Calendar overview 1270
|French King Louis IX. dies during the siege of Tunis on the seventh crusade .||
Philip III. is crowned the new King of France .
Michael VIII , the Byzantine Empire reached
its greatest expansion after the Restoration in 1261 .
|1270 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||718/719 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1813/14 (southern Buddhism); 1812/13 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||632/633 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||668/669 (turn of the year 19/20 August)|
|Jewish calendar||5030/31 (September 17/18)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1580/81 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1581/82 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1326/27 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- July 2nd : Six weeks before the planned date, the French King Louis IX stabs with his fleet at sea without waiting any longer for the English Prince Edward Plantagenet . As with his first crusade, he kept the official announcement of the crusade's goal a secret until the very end in order to deprive the Muslim opponent of the opportunity to plan an adequate defense and to have the advantage of the element of surprise on his side. What is unusual this time, however, is the very early time for revelation as well as the place of the goal. Because instead of against Egypt or Syria, i.e. the Mamluk territory, the attack on the Sultanate of Tunis in North Africa is to take place.
- July 17th : Louis IX. ends up with the Seventh Crusade at Carthage , which he quickly takes with a coup d'état by Admiral Florent de Varennes . Muhammad I. al-Mustansir , caliph of the Hafsids in Ifrīqiya , then holed up in Tunis . Before there is a major battle, the crusader army is attacked by the bacterial turmoil. Ludwig's son Johann von Damiette dies on August 3rd .
- August 25 : Louis IX. dies on the Ruhr during the siege of Tunis , the new factual leader is Karl von Anjou , who starts negotiations with Muhammad I. al-Mustansir. Ludwig's son Philip III. the bold, who is also in front of Tunis with his wife Isabella of Aragón , thereupon becomes king of France .
- August: Edward Plantagenet and his army of crusaders set off from England. It first crosses France and sets off from Aigues-Mortes on the French Mediterranean coast to Tunis.
- October 30th : Due to spreading diseases, the siege of Tunis is terminated by a peace agreement with Philip III. ended with the sultan. Muhammad agrees to pay a heavy tribute to the Crusaders and to allow Christian priests access to Tunis. In return, the crusaders break off the crusade and leave for Sicily.
- November 10th : The English Crown Prince Edward arrives at Tunis. The crusade of Prince Edward , who does not agree to the peace that has been concluded, splits off from the Seventh Crusade and embarks only one day later for Acre , the last crusader bastion in Palestine. The French, on the other hand, start their return journey home.
- December 4th : Ludwig's son-in-law Theobald II of Navarre dies on his way back to Europe. Since he leaves no descendants, his brother Heinrich I follows him to the throne.
Holy Roman Empire
- Bremen receives 'Hamburger Recht' (first documented mention of a town charter in this city).
- The Fulda abbot Berthon II. Of Leibolz allows for continuous robberies the Castle Ebersburg , the Osterburg and destroy two more castles. The knight Hermann von Ebersberg, known as von Weyhers , is taken prisoner. Bertho II had him publicly executed by Gerlach kitchen master despite the promise of safe conduct on the Fulda market square. Because of this deed, the knights, above all Giso von Steinau , swear fatal revenge on the abbot.
- around 1270: Today's Kleinwalsertal is settled over the Hochalp Pass by five families who have emigrated from Upper Valais (Switzerland).
Other events in Europe
- May 3 : After the death of his father Béla IV , Stephan V becomes King of Hungary from the House of Árpáden , and as Stephan IV King of Croatia , Dalmatia and Rama .
- The war of Saint-Sabas between the Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Venice ends under pressure from France.
- The Hôtel d'Artois is being built for Robert II of Artois in Paris directly on the outside of the city wall.
- August 10 : Yekuno Amlak overthrows the last ruler of the Zagwe dynasty - possibly Yetbarak - and establishes the Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia .
- After the death of his father David VII , the underage Dimitri II becomes King of Georgia . His uncle Sadun Mankaberdeli took over the reign until 1278 . Despite the suzerainty of the Mongols , the country is experiencing a political and economic boom.
First documentary mentions
- First documented mention of Beurnevésin , Birr , Chêne-Bougeries , Chêne-Bourg , Gisikon , Hütten , Korb , Mellenthin , Muntelier , Rebstein , Rechenberg , Schletzenhausen , Schuttertal , Subingen and Templin .
- In the Carinthian town of Hirt, a tavern is mentioned for the first time in the tax lists of the cathedral chapter Gurk, the basis for the later private brewery Hirt .
science and technology
- Brunetto Latini donates the Academy of Arts in Florence .
- around 1270: The Franciscan Roger Bacon gives the position of the focal point for concave mirrors . The writings Communia naturalium and Communia mathematica are created .
- around 1270: The theoretical treatise Perspectiva by the Silesian naturalist Witelo deals with v. a. with refraction, reflection and geometric optics . He contradicts the prevailing opinion that eyes emit rays.
- around 1270: In Italy , cut rock crystals and beryls are used as visual aids for the first time ; The manufacture of glasses against farsightedness begins .
Religion and culture
- Papal election 1268–1271 : Even in the second year of the Sedis vacancy after Pope Clement IV, who died in 1268 , the College of Cardinals , which has been locked in the Papal Palace of Viterbo since the end of the previous year , cannot agree on a successor. On June 8th, the cardinals wrote to both magistrates asking that Henricus de Segusio , Cardinal Bishop of Ostia , be dismissed from the “Palatio discooperto” because of his poor health, and that he would renounce his right to vote. On July 9, István Báncsa , Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina , dies as the second cardinal during the papal election.
- October: Thomas Aquinas defends himself with the text Contra doctrinam retrahentium a religione against personal and polemical attacks on the part of Nikolaus von Lisieux , a pupil of Wilhelm von Saint Amour and friend of Gerhard von Abbeville (see 1269 ).
- Averroism : ( Paris ) Thomas Aquinas publishes De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas . On December 10, Bishop Tempier , who was also responsible for teaching , condemned 13 theses ( Paris condemnations ), including averroistic teachings such as B. the theories of the eternity of the world , the uniqueness of the intellect and the universal determination of world events as well as that the individual soul is not immortal, but a temporary partial phenomenon of total reason monopsychism (see web links).
- Start of construction of the three-aisled and hall-like pillar basilica of the Predigerkirche in Erfurt ( Dominican )
Date of birth saved
- March 12 : Charles I , titular emperor of Constantinople and regent of France, ancestor of the Valois family († 1325 )
- June 30 : Jehuda ben Ascher , Talmudist and rabbi († 1349 )
- July 15 : Rudolf III. , Count of Habsburg-Laufenburg († 1314 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Abner von Burgos , Spanish doctor and philosopher († 1347 )
- Håkon V , King of Norway († 1319 )
- Theodoros Metochites , Byzantine diplomat, high government official, theologian, philosopher, historian, astronomer, poet and patron of the arts († 1332 )
- Rudolf II , Duke of Austria and Styria, Swabia, Alsace and Aargau († 1290 )
- Guglielmo da Varignana , physician and philosopher († 1339 )
- Wilhelm I , Duke of Braunschweig († 1292 )
Born around 1270
- Andrew Harclay , English military man and rebel († 1323 )
- Cino there Pistoia , Italy lawyer and writer († 1336 / 37 )
- Henry III. , Count of Nassau-Siegen († 1343 )
- Heinrich von Leipa , royal chamberlain and marshal of the Bohemian king († 1329 )
- Llywelyn from Owain , Welsh Lord of Deheubarth († around 1308)
- Ralph de Monthermer , English knight († 1325 )
- William Wallace , Scottish freedom fighter and national hero († 1305 )
- 1270/ 75 : Nicholas of Lyra , St. Francis and Bible commentator († 1349 )
Date of death secured
- January 18 : Margaret of Hungary , Hungarian princess, Dominican and saint of the Catholic Church (* 1242 )
- March 17th : Philip of Montfort , Lord of Tire (* around 1206 )
- April 27 : Wladislaw of Silesia , Bishop of Bamberg and Passau, Archbishop of Salzburg and Administrator of Breslau (* 1237 )
- May 3 : Béla IV. , King of Hungary, King of Croatia, Dalmatia and Rama (* 1206 )
- 3rd / 4th July : Roger Bigod , English nobleman and courtier (* around 1212 )
- July 8th : Heilewigis , abbess of Freckenhorst Abbey (* before 1240)
- July 9 : István Báncsa , Archbishop of Esztergom
- 14 July : Boniface of Savoy , Archbishop of Canterbury (* 1206 / 1207 )
- July 17th : Marguerite de Courtenay , Margravine of Namur (* around 1194 )
- August 3 : Johann von Damiette , Count of Nevers, Count of Valois and Crépy, participant of the 7th Crusade (* 1250 )
- August 6th : David I of Strathbogie , Scottish nobleman and crusader
- August 8 : Margaretha von Staufen , Countess in Thuringia and Countess Palatine of Saxony (* 1237 )
- August 10 : Alan de la Zouche , English military man and nobleman (* 1203 )
- August 10 : Raoul de Grosparmy , Roman Catholic Bishop and Cardinal
- August 23 : Gauthier III. de Nemours , Marshal of France and participant in the 7th Crusade
- August 25 : Alfons of Brienne , Count of Eu (* around 1227 )
- September 24th : Philip II of Montfort , Count of Squillace and participant in the 7th Crusade (* around 1225 )
- October 3 : Adolf I , Count of Waldeck and Schwalenberg
- November 2 : Wichmann von Arnstein , German Dominican, mystic and monastery founder (* around 1185 )
- December 4th : Theobald II , King of Navarre (* 1238 )
Exact date of death unknown
- July 16 or 24 : Maria Laskaris of Nicaea , Queen of Hungary (* 1206 )
- after July 18: Héric de Beaujeu , Marshal of France and crusader
- after July 18: Florent de Varennes , Admiral of France and crusader
- after July 18: Mathieu III. de Montmorency , Lord of Montmorency and Crusader
- after July 18: Raoul of Soissons , lord of Coeuvres and Crusaders (* around 1210 / 1215 )
- after July 18: Renaud de Précigny , Marshal of France and Crusader
- after August 25: Hugo XII. of Lusignan , Count of La Marche and Angoulême and Crusaders (* around 1235 / 1240 )
- Bartolomeo di Breganze , Bishop of Vicenza, founder of the order of the Frati Gaudenti and papal legate (* around 1200 )
- Étienne Boileau , royal bailiff of Paris (* around 1200 )
- David VII , King of Georgia (* 1215 )
- Guru Chökyi Wangchug , Tertön or treasure discoverer of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism (* 1212 )
- Ibn Abī Usaibiʿa , Arab doctor and biographer in the Ayyubid Empire (* after 1194)
- Maredudd ap Gruffudd , Welsh Lord of Gwent
- Margarete Skulesdatter , Queen of Norway (* around 1210 )
- Nachmanides , Jewish scholar, rabbi, doctor, philosopher and poet in Catalonia and Jerusalem (* 1194 )
Died around 1270
- Mécia Lópes de Haro , Leonese nobleman and Queen of Portugal (* around 1215 )
- Robert de Ros, Lord of Wark , English nobleman