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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Battle of Muhi
After the victory in the Battle of Liegnitz , the Mongols defeat the Hungarians in the Battle of Muhi .
Ögedei Khan (14th century portrait)
The death of Ögedei Khan ends the Mongol storm in Europe.
Coat of arms of Coelestin IV.
Goffredo da Castiglione becomes Pope for 17 days under the name of Celestine IV .
1241 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 689/690 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1233/34
Buddhist calendar 1784/85 (southern Buddhism); 1783/84 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 65th (66th) cycle

Year of the Metal Ox辛丑 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Rat 庚子)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 603/604 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 619/620
Islamic calendar 638/639 (turn of the year July 11th / 12th)
Jewish calendar 5001/02 (September 6-7)
Coptic calendar 957/958
Malayalam calendar 416/417
Seleucid era Babylon: 1551/52 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1552/53 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1279
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1297/98 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Mongol storm

Battle of Liegnitz
Course of the battle of Muhi
After the Battle of Muhi, Tatars dragged enslaved Hungarians away


The holy land after the barons' crusade

England / Wales

  • August: In a swift campaign , the English King Heinrich III. after the death of the mighty Prince Llywelyn from Iorwerth to gain supremacy over the Welsh kingdom of Gwynedd . On August 29, the new Prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn must surrender in Gwern Eigron on the banks of the Elwy. Two days later he has to accept the king's peace terms in Rhuddlan . He must give up all the conquests his father Llywelyn has made from Iorwerth since 1215. In addition, he must travel to London on October 24th and again under humiliating conditions Henry III. pay homage To secure his conquests, Heinrich III begins. with the construction of the mighty Dyserth Castle , which secures the Conwy as a border river. In Powys Wenwynwyn , Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn , who is allied with the King of England, comes to power. To secure his position in Mid Wales, the king begins rebuilding Builth Castle , to which Dafydd is actually entitled through his wife Isabel de Braose. The seemingly complete victory of the king over the Welsh unites them against the English and a few years later leads to another war .

Central and Eastern Europe

The marriage of Beatrix and Heinrich Raspe
Depiction of the sea battle of Giglio from the Nuova Cronica by Giovanni Villani, early 14th century

City rights and first documentary mentions


Illustration of the procession in Cremona from Matthew Paris ' manuscript Chronica maiora


On August 22nd, after almost 14 years of pontificate, Pope Gregory IX dies . in Rome. This temporarily ends the conflict with Emperor Friedrich II , who prevented the meeting of a council convened by Gregory at Easter by taking several church princes prisoner. For the first time, a conclave is convened to elect a successor for Gregor . The Roman Senator Matteo Rosso Orsini has the cardinals arrested in the Septasolium . One of the cardinals dies as a result of the unbearable heat and the catastrophic hygienic conditions.

Coat of arms of Celestine IV.

Nevertheless, the conclave can only agree on the Cardinal Bishop of Sabina, Goffredo da Castiglione, on October 25th . This will enable those cardinals who want to work towards a reconciliation with Emperor Friedrich to prevail. But Goffredo, who takes the name Celestine IV , is so weakened by the conclave that he dies on November 10 , before his enthronement . The sedis vacancy that followed lasted for almost two years.



First half of the year

Death of Gilbert Marshal (depiction from the Chronica Majora by Matthew Paris )

Second half of the year

The sarcophagus of Count Guigues IV in Montbrison Cathedral

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1241

Web links

Commons : 1241  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files