|Battle of Liegnitz , the Mongols defeat the Hungarians in the Battle of Muhi .|
|Ögedei Khan ends the Mongol storm in Europe.||
Pope for 17 days under the name of Celestine IV .
|1241 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||689/690 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1784/85 (southern Buddhism); 1783/84 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||603/604 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||638/639 (turn of the year July 11th / 12th)|
|Jewish calendar||5001/02 (September 6-7)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1551/52 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1552/53 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1297/98 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- Beginning of the year: After the Mongol invasion of the Rus in the previous year with the conquest of Kiev , the Mongol storms on Central Europe with an army of the Golden Horde under Batu Khan : The cities of Sandomierz and Krakow are conquered and destroyed. The Mongols also invade Transylvania and destroy Sibiu .
- March 18 : In a battle near Chmielnik , Polish knights are defeated by the Golden Horde of Turkic- Mongolian Tatars moving westward . The city, which is first mentioned on this occasion, is then plundered and destroyed.
- April 9th : In the Battle of Liegnitz (Battle of Wahlstatt) a German-Polish army of knights (reinforced by knights of the order ) is destroyed by the Mongols under Orda Khan . A Bohemian army of King Wenceslas I , only a day's ride away, comes too late. The leader of the European army, Duke Heinrich the Pious of Silesia , is killed in battle. After an unsuccessful attempt to conquer Liegnitz , Baidar Khan stops the march to the west and instead moves south with his troops to the main Mongolian power in Hungary.
- April 11th : In the Battle of Muhi, the Mongols under Batu Khan also destroy the army of the Hungarian King Béla IV . Only a few Hungarians can escape, including King Bela. First he fled via Northern Hungary and Pressburg to the warring Duke Frederick II of Austria , who took away the treasure he had carried and forced him to cede three border counties . Then he fled to Dalmatia.
- Following the Battle of Muhi, the Mongols plunder the city of Spalato and threaten Trieste . As a result, they cross the frozen Danube, plunder the Hungarian capital Buda , devastate Transdanubia and advance to Wiener Neustadt .
- June 24th : The Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Assen II dies after a defeat against the Mongols. His underage son Kaliman I. Assen has nothing to do with the Mongol storm that broke out over the Second Bulgarian Empire the following year.
- December 11th : The Mongols withdraw from Europe due to the succession of the late Great Khan Ugedai .
- April 23 : The barons' crusade under Richard of Cornwall confirms the treaty negotiated the previous year with the Ayyubid Sultan al-Salih Ayyub and thus achieves the cession of Galilee and the areas west of the Jordan to the Kingdom of Jerusalem through diplomatic channels . This is the Crusaders' largest gain in terrain since the First Crusade . Richard is still waiting for the last prisoners to be released from the battle of Gaza in 1239 and on May 3rd he goes home with the majority of the Crusaders from Acre to England. He leaves the Kingdom of Jerusalem in its greatest territorial extent since 1187, but internally split like a civil war .
England / Wales
- August: In a swift campaign , the English King Heinrich III. after the death of the mighty Prince Llywelyn from Iorwerth to gain supremacy over the Welsh kingdom of Gwynedd . On August 29, the new Prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn must surrender in Gwern Eigron on the banks of the Elwy. Two days later he has to accept the king's peace terms in Rhuddlan . He must give up all the conquests his father Llywelyn has made from Iorwerth since 1215. In addition, he must travel to London on October 24th and again under humiliating conditions Henry III. pay homage To secure his conquests, Heinrich III begins. with the construction of the mighty Dyserth Castle , which secures the Conwy as a border river. In Powys Wenwynwyn , Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn , who is allied with the King of England, comes to power. To secure his position in Mid Wales, the king begins rebuilding Builth Castle , to which Dafydd is actually entitled through his wife Isabel de Braose. The seemingly complete victory of the king over the Welsh unites them against the English and a few years later leads to another war .
Central and Eastern Europe
- May 3 : By capturing high-ranking church princes in the sea battle of Giglio , Emperor Friedrich II prevents a church council directed against him from taking place in Rome.
- May 7th : King Wenceslas of Bohemia signs the Upper Lusatian border document .
- Polesia falls under the influence of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania .
- Ulrich I, the founder becomes Count of Württemberg .
- The cities of Lübeck and Hamburg form an alliance that becomes the basis for the later Wendish city league and the Hanseatic League .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Wesel on the Lower Rhine receives from young Count Dietrich primogenitus the city charter granted.
- First documentary mention of Dättlikon , Niedermuhlern , Sebnitz , Rapperswil BE , Stettfeld and Weinsberg
- On the occasion of the visit of his brother-in-law Richard of Cornwall to Cremona , Emperor Frederick II holds a triumphal procession, in which the elephant of Cremona also takes part.
- Pentecost: Johann von Wildeshausen is elected fourth master of the order of the Dominicans at the General Chapter in Paris .
On August 22nd, after almost 14 years of pontificate, Pope Gregory IX dies . in Rome. This temporarily ends the conflict with Emperor Friedrich II , who prevented the meeting of a council convened by Gregory at Easter by taking several church princes prisoner. For the first time, a conclave is convened to elect a successor for Gregor . The Roman Senator Matteo Rosso Orsini has the cardinals arrested in the Septasolium . One of the cardinals dies as a result of the unbearable heat and the catastrophic hygienic conditions.
Nevertheless, the conclave can only agree on the Cardinal Bishop of Sabina, Goffredo da Castiglione, on October 25th . This will enable those cardinals who want to work towards a reconciliation with Emperor Friedrich to prevail. But Goffredo, who takes the name Celestine IV , is so weakened by the conclave that he dies on November 10 , before his enthronement . The sedis vacancy that followed lasted for almost two years.
- The congregation of the Dillinger Franciscan Sisters is founded.
- Eleanor of Castile , Queen of England († 1290 )
- Gregory II of Cyprus , Patriarch of Constantinople († 1290 )
- Badr ad-Dīn Ibn Jamāʿa , Islamic legal scholar and Qādī of the Shafiite teaching direction († 1333 )
- Isabella of Ibelin , Queen of Cyprus and Jerusalem († 1324 )
- Leszek II , Senior Duke of Poland († 1288 )
- Mechtilde , German Cistercian and Mystic († 1298 / 99 )
- Robert IV. , Count of Dreux and Braine († 1282 )
- Vasily Yaroslavich , Grand Duke of Vladimir († 1276 )
First half of the year
- January 3 : Hermann II , Landgrave of Thuringia (* 1222 )
- February 15 : Heinrich I , Count of Ortenburg and Murach
- February: Morgan Gam , Welsh Lord of Afan
- March 16 : Stephan III. , Count of Auxonne and Chalon-sur-Saône (* around 1172 )
- March 28 : Waldemar II , Duke of Schleswig and King of Denmark (* 1170 )
- March: William de Forz , English nobleman
- April 9 : . Henry II , Duke of Silesia and Princeps by Poland (* 1196 / 1207 )
- May 26 : Roger Bernard II , Count of Foix (* around 1195 )
- June 27th : Gilbert Marshal , English nobleman
- June 28 : Heinrich I von Burgau , Count von Berg and Margrave of Burgau
Second half of the year
- July or August: Gilbert Basset , English nobleman and rebel
- August 10 : Eleanor of Brittany , English princess from the House of Plantagenet (* around 1184 )
- August 22nd : Ugolino dei Conti di Segni, under the name Gregory IX. Pope (* 1167 )
- September 20 : Konrad II von Salzwedel , Bishop of Cammin
- September 23 : Snorri Sturluson , Old Icelandic poet, historian and politician (* 1179 )
- September 26 : Fujiwara no Sadaie , Japanese poet (* 1162 )
- October 29 : Guigues IV. , Count of Forez, Count of Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnerre (* before 1200)
- November 10th : Goffredo di Castiglione, under the name of Celestine IV Pope
- December 1 : Isabella of England , Empress of the Holy Roman Empire and Queen of Sicily (* 1214 )
- December 8th : Hugh of Pattishall , Lord High Treasurer of England, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield
- December 11 : Ögedei Khan , second Great Khan of the Mongols (* 1186 or 1189 )
- December 14th : Gernand , Bishop of Brandenburg
Exact date of death unknown
- Altmann II von Abensberg , German nobleman
- Amalrich VII of Montfort , Count of Montfort-l'Amaury and Lord of Épernon, Vice Count of Carcassonne, Béziers and Albi as well as Titular Count of Toulouse and Titular Duke of Narbonne, Connétable of France, Crusader in the Albigensian Crusade (* 1195 )
- Gertrude of Babenberg , Landgrave of Thuringia (* around 1210 / 1215 )
- Bohuslav I. von Hrabischitz , Bohemian nobleman (* around 1180 )
- Walter de Dunstanville , English nobleman (* around 1192 )
- Gautier le Cornu , Archbishop of Sens
- Coloman of Galicia , Prince of Halitsch and Slavonia, King of Galicia and Lodomeria (* 1208 )
- Irene Laskarina , Empress of Nikaia (* around 1200 )
- Manuel Komnenos Dukas Angelos , regent in Thessaloniki and Thessaly
- Peter de Maulay , a French knight and advisor to the English kings
- Narjot de Toucy , Lord of Barzanes and regent of the Latin Empire of Constantinople
- William , Bishop of Argyll