- 1260 : Mongols conquer and plunder Aleppo and large parts of northern Syria.
- 1260: The Mamluks under Sultan Baibars I defeat the Mongols in the battle of ʿAin Jālūt .
- 1261 : Byzantine troops, led by Michael VIII, recapture Constantinople , which was conquered in 1204 by Western European crusaders. They eliminate the Latin Empire and restore the Byzantine Empire.
- 1265 , January 20th : De Montfort's Parliament , the first representative parliament in English history, is constituted. Due to the first participation of commoners (Commons) it is considered a founding institution of the engl. House of Commons .
- 1266 , February 26th : Charles of Anjou , whom Pope Clement IV secretly endowed with Sicily as a papal fiefdom, wins the battle of Benevento , in which King Manfred of Sicily dies.
- 1268 , February 18 : The Russians defeat a German-Danish army in the battle of Wesenberg and thus stop further attempts at expansion.
- 1268, 23 August : The last Staufer Konradin loses the battle of Tagliacozzo against Charles I of Anjou in the fight for his Italian inheritance and is executed after a sham trial; this marks the end of the imperial dynasty of the Hohenstaufen.