
  32. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 79 and 149f.
  33. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 79f.
  34. The most important information from this file kept in the General Administrative Archives by Karl Friedrich von Frank: Status surveys and acts of grace for the German Reich and the Austrian hereditary lands . Vol. 5, Senftenegg Castle 1974.
  35. So von Aschbach: History of the Vienna University , Vol. 2, 1877, pp. 274f, which other historians adopted. In Aschbach, the name suffix with a instead of o : von Thannau .
  36. On the act of ennoblement and historical literature see Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 80f.
  37. ^ Emil Arbenz (Ed.): The Vadian Letter Collection of the St. Gallen City Library . Vol. 4, St. Gallen 1902, letter no.460.
  38. Otto Kostenzer: The personal physicians of Emperor Maximilian in Innsbruck . In: Publications of the Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum 50, 1970, pp. 73–111, 102f there, describes the arrangement of the tombstone and wooden panel.
  39. on the time and place of Tannstetter's death, see Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 37–39.
  40. Karl Schrauf (ed.): Acta facultatis medicae Universitatis Vindobonensis . 1399–1588, Vol. 3, Vienna 1904, p. 200.
  41. Graf-Stuhlhofer names March 27th: Tannstetter , 2013, Sp. 1037.
  42. ^ So Michael Denis : Wiens Buchdruckergeschicht bis 1540. Vienna 1782, p. 65.
  43. ^ Wiener Neustadt came up through Aschbach: Geschichte der Wiener Universität , Vol. 2, 1877, p. 274. For the spread of this error see Stuhlhofer: Georg Tannstetter , 1981, p. 18f.
  44. ÖNE . Vol. 5, Vienna 1836, p. 283.
  45. ^ Johann Christian Poggendorff: Biographical-literary concise dictionary for the history of the exact sciences . Vol. 2, Leipzig 1863, Col. 1067.
  46. ↑ Redrawn in detail by Stuhlhofer: Georg Tannstetter (Collimitius) , 1981, pp. 20f.
  47. See Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, from p. 193 (fig. 1–6, 16f and 19) the pictures by Tannstetter; Explanations on p. 29f.
  48. ^ Fritz Dworschak in: The Art of the Danube School 1490–1540. Exhibition catalog (St. Florian Monastery). Linz 1965, No. 460, pp. 18, 195f.
  49. Reinhold Baumstark: Masterpieces from the collections of the Prince of Liechtenstein. Painting. Zurich 1980, 124, 277f, 246.
  50. Stephan Kemperdick (ed.): The early portrait. From the collections of the Prince von und zu Liechtenstein and the Basel Art Museum. Exhibition catalog. Munich 2006, No. 5, pp. 57-61.
  51. Painting on wood, 42 × 29 cm.
  52. German painting 15–19. Century. From the collections of the ruling Prince of Liechtenstein. Exhibition catalog. State Art Collection, Vaduz 1979.
  53. The spelling as "Tannstätter" is not found in the original sources. It only appears sporadically in 19th century historians, e. B. with Siegmund Günther : History of mathematical teaching in the German Middle Ages up to 1525 . Berlin 1887, p. 255.
  54. ^ Website of the city of Rain: Portraits of Tannstetters
  55. applied by the Austrian National Encyclopedia , vol. 5. Vienna 1836, p. 283 (“His mathematical works published in Strasbourg 1537”), taken from Aschbach: Wiener Universität , vol. 2, 1877, p. 276, note. 1, who even invented a Latin title for it (" Georgii Tannstetteri Collimitii Opera . Strasbourg 1536"); from this Siegmund Günther took over: History of mathematical teaching in the German Middle Ages up to the year 1525 . Berlin 1887, p. 255 ("this alleged complete edition does not deserve its name").
  56. The error path is traced by Stuhlhofer: Georg Tannstetter (Collimitius) , 1981, p. 37f; The starting point for this is likely to have been Conrad Gessner , who mentions Tannstetter's lecture (Artifiium ...) published in Strasbourg in 1531 and lists its eight chapter headings, from which the impression of a comprehensive edition of Tannstetter's mathematical works could have arisen.
  57. Grössing: Humanistische Naturwissenschaft , 1983, 3rd part. Grössing also includes Konrad Celtis. For the first school, see Grössing, Part 2.
  58. ^ Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 82.
  59. ^ Helmuth Grössing: Humanist natural science. On the history of the Viennese mathematical schools of the 15th and 16th centuries . Baden-Baden 1983, p. 291, says: "In total, over 80 people belonged to this Sodalitas Collimitiana".
  60. Friends of Vadian who lived in Vienna could to a large extent have belonged to this sodalitas. The circle of friends of Vadian was recorded through alphabetical personal comments on the Vadian letters in the Vadian studies , beginning with vol. 10: Conradin Bonorand : Joachim Vadian and humanism in the area of ​​the Archdiocese of Salzburg . St. Gallen 1980.
  61. This classic image is pronounced, for example, by Alistair C. Crombie : From Augustine to Galilei. The emancipation of science . Munich 1977 (Orig. 1959), p. 338: The humanists "boasted that they ignored the progress of the previous three centuries and turned completely back to classical antiquity."
  62. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 113–115 (astrology) and 149 (medicine).
  63. ^ Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 88f.
  64. ^ Reproduction of the map of Hungary
  65. The 74 × 54 cm colored map is kept in the collection of old prints in the Széchényi National Library in Budapest .
  66. In Hungary the part of Lazarus is particularly emphasized. According to Eugen Oberhummer , Franz von Wieser (Ed.): Wolfgang Lazius , Maps of the Austrian Lands and the Kingdom of Hungary . Innsbruck 1906, p. 37, Tannstetter had "corrected and supplemented the map originally designed by Lazarus" as an experienced cartographer; The scale and the legend referring to it go back to Tannstetter . Tannstetter's participation is also expressed in the fact that the printing privilege shown below on the left was granted to Doctor Collimitius .
  67. On this map of Austria see Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 152–154.
  68. As assessed by Siegmund Günther : History of mathematical teaching in the German Middle Ages up to 1525 . Berlin 1887, p. 256.
  69. For these two editions see Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 90f.
  70. Examples of this error in the specialist literature in Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 87f.
  71. ^ Ferdinand Kaltenbrunner: The prehistory of the Gregorian calendar reform. Vienna 1876, pp. 100-104.
  72. ^ Stuhlhofer: Georg Tannstetter (Collimitius) , 1981, p. 32f.
  73. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 112f.
  74. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 91–93. There also refutation of the view that Stiborius was co-editor of this edition.
  75. ^ Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 89f.
  76. ^ Josef Ehrenfried Hofmann : The mathematics at the old Bavarian universities . Munich 1954, p. 8.
  77. ^ So Moritz Cantor : Lectures on the History of Mathematics , Vol. 2: from 1200–1668 . 2nd edition, Leipzig 1900, p. 393.
  78. Adolf Pawlowitsch Juschkewitsch : History of mathematics in the Middle Ages . Leipzig 1964, pp. 402–413, sees this as the "seed for the idea of ​​the functional relationship and its graphic representation".
  79. Ernst Zinner : The history of astronomy from the first beginnings to the present . Berlin 1931, p. 613f, begins in its chapter on historiography (based on the Chinese and Arabs) with the representation of the "Teutons" with this work by Tannstetter.
  80. This can be seen from the compilation by Ernst Zinner : History and Bibliography of Astronomical Literature in Germany at the Time of the Renaissance. Leipzig 1941, 2nd edition Stuttgart 1964.
  81. Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 140–142.
  82. On the fears at the time and Tannstetter's argumentation see Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 140–142.
  83. ^ On this Franz Stuhlhofer: Georg Tannstetter, pioneer of empiricism in astrology. In: Astro-Psychological Problems. The Schneider- Gauquelin Research Journal 4, 1986, no. 3, p. 33f.
  84. ^ Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, pp. 145-150.
  85. Stuhlhofer: Georg Tannstetter (Collimitius) , 1981, p. 25.
  86. For their New edition of this Artificium s published Rosemarie Eichinger a short article: Georg Tannstetters "Artificium de applicatione Astrologiae ad medicinam". An iatromathematics lecture and a rarity in the history of science . In: Communications from the Austrian Society for the History of Science 22, 2002, pp. 3–19.
  87. ^ So Graf-Stuhlhofer: Humanismus , 1996, p. 146, based on Karl Sudhoff : Iatromathematiker mainly in the 15th and 16th centuries. Breslau 1902, pp. 45-47.
  88. Change of family name when they married in 1994 to "Graf-Stuhlhofer"

This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on April 13, 2014 .