The Kleinwalsertal from the peak of Widderstein seen from
|location||Vorarlberg , Austria|
The Kleinwalsertal (also: Kleines Walsertal | Walser German only Walsertal ) is located in the Allgäu Alps and belongs to the Austrian state of Vorarlberg . The high valley is located in the municipality of Mittelberg and is part of the Bregenz district . Due to its geographical location with its alpine structure, the Kleinwalsertal has no direct traffic connection to the rest of the Vorarlberg region. The valley can only be reached by road from the neighboring municipality of Oberstdorf in Bavaria . For the Federal Republic of Germany, it is a so-called functional enclave (see also Jungholz ).
The name of the valley comes from the Walsers who moved here from Valais in the 13th century (see also Großwalsertal ). Even if the only road connection leads via Oberstdorf, the Kleinwalsertal does not belong to the Allgäu .
Location and mountain landscape
The Kleinwalsertal is a high notch valley in the east of Vorarlberg. It is surrounded by the north-west and south-east Walsertal mountains, which border the Allgäu and Lechtal Alps in the east and south-east , the Tannberg in the south and the Bregenzerwald in the west . The Alpine foothills open to the north. The Breitach runs through the entire valley and is fed by some side streams that come from the side valleys of the Kleinwalsertal.
The Kleinwalsertal is almost completely enclosed by high mountains. The Kleinwalsertal is cut off from the rest of Austria's territory. Its highest point is the Great Widderstein ( ). There is only a traffic connection to Oberstdorf ( enclave ) on the Bavarian side . A number of special features resulted from this special geographical position, see history and economy .
Four geological units meet in the Kleinwalsertal. The Helvetikum with the karst Schrattenkalk ( Ifen , Gottesackerplateau ), the Rhenodanubische or Vorarlberger flysh ( Walmendingerhorn , Heuberg, Güntlispitze , Fellhornbahn ) and the steep rocks of the Eastern Alps ( Northern Limestone ) from Hauptdolomit (Walser fellows: Widdersteinblick, Penalty, Schafalpköpfe , Kanzelwandbahn ). The Arosa zone forms a narrow, patchy belt between flysch and the Eastern Alps. It contains the greatest variety of rocks and stretches from the Üntschenjoch, along the Bärenkopf, across the Gemstel - and Wildental to under the Kanzelwand. But Lias rocks on the Elfer and rocks of the Ultrahelvetikum-Mélange, in the Mittelalp area can also be found in the Kleinwalsertal.
The European main watershed between the Rhine / North Sea and the Danube / Black Sea runs over the Gottesacker plateau and the Hohen Ifen to the Gerachsattel and on to the Hochalppass at Widderstein.
The Kleinwalsertal includes the community Mittelberg and the three places Mittelberg with Baad , Hirschegg and Riezlern . The official name of this entire municipality is Mittelberg after the first settled place. 5075 inhabitants live in an area of 96.82 square kilometers, which results in a population density of almost 52 inhabitants per square kilometer (as of January 1, 2020).
The Kleinwalsertal, also Breitachtal, after the Breitach , has the following side valleys and streams:
|Side valley||Seitenbach||Length of the stream in km||Locality|
|Turatal (Walser German: Duura)||Turabach||3.1||Baad in Mittelberg|
|Derratal (Walser German: Dellera)||Derrabach||2.7||Baad in Mittelberg|
|Bärgunttal (Walser German: Bergont)||Bärguntbach||1.5||Baad in Mittelberg|
|Lüchletobel||Lüchlebach||-||Baad in Mittelberg|
|Gemsteltal (Walser German: Gänschel)||Gemstelbach||-||Mittelberg|
|Schwarzwassertal (Walser German: Schwarzwasser)||Schwarzwasserbach||6.2||Hirschegg|
|(Walser German: Schmittatobel)||Schmiedebach||2.3||Riezlern|
|Gattertal (Walser German: Gattertobel)||Gatterbach||Riezlern|
|(Walser German: Buachtobel)||Buchenbach||Riezlern|
The Kleinwalsertal was in 1270 by the Walser settled, an ethnic group from the German Upper Valais in Switzerland zuwanderte. This Alemannic origin still linguistically distinguishes the residents from the residents of the surrounding communities. Their dialect is assigned to the highest Alemannic, while in the Allgäu a Lower Alemannic dialect and in the rest of Vorarlberg a high Alemannic dialect ( Vorarlbergerisch ) is spoken.
Stone Age finds
The Kleinwalsertal was already inhabited in the Stone Age. This is evidenced by excavations on the Gottesacker led by Detlef Willand , during which, among other things, scrapers , arrowheads and fireplaces from the Neolithic age came to light. Parts of these finds can be viewed in the Bergschau in the Walserhaus event center in Hirschegg.
Radiolarite mining sites were also discovered on the Widderstein and the Bärenkopf after extensive prospecting work by the geoarchaeologist Alexander Binsteiner . Presumably the valuable rock was removed in these Stone Age mines with deer antler hoes or fist-sized hammers. The extent to which the stones were traded far beyond the borders of the Kleinwalsertal is still being investigated.
- 1059: The oldest written mention of the Kleinwalsertal area is dated February 5, 1059. With this document, King Heinrich IV gave Bishop Heinrich II of Augsburg an area that bordered today's Kleinwalsertal. This document also mentions the largest stream that flows through the valley for the first time with its name, which has remained almost the same to this day, “praitahe” ( Breitach ) and the highest mountain in the valley with “widerostein” ( Widderstein ).
- 1270–1300: The first documented residents of the Kleinwalsertal came from Upper Valais around 1270 . Political and economic reasons prompted them to leave their homeland. Five Valais families under the leadership of Hans Wüstner came over the Hochalp Pass into the as yet uninhabited Breitach Valley. At the time of the immigration of the first Walser, the valley belonged to the Baron von Rettenberg (Röthenberg). The Walsers were allowed to clear and settle in the area previously only used for hunting. They only had to give the baron one loaf of cheese per family and year. The first officially mentioned names of the Kleinwalsertal are the Breitachtal , Mittelberg and the Tal zu den Wüstner . Initially, the settlement Mittelberg with other settlements, such formed Lech , train , Warth and Krumbach , the colony Tannberg .
- 1350/ 51 : After the death of the last male heir of Rettenberg the valley came into the possession of Adelheit of Waldenburg which the Breitach valley in 1351 to the brothers of Heimenhofen sold.
- 1451–1453: The Walsers captured Count Ulrich von Werdenberg-Sargans and Hans von Rechberg , who came to Tannberg because of an unknown dispute, and mistreated them. However, Duke Sigmund's request for the two of them to be released was rejected. Ulrich von Werdenberg was later released, but Hans von Rechberg remained imprisoned. Thereupon Duke Sigmund freed Hans von Rechberg by force of arms and conquered the entire Tannberg colony. The Tannbergers lost all their rights, as a surrender document dated March 11, 1453 shows. The Tannberger and Mittelberger were now under the Habsburg Duke Sigmund and therefore belonged to Austria from that day on. The Tannberger and Mittelberger were assigned to the court of Bregenz. This event, which was very important for Mittelberg's history, also led to the first documented mention of the existence of the Walsers in the Kleinwalsertal.
- 1460: The previous owner of the Breitach Valley, Jörg von Heimenhofen in Fischen, agreed to a settlement on October 28, 1460 after long negotiations. In it he renounced Tannberg and Mittelberg with all his rights and went into the service of the duke. For this he received 1,000 Rhenish guilders in cash as compensation .
- 1500: The Walser regained the patronage rights previously exercised by the Roman-German King and Archduke Maximilian . With this, the Walsers regained all the rights they had lost in 1453.
- 1563: Under Emperor Ferdinand I (1521–1564; grandson of Maximilian I and brother of Charles V ), the Walsers received their own court on April 1, 1563. The Mittelbergers were no longer subject to the Tannberg court .
- 1806: As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation became extinct , and as a result of the Peace of Bratislava , Vorarlberg , including Mittelberg, was added to the Kingdom of Bavaria . From this point on, Mittelberg suffered from an enormous tax burden.
- 1810: The Mittelberg court was abolished. The new seat of the court was the Bezau district court in the Bregenzerwald.
- 1814: On July 7, 1814, Vorarlberg was reintegrated into the Habsburg Empire of Austria . In the valley, this change of state was celebrated with a mountain fire and burning barrels, which were rolled from the mountains to the general cheering of the population.
- The consolidation of the Kingdom of Bavaria and the Austro-Hungarian monarchy as well as the establishment of customs barriers made the economic life of the Walsers very difficult. Because of the lack of road connections to the rest of Austria, the exchange of goods was made almost impossible. The main business, with agricultural products such as cattle, cheese and butter, had by then been exported to Bavaria and customs cleared there. From 1878, Bavaria tightened its previous customs restrictions and prohibited Walser farmers from selling cattle in the neighboring Allgäu , although this had been the norm for centuries. The farmers were now forced to drive their cattle over mountains and passes to the Vorarlberg markets. Since driving the cattle back was too time-consuming and uneconomical, the farmers sold their animals at current prices, which could also be very unfavorable. For almost the entire 19th century, the Walser citizens fought for a special economic zone , and in 1891 they achieved this goal. The community of Mittelberg received the long-awaited status of a customs exclusion area . This enabled the free movement of goods with Germany for agricultural products and other important goods. From then on, the valley began to recover economically.
- 1894: Founding of the savings and loan association Mittelberg
- 1918/19: After the First World War and the dissolution of the multi-ethnic empire Austria-Hungary, the inhabitants of the valley also became citizens of the new Republic of Austria (1918/19: German Austria ).
- 1930: Oberstdorf –Mittelberg bus line went into operation.
- 1933: An exception regulation, which freed the Kleine Walsertal from the thousand-mark block of the German Reich , led to growing tourism.
- 1938: With the annexation of Austria , the Vorarlbergers and with them the Walsertal residents also became Reich Germans . In contrast to the rest of the federal state of Vorarlberg, which became part of the Reichsgau Tirol-Vorarlberg , the Kleinwalsertal was connected to the Gau Schwaben: From October 15, 1938 to 8/9. On May 1st and September 19th, 1945, the community of Mittelberg belonged to the Bavarian district of Sonthofen .
- 1940: The Parsenn tow lift in Riezlern is the first ski lift in the valley to go into operation.
- From autumn 1943, prominent prisoners of the Nazi regime , including Yves Bouthillier , Francesco Saverio Nitti , André François-Poncet , Irene of Greece , Andrij Melnyk , and Luigi Rizzo , came to the glamorous Ifen Hotel, which was built in 1936 by the Hanoverian architect Hans Kirchhoff and Carmine Senise interned.
- 1945: On May 1st, 1945 soldiers of the 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division crossed the border and marched into Kleinwalsertal, the rest of Vorarlberg was occupied by the 4th Moroccan Infantry Division. After the Second World War , which led to the surrender of the Wehrmacht and the re-establishment of the Republic of Austria, the Vorarlbergers and the citizens of the Kleiner Walsertal again became Austrian citizens.
- 1950: Completion of the Heuberg chairlift in Hirschegg.
- 1955: The Kanzelwandbahn is the first mountain railway to go into operation.
- 1966: The Walmendingerhornbahn in Mittelberg goes into operation.
- 1972: The Ifen-2000 ski area is completed and the Kleinwalsertal Casino is opened.
Today the valley is Austria's third largest tourist destination. The most important branch of the economy for centuries was agriculture, which is currently only of marginal importance. In 1960 the number of overnight stays reached one million for the first time. In the 2001/02 tourism year there were a total of 1,678,180 overnight stays with a capacity of 12,000 beds.
Hiking and excursion tourism - especially from families with small children and senior citizens - is very pronounced. The selection of easy walking trails and moderately difficult hiking trails is correspondingly wide and well signposted. With the Walserbus , which runs at a tight pace and is available free of charge to tourists paying the visitor's tax as holders of the Walsercard , mobility in the valley without a car is guaranteed.
The good transport connections to the north also contributed to the strong development of tourism. It only takes about two and a half hours for the Stuttgart – Kleinwalsertal route .
In 2003 there were 243 businesses with 1573 employees and 144 apprentices at the site; Employees subject to wage tax were 2518 people.
The tourism is the most important economic factor in the valley, where the summer tourism is now about the same as the pronounced in winter.
In the 2016/17 season, the Kleinwalsertal achieved almost 1.7 million overnight stays (10,003 guest beds, 337,838 guests). The number of overnight stays in the winter of 2017/18 was 841,356 compared to 900,404 in the summer of 2017.
In summer, guests mostly come for hiking and mountain hiking . The hiking trails extend over three altitudes between 1,086 and 2,536 m. The network of trails consists of 185 km of natural, marked hiking trails. They are flanked by 40 huts, alpine pastures and mountain restaurants. The Kleinwalsertal is also the starting or destination point of the " Great Walser Trail " from Zermatt to the Kleinwalsertal or vice versa.
There are also popular via ferratas in the region - the Mindelheim via ferrata (B – C) leads over the Schafalpköpfe in Wildental. In 2007, the Kleinwalsertal mountain school built the challenging 2-country sport via ferrata (C – D) and the Walsersteig, the adventure trail for beginners (B) on the Kanzelwand . The conditions for sport climbing on the Hohen Ifen and on the Bärenköpfle are among the best in the Alps. However, for hunting reasons it is severely restricted or completely prohibited. These restrictions were criticized by mountaineering associations as inappropriate and not technically well-founded, particularly in view of the extensive development in the vicinity. The magazine Alpin wrote that "[...] such a restricted area fits in well with the overall concept of the Kleinwalsertal: tough and loud tourism with great economic benefits there and a quiet zone here where nothing can be obtained". On the other hand, the hunting supervisors emphasize the need for a quiet zone for game in the valley, which is used by tourists all year round.
The great importance of tourism is also reflected in the winter sports infrastructure. Embedded in the ski mountains Kanzelwand / Fellhorn , Ifen, Walmendingerhorn and Heuberg, the Kleinwalsertal ski area stretches across the entire valley with 103 kilometers of slopes - only interrupted by the Breitachbrücke (3 minutes' walk or bus) and the Schwarzwassertal (bus shuttle from the Parsenn mountain station to the Ifen valley station) . The tow lifts close to the valley are particularly suitable for beginners - there are also beginner's cards for the entire area in addition to the ski card . Neighboring ski areas are the Söllereck halfway to Oberstdorf (1 gondola and 4 drag lifts, 14 kilometers of slopes) and the Nebelhorn in Oberstdorf (3 gondolas, 2 chair lifts and 2 drag lifts, 13 kilometers of slopes). Overall, the cross-border Kleinwalsertal-Oberstdorf ski area offers over 130 km of slopes in all degrees of difficulty on 48 lifts (7 gondolas, 9 chair lifts and 15 drag lifts).
In 1940 the first lift in the Kleinwalsertal, the Parsenn drag lift, was built - soon afterwards, in 1945, the Heuberglift as a single chair lift. The first mountain railway in the valley, the Kanzelwandbahn , was completed in Riezlern in 1955 and renewed in 1989. The Walmendingerhornbahn was built in 1966. The Ifenbahn in the Schwarzwassertal near the Gottesacker was opened in 1972 and completely renovated in 2016/2017 with 10-seater cabins and a 6-seater chairlift. A fun park and a boarder park are also offered.
Cross-country skiing is possible on the Schwendeloipe with 12 km, the Küren-Wäldele-Egg-Loipe with 14 km and the Steinbockloipe with 14.6 km (plus 10 km Skating-Loipe) at an altitude of 1044 andpossible.
Over 50 km of winter hiking trails complete the offer. The Ifen, Parsenn, Walmendingerhorn and Kanzelwand cable cars as well as the Heuberg and Zaferna chairlifts also transport pedestrians to the summit stations or high-altitude trails.
Since 1891 the Kleinwalsertal has been a customs exclusion area and thus a German economic area (the treaty was re-established between the Republic of Austria and the Federal Republic of Germany after World War I and 1945). This made it possible for the Walser population to trade duty-free with the neighboring Bavarian regions and made the exchange of goods much easier, because duty-free trade was no longer only necessary on foot over mountains and passes. After Austria joined the European Union in 1995, the special status of the Kleinwalsertal lost its significance, as Austria and Germany now belong to the same economic area.
Before joining the EU, goods from Austria had to be cleared through customs in Germany or import sales tax had to be paid, while German goods could be obtained duty-free. Until the introduction of the euro, taxes had to be paid to the Austrian tax office in D-Marks. There was also a special rate at the post office. Shipments to Austria were charged according to the domestic tariffs of the Austrian Post, those to Germany had to be paid for with the domestic postage of the Federal German Post. All post offices have two stamps, one with an Austrian postcode and a second with the German one. The German postcodes (87567 Riezlern , 87568 Hirschegg , 87569 Mittelberg ) were supposed to be abolished on December 31, 2006, but were retained after protests (the Austrian ones are 6991, 6992 and 6993, respectively). The German telephone code 08329, on the other hand, was closed on July 1, 2003, only the Austrian code 05517 (from Germany: 0043 5517) is valid.
Even today, the police are not allowed to bring German nationals arrested in Austria to Vorarlberg via Germany. You will be flown out with the police helicopter Libelle of the Ministry of the Interior (BMI). However, other nationalities can be transported in the conventional way by patrol car overland via Germany.
A delivery to Kleinwalsertal from Germany or from the European Union without Austria (regardless of whether German or Austrian postcodes are used) is always an intra-Community delivery of goods, so it is exempt from sales tax if an entrepreneur delivers to an entrepreneur. A valid UID number is sufficient as confirmation .
As in Jungholz, the applicable rate for full sales tax is 19% (rest of Austria 20%) and is based on the rate applicable in Germany. At the only remaining petrol station in Kleinwalsertal, Germany still levies the mineral oil tax on fuel. In the Kleinwalsertal you can not enjoy the generally lower Austrian gasoline prices.
Due to the strict Austrian banking secrecy , the Kleinwalsertal was for a long time a tax haven . In the area with 2500 inhabitants there are several large banks such as Hypo Kleinwalsertal, a subsidiary of Hypo Vorarlberg Bank , Dornbirner Sparkasse, Walser Privatbank or a casino owned by Casinos Austria . Even the German Sparkasse Allgäu had a branch here until 2016, which was investigated by the public prosecutor's office in Münster and Augsburg from 2017. Estimates assume six billion euros in German black money that was hidden in the Kleinwalsertal.
Transport and infrastructure
The Kleinwalsertal has had its own rescue station since December 1995, which moved to a new station in the spring of 2011 from the Hirschegg district to Riezlern. The Walser Rescue has an approximately occupied around the clock and a standby RTW RTW , a fast oil supply to ensure the roughly hour ambulance in service should be. The rescue service is operated by the Bavarian Red Cross , Oberallgäu district association. The basis for this responsibility is a cooperation agreement concluded with the Austrian Red Cross .
There are four general practitioners in Kleinwalsertal who also act as emergency doctors. In addition, an emergency doctor from neighboring Oberstdorf is always alerted. The general practitioners from Kleinwalsertal take over the emergency medical care with the Walser ambulance until the emergency doctor arrives from Oberstdorf, who then accompanies the journey if the patient is admitted to a hospital. Each place has its own volunteer fire brigade , all of which belong to the Vorarlberg State Fire Brigade Association. The Kleinwalsertal regional office of the Austrian Mountain Rescue Service is divided into the two local offices Mittelberg-Hirschegg and Riezlern. Does a helicopter have to be requested, e.g. B. to rescue a seriously injured person, the rescue helicopter Christophorus 8 from Nenzing , the Gallus 1 from the company Wucher from Zürs or the police helicopter Libelle of the Austrian flight police are alerted by the Hohenems flight operations center.
In Hirschegg there is also the Kleinwalsertal Police Inspectorate, an office of the Austrian Federal Police , which is subordinate to the Vorarlberg State Police Directorate. All rescue organizations and emergency doctors are alerted via the Vorarlberg rescue and fire brigade control center in Feldkirch .
After there was no gas station in the valley for a short time, the community of Mittelberg bought a gas station that is supposed to supply citizens and tourists with fuel. In addition to this new filling station, Energieversorgung Kleinwalsertal (EVK) has opened an electricity filling station for electric cars in Riezlern next to the Stern area.
The Kleinwalsertal can only be reached via a public road, the Kleinwalsertalstraße (B201) , from the German - Bavarian Oberstdorf , which ends in Baad (Kleinwalsertal). The Walserstraße has no connection to the rest of the Austrian road network, so that the Kleinwalsertal is a functional enclave .
In the Kleinwalsertal, there is a local transport system, the Walserbus, which offers a total of five bus routes at frequent intervals for tourists, which can even be used free of charge on Austrian territory. The main line is line 1, which along Walserstrasse connects Baad, which is at the back of the valley, with Oberstdorf train station . All other lines complement Line 1 at the Riezlern Post (Lines 2, 3, 5) and Mittelberg (Line 4) junctions .
The power supply for the Kleinwalsertal is provided by a two-circuit 110 kV overhead line that runs from the Rubi substation in Germany to the Riezlern substation in Austria.
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- . RGBl. 1891, No. 11 (41.42) (original German / Hungarian text on Wikisource).
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- Archived copy ( Memento of the original from January 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Tourism Winter 2008/2009. (PDF; 435 kB) Office of the Vorarlberg State Government, State Office for Statistics, June 2010, accessed on February 11, 2014 .
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- Federal Network Agency Lot Size Directory ONB: Special determinations in the local networks - notification of the shutdown of the German area codes on July 1, 2003 ( memento of April 11, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), bundesnetzagentur.de
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- The black legacies in Kleinwalsertal come to light
- Banks in Kleinwalsertal: There are fewer and fewer
- Walserbus on kleinwalsertal.com ( Memento of the original from June 29, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- History of the EVK
- Viehscheid in the Kleinwalsertal
- Presentation ( Memento of the original from December 25, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. at vorarlberger-walservereinigung.at