Battle of the Durbe , the Teutonic Order suffered
a complete defeat
against Lithuanian troops.
the Mongols in the
battle of ʿAin Jālūt .
battle of Kressenbrunn , Ottokar II Přemysl defeated
the Hungarians decisively under King Bela IV .
|1260 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||708/709 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1803/04 (southern Buddhism); 1802/03 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||622/623 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||658/659 (turn of the year December 5th / 6th)|
|Jewish calendar||5020/21 (September 6-7)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1570/71 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1571/72 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1316/17 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- July 13th : Lithuanian Wars of the Teutonic Order : In the Battle of the Durbe , the Teutonic Order suffered a complete defeat against Lithuanian troops under the Landmeister of Livonia Burkhard von Hornhausen and Order Marshal Heinrich Botel . This is the signal for the beginning of the second and last uprising of the Prussians , which will drag on until 1274 .
- around 1260: The Deutschordensballlei on the Adige and in the mountains is founded, its seat is in Bolzano .
Bohemia / Hungary
- Spring: The Hungarian King Bela IV allies with Daniel Romanowitsch , Prince of Halitsch , and Boleslav V , the Grand Duke of Cracow and Senior Duke of Poland , in order to put a stop to the expansion efforts of the Bohemian King Ottokar II Přemysl .
- July: In the battle of Kressenbrunn , Ottokar II. Přemysl of Bohemia decisively defeats the Hungarians under King Bela IV. And Prince Stephan . On July 12th, Béla offers peace negotiations .
- September 4th : With the support of the Ghibellines and the cities of Siena and Pisa near Montaperti, Manfred of Sicily wins a victory against the Guelfi troops from Florence . The Ghibellines then abolished the democratic constitution of Florence, which had existed since 1250 .
- The previous co-regent Mastino I della Scala will succeed Ezzelino da Romano, who died the previous year, as Lord of Verona . With him begins the 127-year rule of the Scaliger over this city.
Other events in the Holy Roman Empire
- July 6th : Hückeswagen falls to the Counts of Berg .
- July 28th : The battle at Sedemünder between the army of Minden Bishop Wedekind and a Hamelin citizen army ends with a devastating defeat for the latter. The reason for the dispute, which is known as the Minden feud , is a purchase agreement concluded in the previous year, with which the Abbot of Fulda transferred the sovereign rights over the city and monastery of Hameln to the Bishop of Minden for 500 silver marks . As a result, the citizens of Hamelin see the city's independence threatened and use military means to oppose it. After the battle, the Brunswick-Lüneburg dukes Albrecht I and Johann I reached a settlement in autumn that enabled Hamelin to break away from the supremacy of the Minden bishop. He ceded half of his rights to the two dukes.
- November 7th : After the death of Elector Albrecht I of Saxony, the land of the Ascanians is administered jointly by his sons Johann I and Albrecht II . Johann takes over the state half of Saxony-Lauenburg , Albrecht Saxony-Wittenberg . The land will be finally divided among their sons.
- Peter II of Savoy invades the county of Valais . The defeated Bishop of Sitten , Heinrich I von Raron , had to cede all lands west of the Morges river to him.
- Erich I becomes Duke of Schleswig .
- Bremen joins the Hanseatic League for the first time .
The journeys of the polos
Marco Polo's father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo , a jeweler from Venice , set off on a trip to sell gems in Sarai on the lower reaches of the Volga . Anticipating the political changes and the end of the Latin Empire founded by Venice, they sell their properties in Constantinople and go to Sudak in the Crimea, a de facto Venetian colony since 1204 , where Marco the Elder, the third of the Polo brothers, runs an office .
- April 7th : After two years of siege, the Mongols conquer the city of Maiyafariqin in Mesopotamia and thus destroy the Islamic empire of Jazira . Their last ruler, Al-Kamil Muhammad, of the Ayyubid family , is captured and cruelly executed.
- May 5 : Kublai Khan , who in a coup d'état and contrary to tradition, proclaimed himself Great Khan of the Mongols last year , is elected ruler of the Mongol Empire by an assembly he convened in China, but this election is supported by numerous voters Provinces not recognized. These provinces are on the side of his brother Arigkbugha Khan .
- Mongols conquer and plunder Aleppo and large parts of northern Syria, while Damascus can be temporarily held by the Mamluks . The Egyptian sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz then concludes an armistice with the crusader states in Palestine . He also forms an alliance against the Mongols with the Sultan of Damascus, an-Nasir Yusuf . After the Mongols conquered Damascus, Qutuz took the lead of the united Mamluk army and went to meet them in Syria.
- July: The Mongol and Mamluk troops, each about 20,000 strong, face each other in army camps in Palestine.
- September 3 : The Mamluks under Sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz and his general Baibars defeat the Mongols in the battle of Ain Jalut . As a result of the battle, the Mamluks drive the Mongols out of Syria again. Five days after the battle, Qutuz entered Damascus . After conquering Homs and Hama , he reinstates their former Ayyubid emirs there. Within a month he also conquered Aleppo .
- October 24th : Sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz is murdered by his general while hunting, Baibars I is elevated to the rank of Sultan of the Mamluks.
- November 12th : The Mamluk officer Sangar al-Halabi declares himself ruler of Damascus . Since he kept the name of the baybar on the coins struck in Damascus next to his own, he probably intends to continue recognizing the formal sovereignty of the Sultan of Egypt, only that as Lord of Damascus he claims primacy over all other princes of Syria. The Ayyubid emirs as well as most of the commanders of the Mamluk units stationed in Syria, however, reject Sangar's rule and immediately recognize Baibars as their direct overlords.
- December: The Mongols invade Syria again. They are beaten at Homs, but occupy Aleppo.
City foundations and first documentary mentions
- Ottokar II. Přemysl built Marchegg Castle and founded the town of Marchegg together with Bishop Bruno von Schauenburg .
- First documented mention of Avusy , Blumberg , Fulenbach , Greifensee , Hauenstein , Kapfenhardt , Kappel , Lindschied , Schlechtsart , Seeth and Sulz
science and technology
- 1260 to 1267 : The Florentine scholar Brunetto Latini wrote the Encyclopedia Trésor , which gives an overview of the scope of the scholarly education of his time.
- Niccolò Pisano signs the pulpit of the Baptistery in Pisa (robe figures designed for the first time in Italy in the Gothic sense).
- around 1260: The knights combine shield and helmet to form a uniform coat of arms .
- around 1260: End of the Sicilian school of poets .
- January 5th : Albertus Magnus becomes Bishop of Regensburg . He succeeds Albert I. von Pietengau , who abdicated last autumn.
- March 27th : Walter von Geroldseck is after the death of Heinrich III. von Stahleck elected Bishop of Strasbourg .
- after April 27: Ruprecht von Querfurt becomes Archbishop of Magdeburg after the death of Rudolf von Dingelstädt .
- August: Heinrich II. Von Finstingen becomes Archbishop and Elector of Trier as the successor to Arnold II. Von Isenburg, who died the previous year .
- October 9th : Otto I von Braunschweig-Lüneburg is elected as a minor as the successor of the deceased Johann I von Brakel as Bishop of Hildesheim .
Christian philosophy and literature
- According to the chiliastic ideas of Joachim von Fiore , the "Age of the Son" ends with this year and the millennial "Age of the Spirit" begins. In anticipation of this turning point, there are Geissler trains through Italy to (southern) Germany.
- Gerhard von Frachet finishes the first version of the Vitae Fratrum , an edifying, anecdotal and miraculous collection about the beginnings of the Dominican order and the first superiors Dominikus and Jordan von Sachsen .
- The Franciscan Roger Bacon comes into conflict with the instruction of his Minister General Bonaventure , according to which the consent of the superiors of the order must be obtained before a publication is published.
- around 1260: Thomas Aquinas writes the Summa contra gentiles .
- from 1260: The Dominican Hugo Ripelin of Strasbourg designed the Compendium theologicae veritatis , an outline of theology intended for both theological practice and study.
- At the General Chapter of the Franciscans in Narbonne, a split in the order can be avoided, as more extreme forms of poverty are permitted by adapting the order's rules. Nevertheless, the poverty struggle will continue to divide the order in the following 70 years (see Spirituals ).
- Gerardo Segarelli , a merchant from Parma , lets his hair grow, goes barefoot and dresses in a white tunic to imitate the habitus of the early Christians. He begins to roam the city as a penitential preacher, simply dressed as an apostle . He sells his belongings and distributes the proceeds among the poor in the city. In the years to come, others joined him and he gathered around him a community of around 30 people who called themselves “ Brothers in the Apostles ” and who, following on from the original ideals of Francis of Assisi, turned against the secularization of the Church. In doing so, she draws the displeasure of the church, which is increasingly hostile to mendicant orders .
- The Sießen monastery is founded when the knight Steinmar von Sießen-Strahlegg donates his court in “Süessen” to the Dominican convent and the patronage rights of the local church.
- October 3 : Translation of St. Clare of Assisi
- October 24th : The finished high Gothic cathedral of Chartres is consecrated .
Exact date of birth unknown
- Agnes of France , French princess and duchess of Burgundy († 1325 or 1327 )
- Bertrand de Saint-Geniès , Patriarch of Aquileia († 1350 )
- Gaddo Gaddi , Florentine painter († 1332 )
- Guillaume Pierre Godin , French Dominican, cardinal bishop of the suburbicarian diocese of Sabina († 1336 )
- Władysław I. Ellenlang , Senior Duke and King of Poland († 1333 )
Born around 1260
- 1250 /1260: Margareta Porete , French-speaking theological writer and Begine († 1310 )
- 1251/1260 : Henry III. , Duke of Glogau, Steinau, Sprottau and Sagan († 1309 )
- 1255 /1260: Ulrich I , Lord of Hanau († 1305 / 1306 )
- 1255/1260 : Gottfried von Waldeck , Bishop of Minden († 1324 )
- 1259/1260 : Andronikos II , Emperor of the Byzantine Empire († 1332 )
- Aaron ben Joseph , Jewish doctor, scholar and Karaite in Constantinople (died around 1320 )
- Jechiel ben Jekutiel Anaw , rabbinical author in Rome (d. 1289 )
- Cecco Angiolieri , Italian poet († around 1312 )
- Hugo von Chalon , Bishop of Liège and Archbishop of Besançon († 1312 )
- Pietro Colonna , Italian cardinal, archpriest of the Basilica Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome († 1326 )
- John Comyn, 7th Earl of Buchan , Scottish nobleman († 1308 )
- Matthäus Csák , Hungarian nobleman and oligarch († 1321 )
- Demetre II , King of Georgia († 1289 )
- Dietrich IV. , Margrave of Lusatia, Margrave in Osterland and Landgrave of Thuringia († 1307 )
- Eckhart von Hochheim , German Dominican, theologian and philosopher († 1328 )
- Vital du Four , French theologian, philosopher and alchemist, Bishop of Albano († 1327 )
- Johann I , Count of Saarbrücken († 1342 )
- Christian Kuchimeister , Swiss chronicler († after 1335)
- Enguerrand de Marigny , chamberlain to the French king Philip IV († 1315 )
- Henri de Mondeville , French physician and anatomist, personal physician to Philip the Fair († after 1325)
- Guillaume de Nogaret , keeper of the seals and advisor to the French King Philip IV († 1313 )
- Maximos Planudes , Byzantine grammarian and theologian († 1330 )
- Ludwig von Ravensberg , Bishop of Osnabrück († 1308 )
- Marino Sanudo the Elder , Venetian statesman and geographer († 1338 )
- Ulrich IV. , Count of Pfannberg († after 1318)
- Zhu Shijie , Chinese mathematician († around 1320 )
Date of death secured
- January 8 : Albero V. von Kuenring-Dürnstein , Austrian ministerial nobleman (* around 1115 )
- January 9 : Philippe Berruyer , Bishop of Orléans, Archbishop of Bourges
- February 24th : Irmengard near Rhine , Margravine of Baden (* around 1200 )
- March 1 : Richard de Fournival , French cleric, scholar, surgeon, astronomer, alchemist, librarian, poet and musician (* 1201 )
- March 4th : Heinrich III. von Stahleck , Bishop of Strasbourg (* before 1238)
- April 7th : Al-Kamil Muhammad , ruler of Maiyafariqin.
- April 29 : Rudolf von Dingelstädt , Archbishop of Magdeburg (* before 1235)
- May 5th : Jutta von Sangerhausen , German nobleman, benefactress and hermit (* around 1200 )
- July 13 : Burkhard von Hornhausen , Landmeister of Livonia of the Teutonic Order (* before 1252)
- August 20 : Jaromar II , Prince of Rügen (* around 1218 )
- October 24th : Jacob of Lorraine , Bishop of Metz
- October 24th : Saif ad-Din Qutuz , Sultan of the Mamluks in Egypt
- December 4th : Aymer de Lusignan , Bishop of Winchester (* around 1228 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Spring: Maria von Brabant , Roman-German Empress, wife of Otto IV. (* 1190 )
- Spring: Fachr ad-Din Turan Shah , Ayyubid prince (* approx. 1180)
- Autumn: Al-Malik an-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf , Ayyubid Sultan of Syria
- Alfons of Aragón , Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Aragón (* 1228 )
- Dietrich IV./VI. , Count of Kleve (* around 1185 )
- William de Forz, Count of Aumale , English magnate (* 1216 )
- Karl von Friesach ; Bishop of Lavant
- Jean III Clément , Lord of Le Mez and Argentan, Marshal of France
- Johann I von Brakel , Bishop of Hildesheim (* around 1200 )
- Sadok , Polish Dominican
- Stephen Longespée , English knight, Seneschal of Gascony and Justiciar of Ireland (* 1216 )
- Thomas von Celano , Italian Franciscan and chronicler (* around 1190 )
- Wilhelm I. von Holte , Bishop of Munster
- William de Brailes , English illuminator (* before 1230)
Died around 1260
- October 7, 1260 or November 8, 1261 : Albrecht I , Duke of Saxony (* around 1175 )
- 1260/ 1263 : Accursius , Italian jurist and Glossator (* 1182 / 1185 )