Albertus Magnus or Albert von Lauingen (also Albertus Theutonicus; Albertus Coloniensis; Albert the Great, Albert the German , often incorrectly called Albert Graf von Bollstädt ; * around 1200 in or near Lauingen an der Donau; † November 15, 1280 in Cologne ) was a German scholar and bishop who pioneered Christian Aristotelianism of the high Middle Ages . He taught in Cologne and Paris. In 1622 he was beatified and on December 16, 1931 by Pope Pius XI. canonized and declared a Doctor of the Church .
Albertus' father, Markward von Lauingen, possibly came from a knightly family ( ex militaribus ) or from the class of the lower Hohenstaufen nobility, the ministerials , and exercised power in or around Lauingen. Albert himself probably also spent his early years there.
Albert's year of birth is unknown. Some researchers (e.g. Franz Pelster, HC Scheeben, Hugo Stehkämper ) assume 1193 and refer to the statement by Luis de Valladolid (Paris, 1414) that Albert died in 1280 “after he had reached about 87 years of age would have". Others (e.g. Mandonnet, Glorieux, Fernand Van Steenberghen ) assume 1206/07, based on the chronicle of Heinrich von Herford (around 1355), according to which Albert was "a boy of sixteen" when he was entered the order (around 1223). Since both statements contradict each other, according to JA Weisheipl one cannot say more than that Albert was born around the year 1200 or a little earlier. Meinolf Lohrum OP also spoke out convincingly in favor of the birth specification “around 1200”.
The first reliable information about Albertus' stay comes from the year 1222. At that time he was living with an uncle in Venice and Padua . From the following year he studied fine arts and perhaps medicine in Padua. Already during this time he came into contact with the writings of Aristotle and with Jordan of Saxony , Dominic's successor as general of the Dominican order . Albertus joined this order in 1223. He completed his novitiate in Cologne in the monastery in Stolkgasse , where he also began studying theology and was ordained a priest. Albertus then studied and taught at various Dominican monastery schools, including Hildesheim , Freiburg im Breisgau , Regensburg and Strasbourg . Albertus Magnus held the office of reading master in the preaching monastery in Freiburg from 1236 to 1238 . During this time he wrote his first writings, including the Praise of Mary . When Jordan of Saxony died in 1237, Albertus was proposed, but not elected, as the new general of the order by the German assembly participants at the Dominican Chapter in Bologna the following year .
In 1243 Albertus went to the Sorbonne University in Paris for five years , where he obtained his master's degree in theology in 1245 , taught for three years and dealt intensively with Aristotle and the Jewish-Arab philosophy . The Italian Thomas Aquinas joined him as a student at this time. As a member of a commission of forty experts, Albert signed a document in Paris in 1248 that condemned the Talmud and other Jewish texts and ordered their cremation. During his time in Paris, Albertus lived in the Saint-Jacques convent . In 1248 he came back to Cologne to lead the Studium Generale of his order that had just been launched . Under him, the Cologne monastery school developed an excellent reputation and attracted students from all over Europe. As a successor to this institution, the University of Cologne was founded by the City of Cologne in 1388 . He was probably witness to the laying of the foundation stone of Cologne Cathedral on August 15, 1248 . During his time in Cologne, Albert also played a prominent role in the disputes between the city and the archbishop. In the small arbitration on April 17, 1252 and in the large arbitration on June 28, 1258, he appraised in favor of the citizenship, whose rights Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden recognized on his advice.
In 1254 Albert was elected Provincial of the German-speaking Dominican Order Province of Teutonia in Worms , whereupon he gave up his teaching post in Cologne. In the following years he traveled - almost always on foot - through the German countryside to visit a total of 40 branches and to maintain monastery breeding. In 1257 Albertus' provincial office ended and he returned to Cologne as head of the religious school.
On January 5, 1260 Albertus was appointed Bishop of Regensburg and thus imperial prince by Pope Alexander IV . With this decision, Alexander disregarded the actual right to vote in order to draw a line under several irregular bishopric elections and the mismanagement of the previous years in the diocese. In addition, Alexander was an outspoken promoter of the mendicant orders , which gained additional political weight for one of their ranks through the episcopal dignity. Albertus himself was reluctant to take over the office and was also criticized by the order's leadership, who viewed this position as incompatible with the principle of poverty. Nevertheless Albert was ordained bishop in July 1260 and took part in a synod in Bavaria in September . In 1262 Albert stayed at the court of Pope Urban IV in Orvieto . There the Pope relieved him of his office as Bishop of Regensburg in February 1262, and Albert initially stayed in Orvieto. On February 13, 1263 Urban IV appointed him crusade preacher for the German-speaking areas. In 1263 and 1264 Albertus, together with Berthold von Regensburg in Germany and Bohemia, propagated the train to the Holy Land . After Pope Urban IV died on October 2, 1264, Albert resigned from his position as crusade preacher.
From 1264 Albert resumed teaching - in Würzburg , Strasbourg and Cologne. In 1268 Albert personally consecrated the altar of the Dominican Church in the imperial city of Esslingen am Neckar, today's Minster St. Paul and the oldest mendicant church in Germany. Around 1269 he finally returned to the Dominican monastery of the Holy Cross in Cologne. He declined an appointment to the University of Paris for reasons of age. However, in 1274 at the Second Council of Lyon, he advocated the recognition of Rudolf von Habsburg as German king. On April 28, 1275 he consecrated the gothic long choir of the Gladbach Minster .
Albertus died on November 15, 1280 in Cologne. After the abolition of the Dominican monastery (1804), his bones have been resting in the crypt of St. Andreas in Cologne since November 15, 1954 .
His vast and varied knowledge earned him the name Magnus (the great), the title of Doctor of the Church and the honorary title of doctor universalis . He knew the ancient and contemporary specialist literature and wanted to fully capture the knowledge of his time and explain it in textbooks. The more than 70 treatises and books would result in around 22,000 printed pages today. The Albertus Magnus Institute has been working on a critical edition of his complete works since 1931. The Editio Coloniensis , based on 41 volumes (with different numbers of sub-volumes), had 32 volumes in autumn 2017, which corresponds to about half of the edition in terms of text volume.
The most important consequence of his work is the founding of Christian Aristotelianism , thus of high scholasticism and ultimately of modern natural science. Until Albertus' work, the works of Aristotle were controversial in the Christian world because of their pagan origin. Albertus also campaigned massively at the level of church politics for the inclusion of Aristotelian works in the canons of Christian schools.
Albertus Magnus considered alchemy to be that of the arts that comes closest to nature. Many of the writings on alchemy supposedly originating from him are later superscripts. His most important work for alchemy is De mineralibus (About minerals). He follows Aristotle in the investigation of formative principles in matter (composed of the four elements that determine their properties in different compositions) and distinguishes superficial transformations, which only change properties such as color and weight, from actual transmutations. According to Albertus Magnus, the alchemist can convert base metals into more noble metals through purification, which he compares to drugs in medicine that purify the body. Conversions of metals (superficial and substantial) take place through the action of the principle of fire (heat), astrological influences and the two metal-forming principles sulfur and mercury, in which he follows the Arabic teaching. However, the alchemists had not yet succeeded in producing gold, and in experiments he had not even succeeded in producing really fire-resistant metals. His depiction shows familiarity with Arabic and ancient literature on alchemy. It describes in detail chemical processes such as distillation (with advanced methods such as water bath), sublimation and various chemicals, e.g. B. Separation of gold and silver with separating water , alcohol (alcohol, as a flammable liquid on strong wine) and tartar (Latin tartratus, tatratum , English precipitation), alum and vitriol , i.e. mineral acids and their salts, extraction of arsenic , various Metals and alloys, verdigris and others. However, as mentioned, it is not clear with some writings whether they are not later deletions. For example, gunpowder is mentioned in De Mirabilis Mundi and follows the recipe in Liber Ignium , but the attribution to Albertus Magnus is generally doubted.
In addition, some of his scientific work is considered to be groundbreaking in the respective scientific sector: for example the first detailed description of the Central European flora and fauna and its geographical descriptions. His work on rock science is the first attempt to develop a complete systematics for minerals.
In the experiment, the natural philosophical thought of Aristotle with the Christian faith to agree, he worked all the knowledge of his time in theology, philosophy, medicine and natural sciences without it but in a systematic display closed.
“A total of 477 numbered species of animals are listed in his collection De animalibus , namely 113 quadrupeds, 114 flying, 140 swimming and 61 crawling animals and 49 worms. With reference to Aristotle, the author explains that even the lowest animals deserve to be explored, one must study their variety of forms in order to praise the artist who created them, because in the art of the creator his species is to be created reveal. "
After his death, Albert became a figure of legend. Following on from his scholarship and his preoccupation with magic and alchemy, all sorts of circulating fairy tale and legend motifs were taken up and linked to his vita, such as in the master song Albertus Magnus and the daughter of the King of France from the 15th century. According to another legend, Albert had created a "talking statue" that his student Thomas Aquinas destroyed. This story is figuratively true in the sense that Albert's thinking was without much influence in the subsequent period and that Thomas Aquinas received wide attention instead. The first biography of Albertus Magnus was written by Petrus de Prussia in 1486 , who wanted to work towards canonization. Since Albert was beatified in 1622 and only canonized in 1931, the images of Albertus were not set too early by the official Catholic side on certain types of representation. This allowed a variety of motifs to develop, which also included some legends. For example, on some of the so-called "Alberti tablets" (also known as Alberti pictures ), which exist mainly in southern Germany, there is a depiction of a legendary miracle of the wafer, according to which Albert forced the holy host to tell him secrets. Because Albert, in contrast to other legends of the host miracles, uses compulsion, he appears to a certain extent in the role of a conjuring magician.
In the course of the 15th and 16th centuries, numerous magical, alchemical and healing treatises (such as the Secreta mulierum, which emerged in the late 13th century ) were incorrectly attributed to Albert . Such pseudo-Albertian texts were also circulating in the 19th century.
Since the Dominican order has increasingly committed itself to the teaching of Thomas Aquinas since 1278, Albert's thinking usually did not have an equally significant direct influence. In the fifteenth century there was an Albertist school at the old Cologne University, but it has little to do with Albert’s philosophy.
According to a topos of philosophy and history that goes back to Carl von Prantl (1820–1888), Albert is said to have been just a polyhistor who put together raw and undigested materials in his works. Because of the canonization of Thomas Aquinas, Albert's theological work was quickly pushed aside and Albert's scientific interests emphasized instead. The reassessment of his philosophical position goes back to the last few years and is not yet complete. In particular, the actual philosophically significant continued influence of Albert among the German Dominicans of the 13th and 14th centuries has only been recognized for a few decades (Loris Sturlese, Alain de Libera). Dietrich von Freiberg , Berthold von Moosburg , Ulrich von Straßburg and Meister Eckhart followed a number of Neoplatonic , Avicennian and in part also averroistic motifs of his thinking .
In 1931 the Albertus Magnus Institute was founded in Cologne (moved to Bonn in 1954 ).
Albert as namesake
- Albert's name is borne by dozens of schools as well as numerous churches and chapels. See : Albertus Magnus School and Albertus Magnus Church .
- Several student associations have named themselves after him, such as the K. St. V. Albertia in Munich, the AV Albertus Magnus in Tübingen, the KA FV. Albertia in Cologne and in Austria the K. Ö. AV Albertina Graz.
- The Diocese of Augsburg has been awarding the Albertus Magnus Prize since 1985 ; Up to 2013, 15 members of the Catholic Theological Faculty of the University of Augsburg had received this award. After a four-year break, the prize was awarded in 2018 by Bishop Konrad Zdarsa to Pastor Andreas Jall and the theologian Carolin Neuber for outstanding dissertations.
- In 2004, the University of Cologne, in cooperation with the Thomas Institute, established the Albertus Magnus Professorship , to which renowned foreign scientists are appointed.
- In 2014, Bishop Rudolf Voderholzer founded the Academic Forum Albertus Magnus in the diocese of Regensburg , which promotes the dialogue between science and theology and between society and the Church based on the example of St. Albert should promote.
- In 1838 the botanist and historian Ernst Meyer named a plant after him, Alberta magna E. Mey. ; it belongs to the red family and only thrives in southeastern Africa. September 1st
- A memorial plaque to Albertus Magnus was accepted into the Walhalla near Regensburg .
- As part of the redesign of the sculpture program for the Cologne town hall tower in the 1980s, Albertus Magnus was honored with a figure by Titus Reinarz on the fourth floor on the west side of the tower.
- Protestant: November 15 in the Protestant name calendar
- Roman Catholic: November 15 in the regional calendar for the German-speaking area
- Complete edition ( Alberti Magni Opera omnia ). 38 volumes. Edited by August (us) Borgnet. Paris 1890-1899. ( Online )
- Hermann Stadler (Ed.): Albertus Magnus, De animalibus libri XXVI. Edited from the original in Cologne by Hermann Stadler. 2 volumes. Münster in Westphalia 1916–1920 (= contributions to the history of the philosophy of the Middle Ages. Vol. 15–16).
- Currently appearing critical Cologne edition of the Albertus Magnus Institute: Alberti Magni Opera Omnia. Aschendorff, Münster pp. 1951 ff. (Since autumn 2011 also as a digital edition for subscription)
- for a complete catalog of works cf.
- Winfried Fauser: The works of Albertus Magnus in their handwritten tradition. Aschendorff, Monasterii Westfalorum 1982, ISBN 3-402-03990-7 .
- as well as R. Schönberger, B. Kible: Repertory of edited texts from the Middle Ages, from the field of philosophy and related areas. Berlin 1994, 10501-10639.
- the entry at Alcuin ; for surviving manuscripts cf. the entries in Manuscripta Mediaevalia
- Alberti Magni E-Corpus (Borgnet edition, almost completely as facsimile and partly also directly readable, including search function )
- Alberti Magni libri V mineralium - BSB Clm 540 a: high-resolution digitized version in the culture portal bavarikon
- Digital copies of the Borgnet edition at archive.org
- Digital copies of the Jammy edition (BSB)
- Albertus Magnus: Compendium theologicae veritatis , digitized version , Bielefeld University Library
- Albertus Magnus: Virtue of Herbs, Stones and Certain Beasts
- Albertus Magnus: Alchimia , manuscript Heidelberg, UB, Cod. Pal. germ. 467
- Works (facsimiles) at the Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla
- Albertus Magnus: From women and births of children 1678. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf
- About the principles of progressive movement. Liber de principiis motus processivi. Latin-German. Translated by Jürgen Wetzelsberger. Introduced and commented by Henryk Anzulewicz and Jürgen Wetzelsberger, Herder, Freiburg / Basel / Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-451-34187-8 .
- About logic and universals . Translated and re-edited on the basis of the Editio Coloniensis. by Uwe Petersen and Manuel Santos Noya. Meiner, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-7873-2221-3
- Albertus Magnus and his system of sciences. Key texts in translation. Latin-German, ed. from the Albertus Magnus Institute. Aschendorff, Münster 2011, ISBN 978-3-402-12930-2 . Excerpt (time table) as digitized version
- About the fifteen issues. De quindecim problematibus. Latin-German. After the text of the Editio Coloniensis ed. by Henryk Anzulewicz and Norbert Winkler, translated by Henryk Anzulewicz, introduced and commented by Norbert Winkler. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau / Basel / Vienna 2010, ISBN 978-3-451-31069-0 .
- Book on the causes and the result of everything from the first cause. Liber de causis et processu universitatis a prima causa. Translated and edited from the text of the Editio Coloniensis. by Henryk Anzulewicz et al. Meiner, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 978-3-7873-1784-4 .
- About nature and the origin of the soul. Liber de natura et origine animae. Translated and introduced by Henryk Anzulewicz. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau / Basel / Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-451-28698-X .
- About man. De homine. After the critically prepared text, translated and edited. by Henryk Anzulewicz. Meiner, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-7873-1547-0 .
- About falcons, dogs and horses. German Albertus Magnus translation from the 1st half of the 15th century. Introduced and ed. by Kurt Lindner . (Original title: Liber de animalibus ). Sources and studies on the history of the hunt, Volumes 7 and 8. de Gruyter, Berlin 1962.
- Commentaire de la "Théologie mystique" de Denys le Pseudo-Aréopagite suivi de celui des Epîtres I – V. Super Dionysii Mysticam theologiam et Epistulas. Introduction, translation, remarks and index by Édouard-Henri Wéber. Ed. du Cerf, Paris 1993, ISBN 2-204-04712-0 .
- A quaestio by Albertus Magnus "De quiditate et esse". Edited by Albert Fries. Schoeningh, Paderborn u. a. 1983, ISBN 3-506-79431-0 .
- Selected texts. Lat.- German With a short biography. Edited by Albert Fries. 2nd Edition. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1987, ISBN 3-534-07955-8 .
- Selected Writings of Albert & Thomas. Translation, introduction and ed. by Simon Tugwell. Paulist Press, New York et al. a. 1988, ISBN 0-8091-3022-X .
- About the mystical theology of Dionysius . Lat.- German Introduced and translated by Maria Burger. Fontes Christiani vol. 59. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2014, ISBN 978-3-451-30971-7
- Henryk Anzulewicz : Recent research on Albertus Magnus. Inventory and problems. In: Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie médiévales. Volume 66, 1999, pp. 163-206.
- Henryk Anzulewicz: Albertus Magnus (1200-1280). In: Sebastian Cüppers (ed.): Cologne theologians. From Rupert von Deutz to Wilhelm Nyssen. Marzelle Verlag, Cologne 2004, ISBN 3-937795-02-2 , pp. 32-67.
- Marc-Aeilko Aris : Albertus Magnus. In: Wolfram Ax (ed.): Latin teachers in Europe. Fifteen portraits from Varro to Erasmus of Rotterdam. Böhlau, Cologne 2005, ISBN 3-412-14505-X , pp. 313-330
- Ingrid Craemer-Ruegenberg: Albertus Magnus. Beck, Munich 1980 (= Beck'sche Schwarze Reihe. Volume 501), ISBN 3-406-08501-6 . Revised and updated new edition: dies., Albertus Magnus , ed. by Henryk Anzulewicz, Benno, Leipzig 2005, ISBN 3-7462-1827-6 .
- Kenneth F. Kitchell Jr., Irven Michael Resnick: Albert the Great. A Selectively Annotated Bibliography (1900-2000). Tempe, Arizona 2004.
- Alain de Libera: Albert le Grand et la Philosophy. Vrin, Paris 1990.
- Alain de Libera: La Mystique rhénane. D 'Albert le Grand à Maître Eckhart. Vrin, Paris 1994.
- Walter Senner OP a. a. (Ed.): Albertus Magnus. In memory after 800 years: New approaches, aspects and perspectives. Academy, Berlin 2001.
- Ludger Honnefelder : Albertus Magnus and the cultural turning point in the 13th century - perspectives on the epochal significance of the great philosopher and theologian. Aschendorff, Münster 2012, ISBN 978-3-402-11194-9
- Henryk Anzulewicz: The will of Albertus Magnus based on a copy of Narcissus Pfister (Clm 4384), In: Siegfried Schmidt et al. (Hrsg.): Rheinisch - Kölnisch - Katholisch. Contributions to church and state history as well as to the history of the book and library system of the Rhineland. FS for Heinz Finger for his 60th birthday. Archbishop's Diocesan and Cathedral Library , Cologne 2008, ISBN 978-3-939160-13-7 , pp. 163–180.
- Elias H. Füllenbach: Albertus Magnus as Bishop of Regensburg. In: Analecta Coloniensia. Volume 10/11, 2012, pp. 131-150.
- Maarten JFM Hoenen, Alain de Libera: Albertus Magnus and Albertism (= studies and texts on the intellectual history of the Middle Ages. Volume 48). Brill, Leiden 1995.
- Ludger Honnefelder (Ed.): Albertus Magnus and the origin of the university idea. The encounter of the scientific cultures in the 13th century and the discovery of the concept of education through science. Berlin University Press, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-86280-007-0 .
- Albert Lehner: Albertus Magnus. Religious trade with the Regensburg bishop. A polemic. edition buntehunde, Regensburg 2005, ISBN 978-3-934941-17-5
- Irven M. Resnick : A Companion to Albert the Great. Theology, Philosophy, and the Sciences. Brill, Leiden / Boston 2013, ISBN 978-90-04-23407-9 .
- To Smets: Le reception en langue vulgaire du "De falconibus" d'Albert le Grand. In: Georgiana Donavin, Carol Poster, Richard Utz (Ed.): Medieval Forms of Argument: Disputation and Debate (= Disputatio. An international transdisciplinary journal of the Late Middle Ages. Volume 5). Wipf & Stock, Eugene [OR] 2002, pp. 189-99.
- Bruno Tremblay : Modern Scholarship (1900-2000) on Albertus Magnus. In: Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch für Antike und Mittelalter 11 (2006), pp. 159–194.
- Georg Wieland: Investigations into the concept of being in the metaphysical commentary by Albert the Great. Aschendorff, Münster 1972.
- James Athanasius Weisheipl (Ed.): Albertus Magnus and the Sciences. Commemorative Essays 1980 (= Studies and Texts. Volume 49). Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto 1980.
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz: Albertus Magnus. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 1, Bautz, Hamm 1975. 2nd, unchanged edition Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-013-1 , Sp. 86-88.
- Albert Fries, Kurt Illing: Albertus Magnus (deLauging, Theutonicus, de Colonia). In: Author's Lexicon . 2nd Edition. Volume 1, Col. 124-139.
- Martin Grabmann: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1953, ISBN 3-428-00182-6 , pp. 144-148 ( version ). In:
- Literature by and about Albertus Magnus in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Albertus Magnus in the German Digital Library
- Albertus Magnus in the complete catalog of incandescent prints (GW number ALBEMAG)
- Albertus Magnus in Alcuin , the Regensburg information center for scholasticism
- Henryk Anzulewicz: Albertus Magnus , Rhineland Regional Association, Portal Rhenish History
- Markus Führer: Albert the Great. In: Edward N. Zalta (Ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
- Albert Zimmermann: Albertus Magnus . In: Walter Killy, Rudolf Vierhaus (ed.): The Great Biographical Lexicon of the Germans . RM Book and Media, Munich 1999, p. 8 .
- Albert Fries: Albertus Magnus. In: Author's Lexicon . 2nd ed., Volume I, Col. 124.
- Hugo Stehkämper: Albertus Magnus. Exhibition on the 700th anniversary of death . Historical Archive of the City of Cologne, Cologne 1980, p. 37 f .
- James A. Weisheipl OP: Albert the Great. Life and works . In: Manfred Entrich OP (Ed.): Albertus Magnus. His life and its meaning . Verlag Styria, Graz 1982, p. 12 f .
- Meinolf Lohrum: Reflections on the year of birth of Albert the Great . In: Walter Senner (Ed.): Omnia disce. Art and history as memories and challenges. Willehad Paul Eckert OP for his 70th birthday and golden jubilee of profession . Cologne 1996, p. 153-158 .
- Willehad Paul Eckert: Third Chapter . In: Karl Heinrich Rengstorf, Siegfried von Kortzfleisch (ed.): Church and synagogue . tape 1 . Ernst Klett, 1968, p. 231 .
- Albert Zimmermann: Albertus Magnus . In: Walter Killy, Rudolf Vierhaus (ed.): The Great Biographical Lexicon of the Germans . RM Book and Media, Munich 1999, p. 7 .
- Arnold Stelzmann, Robert Frohn: Illustrated history of the city of Cologne . 11th edition. Bachem, Cologne 1990, p. 118 .
- Elias H. Füllenbach: Albertus Magnus as Bishop of Regensburg . In: Analecta Coloniensia . No. 10/11 , 2012, p. 131-150 .
- Timeline. In: gemeinden.erzbistum-koeln.de. Retrieved August 4, 2019 .
- Albertus Magnus Institute: Editio Coloniensis. In: institutions.erzbistum-koeln.de. Retrieved August 4, 2019 .
- Martha Baldwin: Albertus Magnus . In: Claus Priesner, Karin Figala (Ed.): Alchemie. Lexicon of a Hermetic Science . Beck, 1998, p. 20-22 .
- Winfried R. Pötsch, Annelore Fischer, Wolfgang Müller: Lexicon of important chemists . With the collaboration of Heinz Cassebaum. Thun (Harri Deutsch), Frankfurt am Main 1989, ISBN 3-8171-1055-3 , p. 11 .
- JR Partington: A history of Greek Fire and Gunpowder . Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999, ISBN 978-0-8018-5954-0 , pp. XXIV (English, Bert S. Hall contradicts in the foreword the account by Partington, who, in his opinion, accepted writings that were too uncritical about Albertus Magnus as genuine).
- Jerry Stannard: Identification of the plants, described by Albertus Magnus, 'De vegetabilibus', lib. VI . In: Res publica Litterarum . tape 1 , 1979, p. 281-318 (English).
- Ernst Meyer, Carl Jessen (Ed.): Alberti Magni 'De vegetabilibus libri VII'. Berlin 1867.
- Jerry Stannard: Albertus Magnus and medieval herbalism . In: James A. Weisheipl (Ed.): Albertus Magnus and the sciences: commemorative essays . Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto 1980, ISBN 978-0-88844-049-5 , pp. 355-377 (English).
- Heinrich Balss: The millipedes, insects and spiders with Albertus Magnus . In: Sudhoff's archive . tape 38 , no. 4 . Franz Steiner Verlag, 1954, p. 303-322 , JSTOR : 20774282 .
- Albertus Magnus: De animalibus libri XXVI . based on the original in Cologne. 2 volumes 1916–1920 (1921). Ed .: Hermann Stadler (= contributions to the history of the philosophy of the Middle Ages, Vol. 15–16 ). Muenster.
- Colin Eisler: Dürer's Noah's Ark. Animals and mythical creatures in the work of Albrecht Dürer . Droemer Knaur, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-426-26905-8 .
- Willehad Paul Eckert: Albert legends . In: Albert Zimmermann (ed.): Albert the Great: his time, his work, his effect (= Miscellanea Mediaevalia. Publications of the Thomas Institute of the University of Cologne ). tape 14 . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1981, ISBN 3-11-008602-6 , pp. 1-23 .
- Heribert Christian Scheeben: Albertus Magnus . Bachem, Cologne 1955, p. 202-204 .
- His pupil Ulrich von Strasbourg called him in rebus magicis expertus .
- Frieder Schanze: Albertus Magnus and the daughter of the King of France . In: Kurt Ruh (Ed.): The German literature of the Middle Ages. Author's lexicon (= publications of the Commission for German Literature of the Middle Ages of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences ). 2nd Edition. tape I . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1978, ISBN 3-11-007264-5 , Sp. 123 f .
- Petrus de Prussia: Vita et legenda Alberti Magni. Johannes Guldenschaiff, Cologne 1486/87; on Petrus de Prussia see Paulus de Loe: De vita et scriptis b. Alberti Magni. In: Analecta Bollandiana. Société des Bollandistes. Volume 19, 1900, pp. 268-271 No. 49 ( digitized version ); Jan Prelog: Petrus de Prussia, biographer (15th century) . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 6, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1993, ISBN 3-7608-8906-9 , Sp. 1982 f.
- See Genoveva Nitz: Albertus Magnus in der Volkskunst. The Alberti tables, Schnell & Steiner, Munich / Zurich 1980.
- Alberti cognomento Magni De secretis mulierum, Liber I; De virtutibus herbarum, lapidum et animalium quorundam, Liber I; De mirabilibus mundi […], Liber I; omnia iam recens sedulo recognita, scholiisque illustratam. Lyon (Jacob Junta) 1558.
- Margaret Schleissner: Secreta mulierum. In: Author's Lexicon . 2nd Edition. Volume 8, Col. 986-993.
- Margaret Schleissner: Pseudo-Albertus Magnus: 'Secreta mulierum'. A late medieval prose treatise on evolution and birth doctrine and the nature of women. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 9, 1991, pp. 115-124.
- See also Brigitte Kusche: A Middle Low German manuscript from the 15th century. Germanistische Lizentiatsabhandlung Stockholm 1971 (manuscript of the Secreta mulierum ).
- Margaret Schleissner: Pseudo-Albertus Magnus: Secreta mulierum cum commento, German . Critical text and commentary, phil. Diss. Princeton 1987
- Albertus Magnus: Proven and approved sympathetic and natural Egyptian secrets for people and cattle […] , I-IV, 20th edition, allegedly Toledo, no year (after 1814, around 1822).
- See for example Kurt Flasch : Meister Eckhart. The birth of “German mysticism” from the spirit of Arabic philosophy. CH Beck, Munich 2006, p. 37 ff.
- Ingrid Craemer-Ruegenberg: Albertus Magnus. 1980, p. 75.
- Albertus Magnus Prize on the website of the University of Augsburg ( Memento from November 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Press release of the diocese on the award ceremony 2018 , accessed on December 2, 2018
- Eröffungsvortrag the Academic Forum Albertus Magnus. Retrieved October 15, 2018 .
- stadt-koeln.de: Sculptures on the fourth floor , accessed on January 15, 2015
- Albertus Magnus in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints
|Albert I of Pietengau||
Bishop of Regensburg
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Albert the Great; Albert the German; Albert von Lauingen; Albert von Bollstädt|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German philosopher, polymath and bishop|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 1200|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Lauingen on the Danube|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 15, 1280|
|Place of death||Cologne|