Calendar overview 1280
|Erik II becomes King of Norway .||Albertus Magnus dies.|
|1280 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||728/729 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1823/24 (southern Buddhism); 1822/23 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||642/643 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||678/679 (turn of the year 2/3 May)|
|Jewish calendar||5040/41 (August 26-27)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1590/91 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1591/92 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1336/37 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- March 6 : After four and a half years as the Doge of Venice , Jacopo Contarini abdicates. The reason for this is probably the dispute with Pope Nicholas III. who threatened the Maritime Republic with excommunication over disputes over supremacy over Ancona . Giovanni Dandolo is elected as Jacopo's successor . As the commander of the Venetian naval units, he is currently on a military campaign against Trieste and Istria.
- March 22nd : The Berlin bear is shown to adorn the coat of arms of Berlin for the first time . It is on the seal of a guild letter from the Berlin furriers. In the center of the seal is the Brandenburg eagle .
- May 9 : Magnus VI. von Norway dies at the age of 42. His underage son Erik II will be crowned King of Norway on July 2nd in the Christ Church in Bergen by Archbishop Jon Raude and seven other bishops . At the same time there is a synod of bishops and a Reichstag, at which a guardianship government is formed from barons and officials from the royal entourage for the king who is still underage. In all likelihood, the widow of the queen, Ingeborg Eriksdatter, is also a member of this body, which is expressly referred to as the “Royal Council” for the first time in Norwegian history. The tensions with the church already emerged in the coronation negotiations. In his coronation oath, Erik promises to recognize the Church's financial and spiritual rights. But immediately after the coronation, the guardianship government passed a major change in the law to the detriment of the church. Archbishop Jon Raude then has an extensive statute passed at the synod at the same time, in which he establishes the ecclesiastical legislative competence in church matters and threatens to excommunicate anyone who should interfere with these rights.
- around 1280: The Alsnö statute is issued, which forms the basis for the emergence of a Swedish nobility.
First documentary mentions, market and city rights
- Amsteg , Biberstein , Cortaillod , Drebkau , Friedlingen , Isenthal , Ormalingen and Wenslingen are first mentioned in a document.
- Wolfratshausen receives market rights .
- Florence is a leader in Western European economic life through the cloth industry and banking . The highest guilds wrested power from the nobility. The city receives a constitution.
- Revolt of the Flemish textile craftsmen against the patrician merchants and publishers on whom (as the owners of the raw materials ) they depend
- around 1280: The Hanseatic League opens an office in London .
science and technology
- In a sermon from 1300 , the Dominican Giordano da Rivalto mentions that it was less than 20 years ago that glasses were invented.
- around 1280: Briani invents the artificial aventurine in Venice , a glass mass that is interspersed with tiny gold-shining crystals.
- Between 1240 and this year (estimated) the main work of the older Kabbalah, the Book of Zohar , was created, which will later become a canonical text of the Kabbalah .
- around 1280: Aegidius Romanus writes his prince's mirror “De regimine principum”, which was very popular in the Middle Ages , for Philip the Beautiful of France .
- around 1280: Süezkint the Jew from Trimperg , Middle High German poet , is the only attested Jewish poet in German literature of the Middle Ages.
- around 1280: Jean de Meung , who teaches at the Artistic Faculty of Paris University , adds well over 17,000 verses to the courtly allegorical romance novel Roman de la Rose (one of the first great French bourgeois novel poems) written by Guillaume de Lorris some 40 years earlier , which differ fundamentally in content from the older part and present in an encyclopedic manner the knowledge of that time based on Aristotle .
- August 22 : After the death of Pope Nicholas III. the cardinals called to elect his successor meet for the conclave in Viterbo . In order to strengthen the power of the French cardinals, Cardinal Matteo Orsini, a relative of the deceased Pope, was arrested as a precaution. In a six-month conclave marked by conflicts of power politics, the parties involved cannot agree on a successor by the end of the year.
nature and environment
- Weather : rainy year
Exact date of birth unknown
- Birger Magnusson , King of Sweden († 1321 )
- Jean II , Dauphin of Viennois († 1319 )
- Öldscheitü , Ilchan of Persia († 1316 )
- Hermann Swerting , German-Gotland Hanseatic merchant and mayor of Visby († 1342 )
Born around 1280
- Antonius Andreae , Spanish Franciscan († 1320 )
- Petrus Aureoli , Aquitaine Franciscan, theologian and philosopher († 1322 )
- Pål Bårdsson , Archbishop of Nidaros († 1346 )
- Isabella Bruce , Queen of Norway († 1358 )
- John Crab , Dutch merchant and pirate († around 1352 )
- Henry of Lancaster, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Earl of Leicester, English magnate, Lord High Steward of England († 1345 )
- Waldemar , Margrave of the Mark Brandenburg († 1319 )
Date of death secured
- February 12 : Nicholas of Ely , English clergyman and politician, Royal Chancellor and Treasurer, Bishop of Worcester and Winchester
- April 6 : Jacopo Contarini , 47th Doge of Venice (* around 1193 )
- May 9 : Magnus Håkonsson , King of Norway (* 1238 )
- June 2 : Jolanthe of Burgundy , Countess of Nevers and Countess of Auxerre and Tonnerre (* 1247 )
- June 9 : Herebord von Bismarck , Gildemeister and Schultheiß in Stendal (* around 1200 )
- July 22 : Walter of Bronescombe , Bishop of Exeter (* around 1200 )
- August 22nd : Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, under the name of Nicholas III. Pope (* around 1216 )
- October 4th : Hartmann I , Count von Grüningen
- October 4th : Hartmann III. , Count of Grüningen (disputed) (* before 1252)
- November 15 : Albertus Magnus , German philosopher and scientist, Bishop of Regensburg, saint and doctor of the Catholic Church (* 1200 )
- December 7th : Hugo I , Count of Werdenberg-Heiligenberg
Exact date of death unknown
- February: Petrus von Passau , Prince-Bishop of Passau
- End of the year: Jacopo Contarini , Doge of Venice
- Berke Qan , Sultan of the Mamluks in Egypt (* 1258 )
- Enni Ben'en , Buddhist monk from Japan (* 1202 )
- John I de la Roche , Duke of Athens
- Margaret II , Countess of Flanders (* 1202 )
- Meinher von Neuenburg , Bishop of Naumburg
- Möngke Timur , Khan of the Golden Horde
- Wilhelm XI. , Count of Auvergne and Boulogne
- Yahya II. Al-Wathiq , Caliph of the Hafsids in Ifriqiya