- 1291 : Foundation of the Swiss Confederation ( Rütli oath , Federal Letter ) by the cantons of Obwalden , Nidwalden , Uri and Schwyz
- 1291: Acre , the last crusader bastion, falls. End of the crusades .
- 1299 : Osman I. founds the Ottoman Empire .
- Simon II de Bucy , first President of the French Parliament
- Erling Vidkunnsson , Norwegian imperial administrator and governor