Calendar overview 1299
|Tenoch the era of the Aztec kings begins in the history of the Aztecs .||Osman I. proclaims the independence of his Beylik from the Rum Seljuks and thus founds the Ottoman Empire .|
Mongols defeat the Mamluks
in the battle of Wadi al-Khazandar .
|1299 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||747/748 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||1. Rabbit Ce Tochtli (from late January / early February)|
|Buddhist calendar||1842/43 (southern Buddhism); 1841/42 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||661/662 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||698/699 (turn of the year 27/28 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5059/60 (August 28/29)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1609/10 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1610/11 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1355/56|
Politics and world events
- With the support of his brother Constantine III. Hethum II takes back power in the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia after he was overthrown, imprisoned and partially blinded by his brother Sempad in 1296 . In the summer, King Hethum II sends a message to Ghazan , the Mongolian Il-Khan of Persia , asking for his support. Ghazan marches with his troops towards Syria to jointly carry out an attack on the Mamluks . The Mongols and their allies defeated the Mamluks at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar on December 23 or 24 . Armenian aid contingents play a decisive role in the victory of the Mongols.
- Osman I , prince of a Beylik dependent on the Rum Seljuks , increasingly began to claim sovereignty for himself. The year 1299 is therefore considered to be the founding year of the Ottoman Empire in Asia Minor . Through his conquests, for example of İnegöl , Bilecik and Yenişehir , Osman expanded his territory, which originally only comprised about 1,500 km², to finally 18,000 km².
- The Germiyan come into possession of Ankara through a treaty with the Rum Seljuks .
- May 25th : At the mediation of the Signor of Milan , Matteo I. Visconti , the Second Venetian-Genoese War is ended with the Peace of Genoa .
- Conrad III. von Lichtenberg , Bishop of Strasbourg , rushes to the aid of his brother-in-law Egino II , the Count of Freiburg against the rebellious citizens of the city of Freiburg im Breisgau . In a battle on July 28th, he was so badly wounded by a lance that he died four days later . The originally victorious Freiburg then have to pay a considerable amount of atonement every year. On September 15, Konrad's brother Friedrich I von Lichtenberg was elected as his successor as Bishop of Strasbourg in the presence of King Albrecht I
- November 1st : Håkon V. succeeds his older brother Erik II , who died in July, to the throne of Norway .
- Robert the Bruce recaptured Stirling Castle from the English during the First Scottish War of Independence .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Henry II. Of Klingenberg , Bishop of Konstanz , gives Meersburg the town charter by Ulmer model. In the same year, the settlement on the lakeshore below the castle is expanded by filling, so that space is created for a large market square and for the expansion of the settlement to the lower town.
- Bowil , Fahrni and Gäziwil are first mentioned in a document.
- The dukes of Saxony-Lauenburg give Hamburg permission to set up a " plant " on the island of O (Neuwerk) .
- until 1299: Master Arnold has been proven to have been the master builder of Cologne Cathedral since 1271 .
- July: Marco Polo's travelogue Il Milione is completed in French by Rustichello da Pisa in Genoese captivity .
- January: The ninth master of the Dominican order , Nicholas of Treviso , later Pope Benedict XI. , resigns from office after being promoted to cardinal the previous year. The general chapter of the order is canceled this year.
- July 24th : Emich I. dies. In autumn Eberwin von Kronberg is elected as his successor as Bishop of Worms . However, the election is ambivalent and a larger number of votes also fell on the nephew of the predecessor, the Provost Heinrich von Daun . The Archbishop of Mainz , Gerhard II von Eppstein , set up a commission of inquiry and recognized Eberwin's election on December 21 as valid.
- With the bull De sepulturis, Pope Boniface VIII opposes the internal examination of the corpses and the custom of cooking corpses (during crusades abroad, those who died were cooked so that the meat could be removed and the bones buried at home). The Pope does not expressly forbid autopsies , but the bull is later interpreted in this direction.
- The married couple Jacob and Lieba Engelmann donated a nunnery at the gates of Worms in what is now the Worms-Hochheim district on the site of a castle ruin there, on condition that they be buried there. Construction of the Liebenau monastery begins the following year under the aegis of Worms Bishop Eberwin von Kronberg .
Date of birth saved
- March 25 : Pierre Bertrand de Colombier , French diplomat and cardinal of the Catholic Church († 1361 )
- May 15 : Henry the Meek , Duke of Austria († 1327 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Alfonso IV , King of Aragon and Sardinia († 1336 )
- Anna von Nassau-Hadamar , German noblewoman († 1329 )
- Dmitri II , Grand Duke of Vladimir and Prince of Tver († 1326 )
- Künga Lodrö Gyeltshen Pel Sangpo , person of Tibetan Buddhism († 1327 )
- Lisa von Katzenelnbogen , abbess at Nottuln Abbey († 1357 )
- Preczlaw von Pogarell , Prince-Bishop of Breslau († 1376 )
- Ténoch , ruler of the Aztecs († 1363 )
- Ulrich III. von Neuhaus , Bohemian nobleman († 1349 )
Born around 1299
January to July
- May 29 : John Giffard , English nobleman and military man (* 1232 )
- after May 29th: Incelerius , auxiliary bishop in Würzburg, Bamberg and Naumburg
- July 4th : Gottfried Hagen , town clerk of Cologne (* 1230 )
- July 10 or 13 : Erik II. Magnusson , King of Norway (* 1268 )
- July 24th : Emich I , Bishop of Worms
August to December
- August 1st : Konrad III. von Lichtenberg , Bishop of Strasbourg (* around 1240 )
- August 28 : Nicholas Audley , English magnate
- after October 2nd: Hermann von Minden , Dominican and Provincial of the German Order Province
- October 12 : Johann II , Lord of Mecklenburg (* around 1250 )
- after October 29th: Laurence de Erganis , Bishop of Argyll
- November 10th : Johann I , Count of Holland (* 1284 )
- November 19 : Mechtilde , Cistercian and mystic (* 1241 / 42 )
- December 9th : Boemund I. von Warsberg , Archbishop and Elector of Trier
- December 31 : Marguerite of Anjou-Sicily , Countess of Anjou and Maine (* 1273 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Àlvar de Cabrera , Vice Count of Àger
- Guy III. de Lévis , French knight and lord of Mirepoix
- Heinrich II. , Count of Vaudémont (* around 1255 )
- Helmold III. , Count of Schwerin
- Kara Nogai Khan , leader of the Golden Horde
- Theodoros Angelos , co-regent in Thessaly and central Greece
Died around 1299
- April 24, 1288 or 1299: Gertrud von Babenberg , Duchess of Mödling, titular Duchess of Austria and Styria, Margravine of Moravia and Baden (* 1226 )