Michael VIII recaptured Constantinople ,
eliminated the Latin Empire under Baldwin II
and restored the Byzantine Empire .
|1261 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||709/710 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1804/05 (southern Buddhism); 1803/04 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||623/624 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||659/660 (turn of the year 25/26 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5021/22 (August 26-27)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1571/72 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1572/73 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1317/18 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Recapture of Constantinople
In the summer, Emperor Michael VIII of Nikaia sends General Alexios Melissenos Strategopulos, appointed Caesar , to Thrace to monitor the borders with Bulgaria and Epirus there; Furthermore, he should check the strength of the defenses of Constantinople and cause unrest in the area around the city. Since no major battles are expected, General Alexios' army consists of only about 800 horsemen and a few infantry. In the Thracian settlement of Selymbria near Constantinople, Alexios learns from the local farmers that the majority of the Latin army is on the way with the Venetian fleet to raid the city of Daphnusia , which controls the entry from the Black Sea into the Bosporus . Alexios Strategopulos decides, without consulting his emperor, to take the chance and take the almost undefended city by surprise with his few soldiers.
- July 25: Byzantine troops led by Alexios Melissenos Strategopulos recapture Constantinople in a coup d'état , which was conquered by Christian European crusaders in 1204 in the 4th Crusade . They eliminate the Latin Empire and restore the Byzantine Empire. The Latin Emperor Baldwin II flees. However, the expected massacre as revenge for 1204 does not materialize.
- August 15: After the reconquest of Constantinople, Michael VIII moves back into the capital of the Byzantine Empire and is crowned a second time. The previous empire Nikaia is now part of the Byzantine Empire.
Crusader states, maritime republics
- March 13th: The Nymphaion Agreement, a trade and alliance treaty between the Republic of Genoa and the Byzantines , is signed. On the basis of the Nymphaion Agreement, the Republic of Genoa establishes branches on the Black Sea in Trebizond , Amastri , Vicina in the Danube Delta , Kilia , Kaffa , Cetatea Albă , Tana at the mouth of the Don and Phocea in the Aegean Sea.
- September 27: Plaisance of Antioch , regent of Cyprus for her son Hugo II and regent of Jerusalem , dies. Her nephew Hugo von Antioch takes over the reign of Cyprus . In the succession in the reign of Jerusalem a conflict breaks out within their relatives, which is why the Bailli Geoffroy de Sergines takes over this office first.
- The Genoese admiral Simon Grillo captures a Venetian convoy in the war of Saint-Sabas off Tire . In return, Venice attacks the city of Tire , but without success.
- January 15: Baibars I defeats Sangar al-Halabi , the self-proclaimed ruler of Damascus , after his envoys asked him to surrender unconditionally.
- Spring: A troop revolt against Baibars is put down.
- Aqqush al-Burli conquered Aleppo from the Mongols and appointed himself governor of Baibar, which, however, was not recognized by him. In June Aqqush proclaimed the Abbasid al-Hākim I as caliph of Aleppo. In response, Baibars appointed al-Mustansir II , another Abbasid, caliph.
- October 2: Baibars moves into Damascus, stabilizing his power in the Mamluk Empire .
- November 27: Baibar's caliph al-Mustansir II, who tried to move to Baghdad, falls under Huegu on the Euphrates in the fight against the Mongols .
- End of the year: Baibars conquers Aleppo. Aqqush al-Burli submits to him and is accepted back into the Mamluks officer corps.
- After the army of the Teutonic Order was completely destroyed in the Battle of the Durbe last year, the Prussians rise up against the hated occupiers.
Bohemia / Hungary
- March 31: Ottokar II. Přemysl of Bohemia and Béla IV. Of Hungary and his son Stephan V conclude the Treaty of Vienna . Béla, who was defeated in the battle of Kressenbrunn last year, recognized Ottokar as Duke of Styria .
- Ottokar II. Přemysl separates from his wife Margarete von Babenberg due to her age and the associated childlessness . At the end of October he married the sixteen-year-old Kunigunde von Halitsch , granddaughter Bélas of Hungary, at Pozsony Castle , thereby confirming the agreements made in the Peace of Vienna.
Other events in the Holy Roman Empire
- April 20: After Counts Johann I and Gerhard I ruled the County of Holstein together for 23 years, after the death of their father Adolf IV , who retired to the monastery in 1239, they were transferred to the Counties of Holstein- Kiel and Holstein-Itzehoe divided. Johann ruled in Kiel, Gerhard in Itzehoe. It is the first in a series of partitions between the Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein .
- February 28: Heinrich III. , Duke of Brabant , dies. While still on his deathbed, he signed a charter that granted his subjects greater freedom. His successor is his ten-year-old son Heinrich IV under the tutelage of his mother Adelheid of Burgundy. Their rule is challenged by their brother-in-law Heinrich I of Hesse and a cousin, Heinrich von Löwen , the Lord of Gaesbeek .
- Henry III. of England , due to disagreements, can re-establish its position vis-à-vis the barons with the help of a papal bull against the Provisions of Oxford .
- The Norwegian King Haakon IV wins Greenland without a fight.
- Magnus Lagabætir is crowned King of Norway alongside his father Håkon IV. Håkonson .
- NOVEMBER 27: Al-Haakim I will after the death of Al-Mustansir II. , The second Caliph of the Abbasid , who resides in Cairo.
- In the power struggle between Kublai Khan and his brother Arigkbugha Khan over the khaganate in the Mongol Empire , the Khan of the Chagatai Algui changes sides because of a conflict over tribute payments and subsequently supports Kublai. A campaign by Arigkbugha against Algui remains unsuccessful.
- Since the planned return of the Polos to Constantinople has become impossible because of its reconquest, they go from their office in Soldaia in the Crimea in the empire of the Golden Horde along the Volga and the Caspian Sea east to Bukhara in the Chagatai Khanate , where they are because of inner Mongolian Stuck fighting for three years.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- December 16: Wroclaw , the capital of the Silesian Duchy of Wroclaw , is granted Magdeburg city charter.
- Ottokar II. Přemysl , as the new sovereign of Styria, relocated Leoben to the north and gave it town charter .
- Aefligen , Bätterkinden , Bönigen , Brügg , Büetigen , Bühl , Duvenstedt , Ennetbaden , Hindelbank , Jügesheim , Kernenried , Morschach , Mühledorf , Münchringen , Niederlenz , Rekingen , Riedtwil , Schafisheim , Schnottwil , Veltheim and Zuzwil are mentioned in documents for the first time.
- The Aeschenschwibbogen in Basel is first mentioned in a document as the Eschmertor .
- November 22nd: The Grand Council of the Republic of Venice creates a new department for the Venetian professional associations , which is called Giustizia Nuova to distinguish it from the previous one . The previous court, the Giustizia Vecchia , is responsible for large-scale business, while the Giustizia Nuova takes care of the concerns of small businesses and local suppliers.
- In Old Town which is mint Koenigsberg founded.
science and technology
- At the General Chapter of the Dominicans in Barcelona, the Provincial of Teutonia is commissioned to set up two or more courses for the Studium artium in suitable convents .
- 1261/1262: Northampton University is founded.
Culture and society
In a Church Slavic insert in the Byzantine Chronicle of John Malalas , the Baltic god of thunder Perkūnas and Saulė (the sun) are mentioned, which was said to have been forged by the blacksmith Teliavelis and hurled into the sky.
- Hildebrand von Möhren succeeds Engelhard von Dolling , who died on May 4th, as Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt .
- Pope Alexander IV has to flee to Viterbo before King Manfred, who has been banished from him, moves to Italy , where he dies on May 25th. His successor is Jacques Pantaleon from only eight cardinals comprehensive College of Cardinals on August 29, elected Pope . It takes the name Urban IV and is consecrated on September 2nd. He continues the anti-Hohenstaufen policies of his predecessor. During his pontificate he resides in Orvieto and Viterbo and never enters Rome .
- October 2: Engelbert II von Falkenburg succeeds the deceased Konrad von Hochstaden as Archbishop of Cologne .
- Bertho II von Leibolz succeeds Heinrich IV von Erthal as abbot of the Fulda monastery . Like his predecessor, he vigorously fights the robber barons in the area.
- Smil von Zbraslav and Střílky , Burgrave of Brumov , founds the Smilheim Monastery .
- Thomas Aquinas is Magister sacri palatii at the papal court in Viterbo or Orvieto .
Date of birth saved
- February 11: Otto III. , Duke of (Lower) Bavaria and King of Hungary († 1312)
- February 28: Margrete Aleksandersdotter , Queen of Norway († 1283)
- March 1: Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester , English magnate, diplomat and military man († 1326)
- October 9: Dionysius , King of Portugal († 1325)
Exact date of birth unknown
- 2nd half of the year: Konstantin Palaiologos Porphyrogennetos , Byzantine prince and general († 1306)
- Bohemond IV , Count of Tripoli and titular prince of Antioch († 1287)
- William de Braose, 2nd Baron Braose , 10th Baron von Bramber and Gower, English nobleman († 1326)
- Daniel of Moscow , Prince of Moscow († 1303)
- Albertino Mussato , early Italian humanist, poet and historian († 1329)
Born around 1261
- 1261/1262: Bernard Gui , southern French Dominican and inquisitor († 1331)
- Elisabeth of Sicily , Queen of Hungary († between 1290 and 1304)
Date of death secured
- February 19: Boniface of Lausanne , Catholic saint and Bishop of Lausanne (* 1181/82)
- February 28: Henry III, the benevolent , Duke of Brabant (* around 1231)
- May 4th: Engelhard von Dolling , Bishop of Eichstätt
- May 25: Rainald Count von Segni, under the name Alexander IV Pope (* around 1199)
- June 10: Mathilde von Brandenburg , Duchess of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (* around 1210)
- July 8th: Adolf IV. , Noble Lord von Schauenburg and Count of Holstein and Stormarn (* 1205)
- August 24: Ela of Salisbury , English noblewoman and abbess (* around 1190)
- September 27: Plaisance of Antioch , Queen and Regent of Cyprus and Regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (* 1235/1236)
- September 28: Konrad von Hochstaden , Archbishop of Cologne (* around 1205)
- October 19: Raugraf Heinrich I , south-west German nobleman
- November 2nd: Bettisia Gozzadini , Bolognese lawyer who taught at the University of Bologna (* 1209)
- November 9th: Sancha of Provence , French noblewoman and Roman-German queen (* 1225)
- November 26th: Hōjō Shigetoki , Japanese nobleman (* 1198)
- November 27: Al-Mustansir II , first caliph from the Abbasid dynasty in Cairo
Exact date of death unknown
- Knut Håkonsson , last anti-king in the Norwegian civil war (* around 1208)
- Godragpa Sönam Gyeltshen , master of Tibetan Buddhism and founder of a monastery (* 1182)
- Isaak Dukas Batatzes , Byzantine aristocrat in the Nikaia Empire (* before 1192)
- Nikephorus II , Patriarch of Constantinople
- Qin Jiushao , Chinese civil servant, military, writer, inventor and mathematician (* 1202)
- Siegebod Schack , Canon of Lübeck and Canon of Schwerin
- Stephan von Bourbon , French Dominican Inquisitor (* around 1190)
- Wedekind I. , Bishop of Minden
Died around 1261
- October 7, 1260 or November 8, 1261: Albrecht I , Duke of Saxony (* around 1175)