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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Gold Hyperpyron Michael VIII.
Michael VIII recaptured Constantinople ,
eliminated the Latin Empire under Baldwin II
and restored the Byzantine Empire .
1261 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 709/710 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1253/54
Buddhist calendar 1804/05 (southern Buddhism); 1803/04 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 65th (66th) cycle

Year of the metal rooster辛酉 ( at the beginning of the year metal monkey 庚申)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 623/624 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 639/640
Islamic calendar 659/660 (turn of the year 25/26 November)
Jewish calendar 5021/22 (August 26-27)
Coptic calendar 977/978
Malayalam calendar 436/437
Seleucid era Babylon: 1571/72 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1572/73 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1299
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1317/18 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Recapture of Constantinople

In the summer, Emperor Michael VIII of Nikaia sends General Alexios Melissenos Strategopulos, appointed Caesar , to Thrace to monitor the borders with Bulgaria and Epirus there; Furthermore, he should check the strength of the defenses of Constantinople and cause unrest in the area around the city. Since no major battles are expected, General Alexios' army consists of only about 800 horsemen and a few infantry. In the Thracian settlement of Selymbria near Constantinople, Alexios learns from the local farmers that the majority of the Latin army is on the way with the Venetian fleet to raid the city of Daphnusia , which controls the entry from the Black Sea into the Bosporus . Alexios Strategopulos decides, without consulting his emperor, to take the chance and take the almost undefended city by surprise with his few soldiers.

  • July 25: Byzantine troops led by Alexios Melissenos Strategopulos recapture Constantinople in a coup d'état , which was conquered by Christian European crusaders in 1204 in the 4th Crusade . They eliminate the Latin Empire and restore the Byzantine Empire. The Latin Emperor Baldwin II flees. However, the expected massacre as revenge for 1204 does not materialize.
  • August 15: After the reconquest of Constantinople, Michael VIII moves back into the capital of the Byzantine Empire and is crowned a second time. The previous empire Nikaia is now part of the Byzantine Empire.

Crusader states, maritime republics

Mamluk Empire

  • January 15: Baibars I defeats Sangar al-Halabi , the self-proclaimed ruler of Damascus , after his envoys asked him to surrender unconditionally.
  • Spring: A troop revolt against Baibars is put down.
  • Aqqush al-Burli conquered Aleppo from the Mongols and appointed himself governor of Baibar, which, however, was not recognized by him. In June Aqqush proclaimed the Abbasid al-Hākim I as caliph of Aleppo. In response, Baibars appointed al-Mustansir II , another Abbasid, caliph.
  • October 2: Baibars moves into Damascus, stabilizing his power in the Mamluk Empire .
  • November 27: Baibar's caliph al-Mustansir II, who tried to move to Baghdad, falls under Huegu on the Euphrates in the fight against the Mongols .
  • End of the year: Baibars conquers Aleppo. Aqqush al-Burli submits to him and is accepted back into the Mamluks officer corps.

German medal

Bohemia / Hungary

Map with Ottokar II's sphere of influence around 1261
  • Ottokar II. Přemysl separates from his wife Margarete von Babenberg due to her age and the associated childlessness . At the end of October he married the sixteen-year-old Kunigunde von Halitsch , granddaughter Bélas of Hungary, at Pozsony Castle , thereby confirming the agreements made in the Peace of Vienna.

Other events in the Holy Roman Empire


Armoiries Brabant.svg
  • February 28: Heinrich III. , Duke of Brabant , dies. While still on his deathbed, he signed a charter that granted his subjects greater freedom. His successor is his ten-year-old son Heinrich IV under the tutelage of his mother Adelheid of Burgundy. Their rule is challenged by their brother-in-law Heinrich I of Hesse and a cousin, Heinrich von Löwen , the Lord of Gaesbeek .





City rights and first documentary mentions


science and technology

Culture and society

In a Church Slavic insert in the Byzantine Chronicle of John Malalas , the Baltic god of thunder Perkūnas and Saulė (the sun) are mentioned, which was said to have been forged by the blacksmith Teliavelis and hurled into the sky.


Coat of arms of Urban IV.


Date of birth saved

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1261


Date of death secured

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1261

  • October 7, 1260 or November 8, 1261: Albrecht I , Duke of Saxony (* around 1175)

Web links

Commons : 1261  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files