Canton of Obwalden

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Canton of Obwalden
coat of arms
coat of arms
Canton of the Swiss Confederation
Abbreviation / license plate : OW
Official language : German
Main town : Sarnen
Accession to the federal government : 1291
Area : 490.58  km²
Height range : 431–3238 m above sea level M.
Residents: 37,841 (December 31, 2018)
Population density : 77 inhabitants per km²
Proportion of foreigners :
(residents without citizenship )
14.5% (December 31, 2015)
Unemployment rate : 1.1% (December 31, 2015)
Location of the canton in Switzerland
Location of the canton in Switzerland
Map of the canton
Map of the canton
Municipalities of the canton
Municipalities of the canton

Coordinates: 46 ° 51 '  N , 8 ° 14'  E ; CH1903:  660,356  /  one hundred eighty-nine thousand and sixty-six

Obwalden ( abbreviation OW , Swiss German Obwaldä , French Obwald , Italian Obvaldo , Rhaeto-Romanic Sursilvania ? / I ) is a German-speaking canton in central Switzerland . Together with the canton of Nidwalden , he formed Unterwalden , one of the three original cantons of the Swiss Confederation from 1291 , from which the older name Unterwalden ob dem Wald comes from. The main town is Sarnen . Audio file / audio sample


Obwalden is located in the Sarneraatal and borders on Lake Lucerne in the north . The southern end is the Brünig Pass , over which you can reach the Bernese Oberland . In addition to the Alpnachersee , which is a tributary of Lake Lucerne, the canton has five other larger lakes: Sarnersee , Lungerersee , Melchsee , Tannensee and Wichelsee and several small lakes, see list of lakes in the canton of Obwalden . The highest point in the canton is the Titlis at 3,238  m above sea level. M. , which belongs to the Uri Alps . Most of the canton, however, belong to the Unterwaldner Pre-Alps , part of the Central Switzerland Pre-Alps . The lowest point is 434  m above sea level. M. on Lake Lucerne.

Besides Nidwalden, Obwalden is the only inland canton in Switzerland that is completely surrounded by inland cantons. The neighboring cantons of Obwalden are Bern , Lucerne , Nidwalden and Uri . The Obwalden community Engelberg is separated from the main part of the canton by Nidwalden and is therefore an exclave .

Center of Switzerland

Obwalden is in the heart of Switzerland. The Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo) has the center of Switzerland in the coordinate six hundred sixty thousand one hundred fifty-eight  /  183640 determined. This point is at the Älggi-Alp , which is located above the Kleiner Melchtal on the Sachsler municipality.


As of December 31, 2018, the population of the canton of Obwalden was 37,841. The population density of 77 inhabitants per square kilometer is below the Swiss average (207 inhabitants per square kilometer). The proportion of foreigners (registered residents without Swiss citizenship ) was 14.5 percent on December 31, 2015, while 24.6 percent were registered nationwide. As of December 31, 2015, the unemployment rate was 1.1 percent compared to 3.7 percent at the federal level.

Population development of Obwalden since 1799 Source: Population censuses (1850–2000 Federal), Federal Statistical Office (since 2010)


Official language

Obwalden lies entirely in the German-speaking part of Switzerland . The official language is German . In 2013, 92.5 percent of the population stated German as their main language. Information on French , Italian , Romansh and other languages ​​is not available.

Obwalden German

The vernacular of the Obwalden people is the dialect Obwaldnertyytsch (Obwalden German). It belongs to the group of the highest Alemannic dialects.

Features and special features

Typical of the Obwalden dialect is the diphthongization from mhd. Long û to ui ( Middle High German  hûs - obw. Huis - nhd. «House»; also: Muis - «mouse», Puir - «farmer»). In addition, the vowels are also rounded off : scheen for “beautiful”, fairies for “foehn”, fyyr for “fire”.

In the old part of the canton (i.e. Obwalden without Engelberg) a distinction is made between two sound areas. The Upper Sarner Valley with Lungern , Giswil , the Schwendi (Sarnen), Sachseln , Wilen and the Lower Sarner Valley with Sarnen , Alpnach , Kerns . Here are a few examples of the sound:

Standard German lower Sarner valley upper Sarner valley
automobile Aito Oito
tree Baim Boim
You Dui Dui
woman Fraiw Froiw
shirt Hämmli Hemmli (also in Kerns)
House Huis Huis
watch luägä liogä
beautiful scheen scheen

In addition to these pronunciation features, there are various special features in Obwalden's vocabulary, such as Bock for "hangover", chlimsä for "pinch", Chropfletä for "mumps", Fazäneetli, Fazäneezli for "handkerchief", Kalatzä for "breakfast", Tschidel, Tschidälä for "skull" or Zuckerschtäi for "candy", which are sometimes used in other dialects of central Switzerland.

A compilation of Obwalden words (including Lungerer and Engelberger idiosyncrasies) can be found in the Obwalden dialect dictionary from 2000, compiled by the former pastor Karl Imfeld .

Change since the middle of the 20th century

The area of ​​the Obwalden dialect, which is almost completely bordered by mountains, coincides with the old part of the canton of Obwalden. Until the Second World War (1939-1945) the dialect retained its peculiarities. For those in the know, there were still peculiarities that allowed the speaker to be assigned to a specific municipality. After 1950, the Sarner ä, ai and sounds expanded more and more to the villages in the neighboring areas ( äng, Frai, Buäb instead of eng, Froi, Biob ). Construction activity since the 1960s increased the supply of apartments, immigrants from outside the city increased sharply and continued unabated.

At the turn of the millennium , around half of the population spoke the unmistakable Obwalden dialect. Another part is more or less colored by a general Swiss German . Around a third of the population is unlikely to have any relation to the local dialect. The influence of the Lucerne dialect is particularly noticeable in the lower part of the canton.

Lunger dialect

Within the old part of the canton, the Lungerer dialect between Kaiserstuhl and the Brünigpass has peculiarities in the sound and in the conjugation of the verbs and often also peculiarities in the word meaning. So in Lungerer dialect is its own form to be found of the verb in the first person plural present tense ( miär HAEi "we", but häind syy "they"), whereas the rest of Sarner Valley the unit plural knows (miär, iär, syy händ ) . Older speakers in Lungern also use their own form of the perfect by adding the ending -es to the participle , e.g. B. miär häi ggässes next to miär häi ggässä . A typical speech melody can still be observed in Lungern, especially with older speakers .

Typical Lungerer sounds: Frouw for "woman" or frewwä for "happy".

Engelberg dialect

The high valley of Engelberg only became part of the canton of Obwalden in 1815. His local dialect is one of the most melodious in Alemannic . Older Engelbergers speak remarkably slowly and with a pronounced phrase and word melody. The Engelberg dialect is very different in sound from that of the Sarner Valley.

Typical Engelberg sounds: Döi for "you" or Chruiz for "cross".

Religions - denominations

The canton of Obwalden is predominantly Catholic. In 2013, 74.2 percent of the population were Roman Catholic , 7.8 percent Protestant Reformed and 10.7 percent were non-denominational .

The Catholic parishes belong to the Diocese of Chur , the Reformed to the Association of Evangelical Reformed Parishes of the Canton of Obwalden .


In contrast to the old federal constitution , in which Obwalden was listed as a half-canton , Obwalden is listed as an independent canton (full canton) in the federal constitution of April 18, 1999. The principle of legal equality between the cantons applies. However, two limitations exist the principle of equality: the cantons of Basel-Stadt , Basel-Country , Appenzell Inner Rhodes , Appenzell Outer Rhodes , Obwalden and Nidwalden is used in the representation in the Senate as well as in determining the cantonal majority in the mandatory referendum to only half the weight.


The constitution of the canton of Obwalden (until 2007: constitution of the canton of Unterwalden ob dem Wald ) was enacted in 1968 and has been changed several times since then.

Direct democratic people's rights

The enactment and amendment of the constitution as well as legally valid referendums regarding legislative enactments and financial decisions by the Cantonal Council, if the Cantonal Council does not agree to the request, are subject to a referendum .

The other legislative enactments and amendments as well as spending resolutions on one-off expenditures of more than 1,000,000 Swiss francs or annually recurring expenditures of more than 200,000 francs are subject to a referendum if so requested by 100 voters or one third of the members of the cantonal council will ( optional referendum ).

Landsgemeinde 1987

Those entitled to vote can propose a complete or partial revision of the cantonal constitution as well as the enactment, amendment or repeal of a law or a financial resolution if 500 voters support a corresponding proposal (“popular initiative” ).

The right to vote for women was introduced in Obwalden on September 24, 1972. The optional legal referendum was introduced in 1998 when the traditional Landsgemeinde (annual meeting of active citizenship and voting on the laws by a show of hands) was abolished; Until then, all laws were subject to a mandatory referendum.

Legislative - Cantonal Council

The legislative body ( legislature ) is the Obwalden Cantonal Council . It has 55 members, with each parish represented by at least four people. The members of the Cantonal Council are elected for a fixed period of four years by the people in accordance with the proportional representation procedure. Up to and including the 2010–2014 term of office, Sarnen sent 15 members, Kerns 9, Alpnach 8, Sachseln 7, Giswil 6, Engelberg 6 and Lungern 4 to the Cantonal Council. Since the 2014–2018 term of office, Alpnach 9 and Giswil 5 have been sending representatives to the Cantonal Council due to the development of the population. Below is the distribution of seats from 2010, 2014 and after the election on March 4, 2018.

Political party Seats
Distribution of seats in 2018 Share of votes in percent
Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP) 20th 19th 16
8th 8th 16 8th 15th 
A total of 55 seats
Election to the Cantonal Council on March 4, 2018
Turnout: 53.79%
Gains and losses
compared to 2014
 % p
Swiss People's Party (SVP) 11 13 15th
FDP.The Liberals (FDP) 10 10 08th
Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (SP) 06th 06th 08th
Christian Social Party Obwalden (CSP OW) 08th 07th 08th

In 2018 the list of the CVP list Generation Engelberg achieved a seat for the CVP with 1.12% of the vote.

Juso , who started in 2014, did not win a seat.

The CSP OW had observer status at CSP Switzerland from 2005 to 2010. After the 2010 elections, however, the cooperation with CSP Switzerland was ended. The CSP OW has been managed separately since the 2014 elections.

Executive - Government Council

The executive body ( executive ) is the government council of the canton of Obwalden. This consists of five members and is elected by the people for four years in a majority voting process. The President of the Government Council is called Landammann , the Vice-President Landstatthalter . These two offices are reassigned annually by the Cantonal Council.

In the complete re-election on March 4, 2018 and the by-election on April 8, 2018 were instead of not being beaten Councilors Niklaus Bleiker and Franz Enderli new Christian Schäli (CSP OW) and Daniel Wyler selected (SVP). The three previous councilors Josef Hess (independent), Christoph Amstad (CVP) and Maya Büchi-Kaiser (FDP) were confirmed. Christian Schäli has been Landammann and Daniel Wyler Landstatthalter since July 1, 2020.

Members of the government council of the canton of Obwalden
Government Council Official title Political party department
Christian Schäli Landammann CSP OW Education and Culture Department
Daniel Wyler Governor SVP Department of Economic Affairs
Christoph Amstad Government Council CVP Security and Justice Department
Maya Büchi-Kaiser Councilor FDP Finance Department
Josef Hess Government Council independent Building and Spatial Development Department

Nicole Frunz Wallimann has been the land clerk since January 1, 2018. For the list of former members of the government council, see the list of government councilors of the canton of Obwalden .

Judicial branch - case law

In case law ( judiciary ), civil and criminal jurisdiction is exercised in the first cantonal instance by the cantonal court and in the second cantonal instance by the higher court. In most civil law matters, the proceedings before the court are preceded by an attempted conciliation before the cantonal conciliation authority.

Jurisdiction in administrative disputes is exercised by the administrative court.

Administrative division

Obwalden comprises seven political communities .

Obwalden municipalities as of December 31, 2018
Political community Residents
Sarnen 10,368
Kerns 06337
Alpnach 06031
Sachseln 05146
Engelberg 04181
Giswil 03658
Lounging 02120

The canton of Obwalden has no division into districts. However, the Federal Statistical Office (FSO) lists the entire canton as one district under FSO no. : 0600.

Representation at national level

Obwalden sends a representative to the Council of States , see list of Councils of States of the Canton of Obwalden . From 1998 to 2015 this was Hans Hess (FDP), since 2015 Erich Ettlin (CVP) has represented the canton. Due to its population, Obwalden only sends one representative to the National Council , see list of national councils of the canton of Obwalden . From 2011 to 2019 this was Karl Vogler (CSP), since 2019 it has been Monika Rüegger (SVP).


In 2013, the gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant was 63,839 Swiss francs . In 2013, 21,530 employees were counted in the canton of Obwalden, of which 1,780 were in the primary (primary production) , 7,196 in the secondary (industry) and 12,544 in the tertiary sector (services) . 3,662 workplaces were counted in the canton in 2013 (of which 691 in the primary, 558 in the secondary and 2,413 in the tertiary sector). The unemployment rate amounted at 31 December 2015 1.1 percent compared to 3.7 percent at the federal level.

First sector

Agriculture is characterized by family businesses, some of which have also opened up to tourism . Meat production and cheese dairies as well as the timber industry have a long tradition . The central location is only favorable within Switzerland. 32.3 percent of the businesses eligible for direct payments work according to organic guidelines .

Second sector

Some of the larger companies in the canton are internationally active:

  • in Sarnen Sika Sarnafil AG (plastics), Leister Technologies AG (electrical appliances and high-tech medicine) and Nahrin AG (food specialties );
  • in Sachseln, Maxon Motor AG (formerly Interelectric AG ) (Sachseln) with miniature motors , muesli manufacturer Bio-familia AG (founded in 1954 by the Hipp family ) and Elfo AG (electroforming);
  • the Enz Technik AG in Giswil (channel) and the Wiko AG in Kerns (printed circuit boards).

Third sector

The Obwalden Cantonal Hospital in Sarnen with 440 employees ensures the extended basic medical care of Obwalden. Important regional banks are the Obwaldner Kantonalbank and the Raiffeisenbank Obwalden .

Obwalden is well developed for tourism . In addition to the Engelberg-Titlis , Melchsee-Frutt , Brunni and Mörlialp ski areas , the Pilatusbahn and Lungern-Turren-Bahn mountain railways are other tourist destinations. There are numerous hotels, guest rooms, holiday apartments and group accommodation as well as three campsites on Lake Sarnen and one each on Lake Alpnach and one on Lake Lunger. There is a wide range of leisure activities, which in addition to winter sports and typical mountain sports also include paragliding, canyoning and various water sports.

Tax policy

In 2005, 86 percent of those who voted in Obwalden adopted an amendment to the tax law, according to which income over 300,000 francs and assets over five million francs should be subject to degressive taxation in order to attract wealthy taxpayers. This caused heated discussions across Switzerland about tax competition and tax justice . In 2007 the Federal Supreme Court declared the degressive tax rates unconstitutional because they contradicted the principle of taxation based on economic efficiency. The Cantonal Council then introduced a " Flat Rate Tax " in 2008 , which was approved in the referendum on December 16, 2007 with an approval of 91 percent. In 2017 the inheritance tax was abolished.


The compulsory education in Obwalden is ten years, starting with the entry into the obligatory kindergarten year at the age of about six years. The subsequent primary school usually lasts six years (first to sixth grade). This is followed by the transition to the three-year upper level ( secondary level I ), which in Obwalden is run as an integrative orientation school (IOS) or as a cooperative orientation school (KOS), depending on the municipality, or to the grammar school. The canton school Obwalden is a long-term high school, entry usually takes place after the sixth grade of primary school, the schooling period is six years. In addition, entry into the third grade is possible, which corresponds to a short-term high school. The training ends with the Matura . In Engelberg, the Engelberg Abbey School offers a long-term and a short-term grammar school , which leads to a bilingual Matura in German / English.

The vocational and advanced training center BWZ Obwalden offers bridging courses , basic vocational training , vocational school and advanced training. In addition, several private schools and special schools, such as exist Sportmittelschule Engelberg, the Higher College Medical in Sarnen and the nursing school Zigg (central Swiss syndicate health professionals) in Alpnach. The Rütimattli Foundation operates facilities in Sachseln and Sarnen for children, young people and adults who are impaired in their development, mentally, multiply or mentally disabled.

The canton of Obwalden does not have a university , but it is involved in the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences together with the other five central Swiss cantons as part of the University of Applied Sciences Concordat . This offers graduates of the vocational school a variety of courses.

For public education provide in addition to the courses of the SEZ Obwalden also offers the leisure center Obwalden and various clubs and associations such as the IG Age Obwalden, the Pro Senectute Obwalden, several local family get-togethers, the Landfrauenverband Obwalden and several training houses. There is also a community library in every community and the Obwalden canton library in the main town of Sarnen .


Loan for CHF 1000 from the canton of Unterwalden ob dem Wald dated March 2, 1910

Until the arrival of the Alemanni around the year 700, Obwalden was inhabited by Celts and Romans. From the Landfriedensbündnis 1291 to around 1330 it regulated important matters together with Nidwalden on common rural communities , but was politically independent. In the 14th century, Obwalden established its own sovereignty. To represent this power, a first town hall was built in Sarnen in 1418. In search of sales markets for cattle and cheese, Obwalden took part in Uri's "Hennetbirgischen politics" in 1403 and helped to conquer the Leventina . A hundred years later, military service became economically important for foreign warlords. The wealthy former mercenaries , as holders of the higher offices, determined state politics for centuries.

Together with the canton of Nidwalden, Obwalden forms the original canton of Unterwalden . Unterwalden, along with Schwyz and Uri, was one of the three forest sites , also called original cantons . These entered into alliances with one another, which from the end of the 13th century were also sealed in federal letters, copies of which can be found in the White Book of Sarnen .

With the French wars and the Helvetic (1798–1803) Obwalden temporarily lost its independence, but the population gained basic political rights for the first time. The monastery and the valley community of Engelberg Obwalden joined in 1815 and have since formed an exclave located between the cantons of Bern, Uri and Nidwalden.

In the economically difficult years from 1850 to 1914, around 400,000 Swiss people emigrated. In the 1880s alone, more than 1,000 people emigrated from the canton of Obwalden overseas, which was around seven percent of the total population. Over 90 percent of the emigrants from Obwalden chose North America as their destination, primarily the Midwest and the Pacific coast . There was emigration to Austria around the 1920s .

Historical traffic situation

The quality of the traffic connections to Obwalden was poor until the beginning of the 19th century. Around 1800 it was only possible to travel from Lucerne to Sarnen via the lake to Alpnachstad or on foot from Hergiswil via the Renggpass. It was not until 1820 that a cart road was built between Alpnach and Sarnen. The Brünig Pass was only expanded from a mule track to a road accessible by carts between 1857 and 1860. At the same time, the road from Hergiswil around the Lopper to Alpnachstad was laid out. But it was not until 1876 that the Brünigstrasse between Lucerne and Brienz was really passable without restrictions, when the road between Alpnachstad and Kägiswil was relocated and expanded.

Together with the introduction of a scheduled boat connection between Lucerne and Stansstad, a horse mail service was introduced between Alpnach via Sarnen and Lungern in 1858. On June 30, 1861, the mail car connection over the Brünig to Brienz was extended, which triggered an intense tourist traffic. Around this time people began to promote tourism in Obwalden.

After the concession was granted in 1880 for a Brünig railway, it was transferred in 1886 to the Jura – Bern – Lucerne railway company , which immediately began construction. After less than a year and a half, the Meiringen –Sarnen line was inaugurated on June 13, 1888 . The next day, scheduled traffic on the Meiringen – Alpnachstad line began. In the following year, the Lopper tunnel was also completed and the route could be extended from Alpnachstad to Lucerne.

The summer route of the Schwabenweg (as part of the Jakobsweg ) led through Obwalden in the Middle Ages . On the way from Einsiedeln Abbey to Santiago de Compostela , it went from Stans through Kerns , Sachseln , Giswil , Lungern and on over the Brünig Pass towards Brienz. With the formation of the pilgrimage site Flüeli-Ranft , it was integrated into the course of the path.


The canton of Obwalden is sometimes also called Upwood in the youth language of Central Switzerland . Another joking name is Tschifiland, derived from the older nickname Tschifeler for Obwalden. In « Postheiri », a satirical sheet published from 1845 to 1875, the Obwalden Suprasilviden were named; Subsilvanien was - based on Transylvania - the humorous name for Unterwalden.

The song Oh mis liebs Obwaldnerländli ( German  Oh my dear Obwaldnerländchen ) by Rosalie Küchler-Ming is known as the unofficial canton anthem .


  • Niklaus von Flüe : Obwalden at the time of the Helvetic Republic 1798–1803 (= Obwalden history sheets, issue 7). 1961.
  • Niklaus von Flüe: The mediation time in Obwalden 1803–1813 (= Obwalden history sheets. Issue 10). 1968.
  • Niklaus von Flüe: Restoration time in Obwalden. The relationship of Obwalden to the federal government and the development of the canton from 1814 to 1848 (= Obwalden history sheets. Issue 22). 1998.
  • Niklaus von Flüe: Obwalden 1848–1888. The classification in the federal state (= Obwalden history sheets. Issue 25). 2004.
  • Niklaus von Flüe: Obwalden in the 18th century (= Obwalden history sheets. Issue 26). 2009.
  • Angelo Garovi , Niklaus von Flüe : Obwalden. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  • Angelo Garovi: Obwalden story . State Archives of the Canton of Obwalden, Sarnen 2000, ISBN 3-9520429-1-9 .
  • Rudolf Hotzenköcherle : On the linguistic position and structure of Central Switzerland. In: Ders .: The linguistic landscapes of German-speaking Switzerland (= linguistic landscape. 1). Edited by Niklaus Bigler and Robert Schläpfer. Sauerländer, Aarau / Frankfurt am Main / Salzburg 1984, pp. 237–292, specific to Unterwalden pp. 257–266.
  • Edwin Huwyler: The farmhouses in the cantons of Obwalden and Nidwalden . Schweizerische Ges. Für Volkskunde, Basel 1993, ISBN 3-908122-43-0 .
  • Karl Imfeld : Folk customs and culture in Obwalden . Brunner Verlag, Kriens 2006, ISBN 3-03727-016-0 .
  • Karl Imfeld: Obwalden dialect dictionary . Brunner Verlag, edition magma, Kriens 2000, ISBN 3-905198-55-X .
  • Hugo P. Müller: Obwalden name book. Obwalden name book, Collegium Sarnen, Sarnen 1952.

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Individual evidence

  1. Balance of the permanent resident population by canton, definitive annual results, 2018. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 27, 2019, accessed on September 18, 2019 (definitive annual results).
  2. Structure of the permanent resident population by cantons. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 26, 2016, accessed on May 31, 2017 .
  3. ^ The situation on the job market in December 2015. (PDF; 807 kB) State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), January 8, 2016, p. 9 , archived from the original on January 12, 2016 ; accessed on January 13, 2016 .
  4. Balance of the permanent resident population by canton, definitive annual results, 2018. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 27, 2019, accessed on September 18, 2019 (definitive annual results).
  5. Structure of the permanent resident population by cantons. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 26, 2016, accessed on May 31, 2017 .
  6. a b The situation on the labor market in December 2015. (PDF; 807 kB) State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), January 8, 2016, p. 9 , archived from the original on January 12, 2016 ; accessed on January 13, 2016 .
  7. a b c key figures. Obwalden. Federal Statistical Office (FSO), accessed on August 26, 2016 .
  8. Rudolf Hotzenköcherle: On the linguistic position and structure of Central Switzerland. In: Ders .: The linguistic landscapes of German-speaking Switzerland. Edited by Niklaus Bigler and Robert Schläpfer. (= Linguistic landscape. 1). Sauerländer, Aarau / Frankfurt am Main / Salzburg 1984, pp. 237-292; specific to Unterwalden pp. 257–266.
  9. ^ Karl Imfeld: Obwalden dialect dictionary . Brunner Verlag, edition magma, Kriens 2000, ISBN 3-905198-55-X .
  10. Willy Elmer: Between the sea and heeche bears. A linguistic biography of the canton of Nidwalden: history - geography - everyday social life. Historischer Verein Nidwalden, Stans 2000, ISBN 3-906377-06-9 (contrary to the title, also a lot on Obwalden German).
  11. For the national context, cf. in particular the Linguistic Atlas of German-speaking Switzerland , 8 volumes, Bern / Basel 1962–1997.
  12. ^ Linguistic Atlas of German Switzerland , passim.
  13. a b c d e Karl Imfeld : Obwalden dialect dictionary . Brunner Verlag, edition magma, Kriens 2000, ISBN 3-905198-55-X .
  14. ^ Constitution of the Canton of Obwalden. Swiss Federal Chancellery (BK), May 19, 1968, accessed on July 2, 2015 .
  15. The Obwalden Cantonal Council. Obwalden State Chancellery, accessed on July 2, 2015 .
  16. Cantonal Council OW: SVP increases at the expense of CVP and CSP. Swiss Radio and Television (SRF), March 9, 2014, accessed on July 2, 2015 .
  17. Votes and elections. (PDF) Canton Obwalden, March 8, 2018, accessed on April 15, 2018 .
  18. ^ Government Council. Obwalden State Chancellery, accessed on July 4, 2019 .
  19. The communities. Obwalden State Chancellery, accessed on July 2, 2015 .
  20. Permanent and non-permanent resident population by year, canton, district, municipality, population type and gender (permanent resident population). In: bfs. . Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 31, 2019, accessed on December 22, 2019 .
  21. Bio Ob- und Nidwalden is strengthening. In: March 1, 2019, accessed March 4, 2019 .
  22. ^ All different - all the same, foreigners and integration policy of the canton of Obwalden. (PDF) April 24, 2001, accessed October 5, 2012 .
  23. Romano Cuonz : In search of a better life - Obwalden emigration to California. In: Once in Obwalden, photographs tell stories. Brunner Verlag, Lucerne 1999.
  24. Upwood Connection ( Memento of the original from May 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Youth association that organized parties in Obwalden (last update from 2007), accessed on February 21, 2013. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  25. Big Band Upwood Juniors ( Memento of the original from October 24, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. of the Sarnen Music School, accessed on October 25, 2012. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  26. Swiss canton of Obwalden ( Memento of the original from March 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Article on, accessed on October 25, 2012. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  27. Tschifeler carry the Tschifere , a braided backpack basket , see: Emil Weber, Christoph Baumgartner: Tschifeler and Reissäckler - What the nicknames of the Ob- and the Nidwalden mean (PDF) ( Memento of the original from April 6, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info : The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , State Archives Nidwalden, December 2014 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  28. Niklaus Bigler: From Most India to Mutzopotamia. Place names in the «Postheiri». In: Festgabe for Peter Dalcher , Editor-in-Chief of the Swiss German Dictionary , presented by his editorial colleagues on his 60th birthday. Zurich 1987, pp. 41-52.