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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Map of Livonia around 1260 with the location of the Battle of the Durbe
In the Battle of the Durbe , the Teutonic Order suffered
a complete defeat
against Lithuanian troops.
Ain Jalut: Troop movements of the warring parties
The Mamluks defeat
the Mongols in the
battle of ʿAin Jālūt .
Battle of Kressenbrunn
In the battle of Kressenbrunn , Ottokar II Přemysl defeated
the Hungarians decisively under King Bela IV .
1260 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 708/709 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1252/53
Buddhist calendar 1803/04 (southern Buddhism); 1802/03 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 65th (66th) cycle

Year of the metal monkey庚申 ( at the beginning of the year Earth-Sheep 己未)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 622/623 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 638/639
Islamic calendar 658/659 (turn of the year December 5th / 6th)
Jewish calendar 5020/21 (September 6-7)
Coptic calendar 976/977
Malayalam calendar 435/436
Seleucid era Babylon: 1570/71 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1571/72 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1298
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1316/17 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

German medal

Bohemia / Hungary


Depiction of the battle of Montaperti (14th century)

Other events in the Holy Roman Empire

The journeys of the polos

Niccolò and Maffeo Polo leave Constantinople

Marco Polo's father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo , a jeweler from Venice , set off on a trip to sell gems in Sarai on the lower reaches of the Volga . Anticipating the political changes and the end of the Latin Empire founded by Venice, they sell their properties in Constantinople and go to Sudak in the Crimea, a de facto Venetian colony since 1204 , where Marco the Elder, the third of the Polo brothers, runs an office .


Kublai Khan
Bust of Saif ad-Din Qutuz in Cairo
  • Mongols conquer and plunder Aleppo and large parts of northern Syria, while Damascus can be temporarily held by the Mamluks . The Egyptian sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz then concludes an armistice with the crusader states in Palestine . He also forms an alliance against the Mongols with the Sultan of Damascus, an-Nasir Yusuf . After the Mongols conquered Damascus, Qutuz took the lead of the united Mamluk army and went to meet them in Syria.
  • July: The Mongol and Mamluk troops, each about 20,000 strong, face each other in army camps in Palestine.
  • September 3 : The Mamluks under Sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz and his general Baibars defeat the Mongols in the battle of Ain Jalut . As a result of the battle, the Mamluks drive the Mongols out of Syria again. Five days after the battle, Qutuz entered Damascus . After conquering Homs and Hama , he reinstates their former Ayyubid emirs there. Within a month he also conquered Aleppo .
  • October 24th : Sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz is murdered by his general while hunting, Baibars I is elevated to the rank of Sultan of the Mamluks.
  • November 12th : The Mamluk officer Sangar al-Halabi declares himself ruler of Damascus . Since he kept the name of the baybar on the coins struck in Damascus next to his own, he probably intends to continue recognizing the formal sovereignty of the Sultan of Egypt, only that as Lord of Damascus he claims primacy over all other princes of Syria. The Ayyubid emirs as well as most of the commanders of the Mamluk units stationed in Syria, however, reject Sangar's rule and immediately recognize Baibars as their direct overlords.
  • December: The Mongols invade Syria again. They are beaten at Homs, but occupy Aleppo.


City foundations and first documentary mentions

science and technology


  • July 16 : Nichiren calls for reform of the Buddhist schools in Japan in his Risshō Ankokuron .
Niccolò Pisano (statue in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence)


Church hierarchy

Seal of Albertus Magnus as Bishop of Regensburg
Otto I., Bishop of Hildesheim

Christian philosophy and literature

  • According to the chiliastic ideas of Joachim von Fiore , the "Age of the Son" ends with this year and the millennial "Age of the Spirit" begins. In anticipation of this turning point, there are Geissler trains through Italy to (southern) Germany.
  • Gerhard von Frachet finishes the first version of the Vitae Fratrum , an edifying, anecdotal and miraculous collection about the beginnings of the Dominican order and the first superiors Dominikus and Jordan von Sachsen .
  • The Franciscan Roger Bacon comes into conflict with the instruction of his Minister General Bonaventure , according to which the consent of the superiors of the order must be obtained before a publication is published.

Christian orders

  • At the General Chapter of the Franciscans in Narbonne, a split in the order can be avoided, as more extreme forms of poverty are permitted by adapting the order's rules. Nevertheless, the poverty struggle will continue to divide the order in the following 70 years (see Spirituals ).
  • Gerardo Segarelli , a merchant from Parma , lets his hair grow, goes barefoot and dresses in a white tunic to imitate the habitus of the early Christians. He begins to roam the city as a penitential preacher, simply dressed as an apostle . He sells his belongings and distributes the proceeds among the poor in the city. In the years to come, others joined him and he gathered around him a community of around 30 people who called themselves “ Brothers in the Apostles ” and who, following on from the original ideals of Francis of Assisi, turned against the secularization of the Church. In doing so, she draws the displeasure of the church, which is increasingly hostile to mendicant orders .
  • The Sießen monastery is founded when the knight Steinmar von Sießen-Strahlegg donates his court in “Süessen” to the Dominican convent and the patronage rights of the local church.



Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1260


Date of death secured

The funeral procession for Louis of France

Exact date of death unknown

Burial place of Mary of Brabant
Initial with a self-portrait and the signature W. de Brailes

Died around 1260

Web links

Commons : 1260  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files