Calendar overview 1300
|Boniface VIII proclaims the Holy Year .|
|1300 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||748/749 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||2nd tubes - Ome Acatl (until the end of January / beginning of February 1st rabbit Ce Tochtli )|
|Buddhist calendar||1843/44 (southern Buddhism); 1842/43 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||662/663 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||699/700 (turn of the year September 15th / 16th)|
|Jewish calendar||5060/61 (September 14/15)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1610/11 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1611/12 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1356/57|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- October: The Archbishops of Cologne , Mainz and Trier as well as the Count Palatine near Rhine join forces in the ' Heimbacher Kurverein ' (see Siege of Bensheim ) against King Albrecht I with the aim of his removal.
- The Czech King Wenceslas II. Is as Wenceslas I also king of Poland .
- Around 1300: The English kingdom under Edward I developed in an even more pronounced way than France into a corporate state, in which, in addition to the monarchical top, the corporate representation exercised a considerable influence on government activities.
City rights, first documentary mentions, population figures
- Lich , Lichtenau (Baden) and Wittlich are granted city rights.
- First documented mention of Dittingen , Iznang , Krattigen , Niebelsbach , Tairnbach , Reutigen and Unterheimbach .
- Venice has around 100,000 inhabitants.
- In Central and Western Europe ( Germany , England , France ) the population has increased from around 12 million in the year 1000 to around 36 million today. For the whole of Europe, the population is estimated at 60 to 70 million.
- Around 1300: The trade fairs in Bruges (stacking place for English wool), Antwerp , Lyon and Geneva are becoming increasingly important.
- around 1300: Ypres develops into one of the most populous cities in Europe in fierce competition with the other cities in Flanders .
- from 1300: With the first construction of steel mills, which have a distant similarity to blast furnaces, the production of cast iron succeeds in Europe .
- around 1300: In many cities of the Middle Ages prostitutes were united to form guilds .
science and technology
- up to 1300: water-driven blower, step loom
- around 1300: A pharmacy stand is formed in courtyards and in cities in Germany.
- around 1300: Eyeglass production in Italy (see Venice ): The Dominican Giordano da Rivalto mentions in a sermon in Florence that year : “It was not twenty years ago ( 1280 ) that the art of making eyeglasses resulted in better vision convey, one of the most useful arts in the world, was invented. I myself saw the person who invented it and first made it, and spoke to him. "
- around 1300: Arnaldus de Villanova for the first time extracts largely pure ethanol by distilling wine .
- around 1300: The Lucerne Water Tower , today part of the Chapel Bridge in Lucerne , is built.
- Around 1300: Portolane , north-facing maps, are created in Italy , on which the corresponding areas as well as ports, anchorages and, in some cases, distances are entered (according to other sources between 1150 and 1250).
- around 1300: mappae mundi : Hereford map and Ebstorf world map
- The University of Lleida (s. Lleida ) was founded between 1297 and 1301 .
- Finds of hundreds of wooden blocks on the floor of a temple cave, which are dated to this year, show that the Uyghurs were already printing with movable type .
- Due to the anniversary celebrations (see below), Giotto carried out frescoes in the loggia of the Lateran Palace in Rome.
- Hugo von Trimberg completes the greatest didactic poem of his time (more than 24,000 verses), “Der Renner”.
- Dante is one of the six priori in Florence .
- around 1300: The high choir at Cologne Cathedral with its rich buttress should be structurally completed.
- around 1300: The Mainauer Naturlehre , an attempt to summarize the scientific knowledge of the time in German prose, emerges (see web links).
- around 1300: The Manessische Liederhandschrift is created.
- around 1300: The Codex Vindobonensis 2696 is created.
- around 1300: Nagler's fragment is created.
- February 22nd : Pope Boniface VIII proclaims the first holy year in Rome from the loggia of the Lateran , which begins on Christmas in 1300. The papal bull Antiquorum stipulates that all Romans who visit the basilicas of St. Peter and St. Paul thirty times, and all foreign pilgrims who visit these places fifteen times, should be granted a perfect indulgence . Five times the number of usual pilgrims will come to Rome this year (a total of 200,000 according to the chronicler Giovanni Villani ), so that the Pope is forced to stipulate a regulation for the use of the Angel Bridge : the pilgrims have to drive on the left . The city suffers from two famines due to the large number of pilgrims, one in late spring and one in autumn.
- Pentecost: At the general chapter of the Dominicans in Marseilles it is decided that all convent priorities of the province of Teutonia should be discharged from their offices. If Meister Eckhart remained prior of the Erfurt Convention after 1298 , he must now give up this office at the latest.
- July 18 : Gerardo Segarelli , the founder of the Church-critical Brothers of the Apostles , is burned at the stake in Parma for heresy . In several letters, Fra Dolcino declared himself the new leader of the movement.
- Friedrich I. Man von Honstädt becomes Bishop of Verden .
- John of Paris , member of the Dominican convention of St. Jacques in Paris, writes about the Antichrist and (from 1300) about the coming of Christ .
- Nicholas of Lyra joins the Franciscan order at the age of about 30.
- After the founder of the Apostle Brothers , Gerardo Segarelli , was burned , Fra Dolcino took over their leadership. In two letters written in 1300 and 1303 , he announced the imminent destruction of the corrupt church that had become a "Babylonian whore".
- King Philip IV enables the Order of the Cölestines to find a new home in France.
- around 1300: Johann von Jandun is the intellectual head of Latin Averroism at the University of Paris , who adopts the Arabic Aristotle interpretation of Averroes . One of his students is Marsilius of Padua .
- around 1300: There are around 700 men and perhaps even more women monasteries of the Cistercians throughout Europe .
- around 1300: The Dominican Order has around 10,000 brothers in over 550 convents.
- around 1300: The Franciscan order has around 30,000 members. There is a convention in every major European city.
- after 1300: William of Paris (see 1299 ), also a member of St. Jacques, writes a catechetical manual Dialogus de septem sacramentis , which is widely distributed.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- June 1 : Thomas of Brotherton , son of Edward I of England († 1338 )
- September 27 : Adolf , Count of the Palatinate († 1327 )
- October 29 : John Gray , English nobleman, military man and courtier († 1359 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Arnaud de Cervole , notorious French brigant during the Hundred Years War († 1366 )
- Heinrich , Margrave of Hachberg-Sausenberg († 1318 )
- Jeanne de Belleville , pirate († 1359 )
- Johann III. , Duke of Brabant and Limburg († 1355 )
- Johannes Gobi , Christian author († 1350 )
- John Mercer , Scottish trader, financier and politician († 1379 / 1380 )
- Johanna von Pfirt , Duchess of Austria († 1351 )
- Qutugku Khan , Emperor of China († 1329 )
- Robert , Count Palatine of Burgundy († 1315 )
- Loretta von Sponheim , Countess († 1346 )
Born around 1300
- Johannes Buridan , French philosopher, physicist and logician († shortly after 1358 )
- John de Clinton , English nobleman and politician († 1335 )
- Matteo Giovannetti , Italian painter († after 1369)
- Ernst von Pardubitz , Czech clergyman, politician and Archbishop of Prague († 1364 )
- Heinrich Truchsess von Diessenhofen , cleric and chronicler († 1376 )
- Jordan von Quedlinburg , German Augustinian, writer and preacher († 1380 ) (see web links)
- Margaret Wake , English noblewoman († 1349 )
- 1300/ 1305 : Guillaume de Machault , French composer and poet († 1377 )
First half of the year
- January 1st : Giacomo Tomassi-Caetani , Cardinal of the Catholic Church
- January 5th : Wok I. von Krumau , Bohemian nobleman
- February: Munio von Zamora , Spanish Dominican and Bishop of Palencia (* 1237 )
- around April 10 : John Wake, 1st Baron Wake , English nobleman (* 1268 )
Second half of the year
- July 18 : Gerardo Segarelli , Italian sect leader, founder of the Apostle Brothers, burned as a heretic (* around 1240 )
- September 15th : Konrad von Braunschweig-Lüneburg , Bishop of Verden
- before September 25th: Edmund , English magnate (* 1249 )
- November 1st : Ulrich I. von Falkenstein , nobleman
- November 2 : Bertho III. von Mackenzell , prince abbot of Fulda Abbey (* around 1240 )
- November / December: Johann von Montfort-Castres , French nobleman, Count von Squillace, as well as Lord von Castres, La Ferté-Alais and Bréthencourt
- around December 4th : Albrecht III. , Margrave of Brandenburg (* around 1250 )
- before December 19: Johannes von Schwerin , Archbishop of Riga
Exact date of death unknown
- Guido Cavalcanti , Italian poet (* around 1255 )
- Gottfried von Cremon , Lübeck councilor
- Marquard Hildemar , Mayor of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck
- Johann I , Burgrave of Nuremberg (* around 1279 )
- Peter , Bishop of Cammin
- Richard Middleton , Lord Chancellor of England
- Hinrich Steneke , Mayor of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck
- Trần Hưng Đạo , Vietnamese general (* around 1228 )
- Tschaka Nogai , Mongolian prince and tsar of Bulgaria